Quantum theory of self-organization
Quantum theory of self-organization based on the idea that quantum jump serves as the basic step of self-organization, is represented. The notion of self and the identification of self as the fundamental statistical ensemble gives totally new meaning for the concept of self-organization as a generation of hierarchies of selves.
Zero modes of the configuration space geometry, whose existence derives from the generalization of point like particle to 3-surface, provide universal, nonlocal order parameters and the emergence of the new level of self-organization occurs through phase transition like process as also in Haken's theory. The fact that quantum jumps involve localization in zero modes means that the sequence of quantum jumps means hopping in zero modes characterizing the classical aspects of the space-time geometry.
The recent view about quantum TGD involves several incredients which allow to considerably sharpen and enrich the original view about self-organization. In zero energy ontology all space-time sheets are "mind-like" space time sheets assigned with cognition. Number theoretical Shannon entropy having also negative values and making sense for rational or at most algebraic entanglement probabilities allows negentropic entanglement so that Negentropy Maximization Principle in this case favors formations of larger coherent structures. One could say that intelligent life resides in the intersection of real and various p-adic worlds much like rationals represent islands of order in the sea of chaos defined by generic real or p-adic numbers. Dark matter hierarchy with levels partially labelled by the value of Planck constant brings in dark matter playing a key role in biological self organization.
The quantum version of Haken's theory of self-organization is proposed and is almost identical with Haken's theory. Spin glass analogy means that "energy" landscape has fractal valleys inside valleys structure: this structure is important for understanding long term memories.
A crucially important aspect of the quantum self-organization is the Darwinian selection of very few asymptotic self-organization pattterns by dissipation which explains the selection of both genes and memes: this selection provides royal road to the understanding of various miraculous feats performed by living matter.
The comparison with Rupert Sheldrake's concepts of morphic field and morphic resonance leads to interesting ideas about how learning at the level of species could occur quantum-mechanically. For instance, the phenomenon of biofeedback suggests that self could quite generally effectively act on its subselves. In zero energy ontology all quantum states have properties allowing to interpret them as memes or quanta of morphic fields and the challenge is to find their biological counterparts. DNA as topological quantum computer hypothesis suggest the identification of the biological memes as topological quantum computer programs assignable to the intronic portion of the genome and coded also by nerve pulse patterns. The notion of magnetic body as intentional agent leads to a concrete model for the morphic resonance as a transfer of topological quantum computation programs between separate brains with the mediary of the personal magnetic bodies and the magnetic body of Mother Gaia using EEG like communications. The model explains also 'alike likes alike' rule.
About the Possible Role of p-Adic Numbers in Bio-Systems
In this chapter a general view about p-adic physics is discussed. The proposal is that the living matter in very general sense corresponds to the intersection of real and p-adic worlds. The identification of some p-adic length scales predicted by the p-adic length scale hypothesis as biologically relevant length scales is suggested. Also the possibility of small-p p-adicity is discussed. p-Adic ultrametricity, the non-determinism of the p-adic differential equations, the special features of the p-adic dynamical flows, the delicacies of the p-adic probabity concept and the special features of p-adic entanglement are also discussed briefly and possible implications for biosystems are pointed out. Also ideas, which are only marginally consistent with the interpretation of p-adic physics as physics of cognition, are discussed.
Biological realization of the self hierarchy
Self-hierarchy is the basic prediction of the TGD inspired theory of consciousness and the biological realization of the self-hierarchy is the basic theme of this chapter. Space-time sheets, in particular mind like space-time sheets having finite temporal duration and providing cognitive representation of the material world, are geometrical correlates of selves and biological self hierarchy reduces geometrically and topologically to the hierarchy of space-time sheets. Crucially involved is the notion of the topological field quantization, which among other things implies that photons have as their classical geometrical correlates so called topological field quanta. One interpretation for the topological field quanta of em field is as classical/quantal coherence regions of classical/quantum em field and electromagnetic (em) fields and their topological field quanta are expected to be especially important in bio-systems. One can assign vacuum quantum numbers to topological field quanta and these quantum numbers are expected to be carriers of a biologically relevant information.
In principle the self hierarchy starts already at elementary particle level but the atomic length scale serves as a natural length scale for length scale at which biological relevant part of the self-hierarchy starts.
a) The assumption that various bio-molecules are selves allows to understand the miraculous abilities of living systems as outcome of quantum self-organization process in which dissipation selects very limited repertoire of self-organization patterns identifiable as survivors in Darwinian selection. For instance, one can understand protein folding and DNA replication as self-organization processes.
b) The fact that bio-systems are liquid crystals, makes them ideal for the realization of the self hierarchy. The reason is that liquid crystals have ability to self-organize to very complicated structures and are ideal for communication purposes: for instance, mechanical signals can be coded to electric signals and vice versa. Liquid crystals are also electrets: the presence of electric fields is indeed an important prerequisite of cognition in TGD as discussed in the chapter "Information and consciousness". In fact, one could identify various bio-structures such as micro-tubuli, cell organelles and cells as generic outcomes of the self-organization of the liquid crystals. An especially important level of the self hierarchy is provided by collagen networks which could give rise to what might be called 'body consciousness'. Central nervous system is only one, although very important level in the self hierarchy, and TGD approach allows to understand why this is the case.
c) p-Adic length scale hypothesis allows quantitative grasp to the structure of the self hierarchy and one can build general picture about how various p-adic length scales emerged during the evolution. In particular, one can identify various p-adic length scales associated with the brain.
d) One level of the self hierarchy corresponds to the topological field quanta of ELF em fields associated with EEG. ELF (extremely low frequency) em fields are known to have dramatic effects on living matter and brain and the origin of these effects is poorly understood. A simple argument based on Uncertainty Principle leads to the conclusion that ELF photons in 10 Hz frequency range correspond to topological field quanta of size of entire Earth. This leads to a rather dramatic conclusion that our biological body is only a dip of an iceberg and we are much more than our neurons. The most important levels in our personal self hierarchy contains levels are of size of Earth! Support for this picture come from the quantitative success of the scenario: one can immediately understand various important neuro time scales in terms of the cyclotron frequencies of various charged particles in Earth's magnetic field.
e) Each bio-structure is accompanied by a topologically quantized magnetic field defining corresponding magnetic body and these magnetic bodies form a hierarchy. Magnetic bodies could serve as intentional agents, as templates for the formation of various biological control circuits crucial for homeostasis and biological information processing, define the basic structure making possible metabolism with universal metabolic energy currencies, and could even define what might be called Nature's own bio-laboratory.
f) The magnetic flux structures associated with body could be of crucial importance for understanding human consciousness. For instance, eyes generate magnetic fields. Also brain, in particular pineal gland (the 'third eye' of mystics and the seat of soul for Descartes), contains magnetic materials. Corresponding magnetic transition frequencies correspond to time scales relevant for the self narrative in human time scales. Perhaps these higher levels of magnetic self hierarchy could relate with NDE experiences and represent structures surviving in physical death.
Quantum control and coordination in bio-systems: part I
The basic dynamical aspects of the biological system relate to coordination and control. Coordination is involved with almost automatic and predictable activities involving no volition whereas control involves volition and non-predictability. A basic examples of coordination and control are EEG and nerve pulse respectively. Various motor activities are good examples of a control involving macroscopic changes of the shape of the organ. The great challenge is to identify the quantum correlates of coordination and control.
The vision about living matter as consisting of a fractal hierarchy of MEs controlling a fractal hierarchy super-conducting magnetic flux tube structures in turn controlling ordinary matter at atomic space-time sheets via many-sheeted ionic flow equilibrium provides a very promising approach for modelling living matter. MEs interact with magnetic superconductors via magnetic induction by inducing supra-currents, by acting as Josephson junctions between magnetic flux tubes, and by inducing magnetic transitions.
The fact that TGD predicts infinite hierarchy of dark matters defining scaled down copies of color and electro-weak physics generalizes this picture dramatically and means that dark matter becomes the quintessential component of living systems. The predicted spectrum for the values of Planck constant conforms with quantum criticality since Kähler function does not depend on hbar and long range fluctuations at quantum criticality can be also interpreted as fluctuations in the value of hbar appearing only in the construction of quantum states and making possible macroscopic quantum coherence.
TGD suggests strongly that the formation of join the along boundaries bonds between the space-time sheets possibly representing different levels of the self hierarchy could be the basic mechanism of control and coordination. The interpretation as a prerequisite for bio-feedback, understood in very general sense, is very suggestive. The presence of join along boundaries bonds makes possible transfer of various charge particles between space-time sheets in question and the resulting system is very similar to two weakly coupled super conductors connected by Josephson junctions. This suggests that that super currents and Josephson currents between the space-time sheets are crucial for the coordination, which could be identified as deterministic quantum time development without quantum jumps.
Any harmonic perturbation with some magnetic transition frequency can induce magnetic quantum transitions and even magnetic quantum phase transitions. An attractive identification for this process is as basic tool of quantum control tool so that the resonance frequency appears as control parameter 'waking up' sub-self at its critical value. Critical frequencies correspond to the magnetic and Z0 magnetic cyclotron frequencies in the model of super conductor relying on the presence of weak magnetic or Z0 magnetic field (magnetic field guarantees effective one-dimensionality of the super conductor and implies finite gap energy in TGD framework). Cyclotron frequency hypothesis has had rather dramatic success and leads to a rather detailed picture about brain as a macroscopic quantum system.
Quantum control and coordination in bio-systems: part II
The topics of this chapter are related to the implications of absolute minimization of Kähler action for the understanding of bio-systems, to the TGD counterparts of scalar waves of Tesla and the realization of the time mirror mechanism mechanism, to 1/f noise as a signature of quantum criticality, and to the role of ELF fields in living systems.
1. Absolute minimization of Kähler action
Absolute minimization of Kähler action yields a non-deterministic dynamics mimicking the dissipative dynamics of the quantum jump sequence. This dynamics leads to asymptotic field patterns for which dissipation represented by a non-vanishing Lorentz 4-force is absent. The vanishing is guaranteed by the topologization of the Kähler current so that it becomes proportional to instanton current. When Kähler electric field is absent, magnetic field reduces to what is known as Beltrami field. Beltrami fields are known to be extremely complex but highly organized structures. The natural conjecture is that topologically quantized many-sheeted magnetic and Z0 magnetic Beltrami fields and their generalizations serve as templates for the helical molecules populating living matter, and explain both chirality selection, the complex linking and knotting of DNA and protein molecules, and even the extremely complex and self-organized dynamics of biological systems at the molecular level.
2. Tesla's scale waves and time mirror mechanism
TGD allows scalar wave pulses represented as space-time sheets propagating with velocity of light and carrying longitudinal electric field. These solutions exist certainly as vacuum extremals and, as it seems, also as solutions of field equation which do not represent asymptotic self-organization patterns but kind of transits analogous to longitudinal virtual photons.
Many-sheeted space-time makes possible many-sheeted lasers since cold space-time sheets can contain Bose-Einstein condensates of ions and their Cooper pairs. If the system contains population inverted many-sheeted laser for which the increment of zero point kinetic energy corresponds to the energy of photons associated with negative energy MEs, the absorption of negative energy photons gives rise to a phase transition like dropping of particles to larger space-time sheet by the induced emission mechanism, and the control signal represented by negative energy MEs can be amplified if a critical number of particles drops to the larger space-time sheet. This control mechanism allows an instantaneous motor control in which intention is transformed to a desire represented by negative energy MEs and generates in geometric past a reaction representing the desired response, say neuronal activity giving rise to motor action. This process probably involves entire hierarchy of magnetic selves realizing their intentions as desires communicated to lower level magnetic selves and the lowest level corresponds to the regions of brain responsible for liberating metabolic energy.
3. Quantum criticality and 1/f noise
Criticality is one prerequisite of control: the controlled system must be initial value sensitive, that is critical, in some degrees of freedom. TGD universe is indeed quantum critical and the universality of 1/f noise serves as an empirical support for this. It is indeed known that 1/f noise is related to criticality but the problem is that critical systems are by definition unstable. This has led to the paradigm of self-organized criticality in which system is assumed to self-organize into a critical state. Since TGD Universe is quantum critical, this questionable assumption is not needed. The only coupling parameter of TGD is analogous to critical temperature and as a fundamental coupling constant is not subject to external perturbations.
4. The role of ELF fields in bio-control
Some evidence for the hypothesis that higher levels of the biological self hierarchy control biological body using fields at ELF frequencies (EEG frequencies are in ELF range) is discussed. The basic inputs are topological field quantization, the idea of memetic code and the observations about the effects of ELF em fields to brain suggesting that the higher levels of our self hierarchy correspond to em selves with sizes of order wavelength of photons generated by EEG currents and thus realized as topological field quanta having size of order of Earth.