What's new in
TGD and Fringe Physics
Note: Newest contributions are at the top!
I have a habit of returning to TGD explanation of various anomalies to see whether progress in TGD could allow new insights. At this time the question about whether hydrinos might be real, served as an inspiration. This led a to consider a possible connection with cold fusion and a new TGD inspired model for hydrinos. I have discussed this topic earlier.
Randell Mills as written a book and numerous articles about hydrino concept and many of them are published in respected journals. The company of Mills has a homepage containing besides commercial side also list of the abstracts with links to the corresponding articles related to the experimental aspects of the hydrino concept giving a brief summary about what is known about hydrinos (see this).
The proposal is that hydrogen atoms allows besides the states labelled by integer n also states labelled by inverse integer 1/n. Ordinary states would have size proportional to n2 and binding energy proportional to 1/n2. Hydrino would have sizes proportional to 1/n2 and binding energies proportional to n2. There would be strange duality between binding energy and size of the orbit and it is difficult to imagine a modification of hydrogen atom making this possible. Not surprisingly, mainstream physicists do not accept the notion since it challenges the existing atomic model.
The most straightforward proof of the concept would be observation of a radiation emitted as ordinary hydrogen atom goes from ground state to hydrino state and emits radiation with energy En ≈ n2 E1, where E1 is the ground state energy E1≈ 13.6 eV. The natural limit for binding energies corresponds to n=137: in this case binding energy becomes larger than electron mass. Also more general transitions 1/n1→ 1/n2 are predicted. (see for the table of transition energies this).
These transitions are not however observed. The explanation is that they are non-radiative transitions occurring as the catalyst molecule having energy level with same energy absorbs the emitted UV photon. The proposal is that the energy from the transition 1/n→ 1/(n+1) and given by (2n+1) E1 goes to a many-particle state formed by n hydrogen atoms and is eventually liberated as a continuum EUV radiation (see this).
Skeptic can argue that if these transitions are possible, they should occur even spontaneously, and that if catalyst is indeed necessary there must be some good explanation for why this is the case. Hence the experimental support for the hypothesis is indirect and one can consider also alternative explanations.
In any case, the articles are published in refereed journals such as European Physics Journal and the claim is that energy is produced and the technology is claimed to already exist. The energy production is explained in terms of hydrino atom.
The article Mechanism of Soft X-ray Continuum Radiation from Low-Energy Pinch Discharges of Hydrogen and Ultra-low Field Ignition of Solid Fuels (see this) gives an idea about the experimental side.
The article reports EUV radiation in the wavelength range 10-20 nm (62 eV-124 eV) assigned with the transition 1/n=1/3→ 1/4 of hydrino atom for which the energy of the emitted quantum would be 94.2 eV. Emission in this wavelength range was observed for electrodes containing metal oxides favorable to undergo reduction to HOH (water) catalysts so that HOH catalyst would play a significant role. A low voltage high current was passed through a solid fuel comprising a source of H and HOH catalyst to produce explosive plasma and similar EUV radiation was detected. This kind EUV radiation cannot be explained in terms of any chemical reaction.
Is there a connection with TGD based model for cold fusion?
The experiment brings in mind the experiments of the group led by Prof. Holmlid (see the popular article and the slides of the talk by Sweinn Olaffsson related to cold fusion (or low energy nuclear reactions (LENR). This work is taken rather seriously by the community and the status of cold fusion has changed. Also in this case one considers electrolyte and water is in key role. Also Coulomb explosion producing plasma is involved and claimed to produce what is interpreted asa very dense phase of condensed matter consisting of string like structure with distance between hydrogen atoms given essentially by the Compton wavelength of electron.
Hydrino as dark atom?
I have considered several models for hydrino in TGD context. One of them corresponds to a quantum group analog of Laguerre equation giving fractional spectrum for the principal quantum number n. The spectrum would be more general than that proposed by Mills since one would have n→ n/m rather than n→ 1/n.
The following considerations are inspired by the heretic proposal that hydrogen atom might not actually correspond to the smallest possible value of heff/h=n. This idea has popped into my mind repeatedly but I have dismissed it since I have felt that heff/h=n hypothesis is already enough to irritate colleagues beyond the border. The phase transition n→ n1<n scales up the binding energy spectrum by factor n/n1 and is the simplest proposal found hitherto.
The model should explain why hydrino states are generated spontaneously but require the presence of catalyst and why the photons associated to the hydrino transitions are not detected directly but only as a continuum radiation.
The model suggests a universal catalyst action. Among other things catalyst action requires that reacting molecule gets energy to overcome the potential barrier making reaction very slow. If an atom - say (dark) hydrogen - in catalyst suffers a phase transition to hydrino (hydrogen with smaller value of heff/h), it liberates binding energy, and if one of the reactant molecules receives it it can overcome the barrier. After the reaction the energy can be sent back and catalyst hydrino returns to the ordinary hydrogen state. The condition that the dark binding energy is above the thermal energy gives a condition on the value of heff/h=n as n≤ 32. The size scale of the dark largest allowed dark atom would be about 100 nm, 10 times the thickness of the cell membrane.
The notion of phosphate high energy bond is somewhat mysterious concept and manifests as the ability provide energy in ATP to ADP transition. There are claims that there is no such bond. I have spent considerable amount of time to ponder this problem. Could phosphate contain (dark) hydrogen atom able to go to the hydrino state (state with smaller value of heff/h) and liberate the binding energy? Could the decay ATP to ADP produce the original possibly dark hydrogen? Metabolic energy would be needed to kick it back to ordinary bond in ATP.
One could turn the situation upside down and ask whether the cold fusion effects could correspond to the formation of hydrino atoms in the proposed sense.
During almost two decades I have returned repeatedly to the fascinating but unfortunately un-recognized work of Roschin and Godin about rotating magnetic systems. With the recent advances in TGD it has become clear that the reported strange effects such as the change of weight proportional to the rotation velocity of rollers taking place above 3.3 Hz rotation frequency and rapid acceleration above 9.2 Hz up to frequency 10 Hz could provide clues for developing a general vision about morphogenesis of magnetic body, whose flux quanta can carry Bose-Einstein condensates of dark charged ions with given mass and charge if the hypothesis heff=n× h=hgr identifying dark matter as phases with non-standard value of Planck constant holds true.
The generalization of Chladni mechanism would provide a general model for how magnetic flux tubes carrying charged particles with given mass at given flux tube drift to the nodal surfaces giving rise to magnetic walls in the field of standing or even propagating waves assignable to "topological light rays" (MEs). Ordinary matter would in turn condense around these dark magnetic structures so that Chladni mechanism would serve as a general mechanism of morphogenesis. This mechanism could be universal and work even in astrophysical systems (formation of planets).
The change of weight correlating with the direction of rotation (parity breaking) and rapid acceleration could be understood in terms of momentum and angular momentum transfer by dark photons liberated in the quantum phase transition of many-particle states of dark charged particles to from cyclotron Bose-Einstein condensates giving rise to analogs of superconductivity and spontaneous magnetization
There is also evidence that the presence of light source below massive object affects its weight by about .1 per cent. This effect could be explained along the same lines. Zero Energy Ontology and the proposed mechanism remote metabolism at the level of dark matter is however needed and this would force to modify dramatically the views about basic interactions at the level of dark matter.
An increase of weight Δ g/g≈ 2× 10-4 is observed for electrets: this number has appeared in TGD already earlier and in TGD framework could have interpretatation in terms of dark matter layer with mass MD≈ 2× 10-4 ME at distance of Moon. In fact, quite generally the magnetic body could have this mass portion. Amusingly, this change of weight happens to consistent with the "weight of soul" claimed to be 21 g.
See the new chapter The anomalies in rotating magnetic systems as a key to the understanding of morphogenesis? or the article article with the same title.
NASA's impossible EM drive has appeared in Facebook again and again (see this as an example), and I finally lost my patience and decided to learn what it is involved. The Wikipedia article describes the EM drive and gives a lot of references. The original skepticism by mainstream is probably changing to a real curiosity after several replications.
1. Basic facts about EM drive
First some raw data from the Wikipedia article.
What is then the problem?
To understand what might be involved consider what magnetron is.
Next the TGD view about dark matter is needed.
Could it be that magnetron is quantum critical system and generates dark cyclotron photons with large value of Planck constant?
3. TGD view about the standing waves in wave guide
It has been proposed that the paired photons with sum of electromagnetic fields equal to zero in microwave guide should make possible the leakage of the radiation (see this). I find it difficult to make sense of this argument. This article however inspired to look the situation using TGD based view about em fields.
In photon picture photons would be reflected from the ends of the cavity and also from the walls if the cavity is a cone cut from its ends. In reflection energy is conserved by a momentum which is twice the projection of momentum in orthogonal direction is lost. If the net losses occurring at opposite ends are different, thrust results, even if Q value is vanishing. Only in special case the wave vectors are quantized the net momentum current at the ends of cavity vanishes (discrete translational symmetry). These situations correspond classically standing waves.
In Maxwellian theory em fields should correspond to standing waves with opposite wave vectors. Standing waves in TGD framework are not possible at single space-time sheet. Maxwellian linear superposition fails. The basic solutions are "massless extremals" describing propagation of arbitrary pulses in single direction, left or right, with maximal signal velocity preserving pulse shape. Linear superposition for the pulses travelling in the same direction makes sense. This represents precisely targeted communication.
How to obtain something analogous to standing waves in TGD?
For background see the chapter Summary of TGD Inspired Ideas about Free Energy.
Confirmation of Santilli's detection of antimatter galaxies via a telescope with concave lenses: really?
I encountered in Facebook a really bizarre sounding title reading The incredible pictures scientists say prove invisible alien entities ARE here on Earth (see this) and just for curiosity decided to add one click to the web page in question (means higher income from ads) knowing that this is just what they want me to do! The story involves aliens spying us so that that the street credibility index of the story reduced zero. The tool to detect the spies would be Santilli's telescope using concave lenses. Santilli, who is familiar to me, also talks about two types of invisible terrestrials detected by his telescope. It would be easy to ridicule but let us be patient.
An earlier article with title Apparent detection of antimatter galaxies via a telescope with convex lenses (see this) reports a detection of antimatter galaxies. There is also an article with title "Confirmation of Santilli’s detection of antimatter galaxies via a telescope with concave lenses" published in American Journal of Modern Physics claiming an independent observation of antimatter galaxies, antimater asteroids, and antimatter cosmic rays by Santilli's telescope (see this). These articles say nothing about aliens spying us.
Since I suffer from a pathological trait of taking half-seriously even the weirdest stories, I decided to learn what Santilli's telescope using concave lenses might mean. Ordinary telescope uses convex lenses (see this). The light rays coming from the other side converge to form a picture of the source. For concave lense the light rays coming from the other side diverge so that concave lense does not sound like a good idea for detecting light coming from distant objects.
It is however claimed that Santilli's telescope detects light sources in darkness. This is only possible if the index of refraction n=c/v characterizing the medium via the ratio of light velocity in vacuum to the velocity of light in medium changes sign. From Snell's law n1sin(θ1)= n2sin(θ2) follow the basic facts about lenses (see this). It is possible to construct lenses which have negative index of refraction so that concave lense behaves like convex one. Presumably this is not be the case now since according to the existing theory, ordinary light would have the negative index of reflection (unless it is somehow transformed when arriving to the lense).
Concerning the theoretical arguments Santilli makes several claims, which do not make sense to me.
Zero energy ontology (ZEO) is one of the cornerstones of TGD and could indeed explain the claims of Santilli and colleagues. In ZEO zero energy states are pairs of positive and negative energy states at opposite light-like boundaries of causal diamonds (CD) forming a scale hierarchy. Zero energy states are counterparts of physical events in standard ontology.
For background see the chapter TGD About Concrete Realization of Remote Metabolism.
The title of the popular article is "Reconfigured Tesla coil aligns, electrifies materials from a distance" tells about the effects involved. The research group is led by Paul Churukuri and there is also an abstract about the work in ADS Nano journal. This article contains also an excellent illustration allowing to understand both the Tesla coil and the magnetic and electric fields involved. The abstract of the paper provides a summary about the results.
This paper introduces Teslaphoresis, the directed motion and self-assembly of matter by a Tesla coil, and studies this electrokinetic phenomenon using single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Conventional directed self-assembly of matter using electric fields has been restricted to small scale structures, but with Teslaphoresis, we exceed this limitation by using the Tesla coil’s antenna to create a gradient high-voltage force field that projects into free space. CNTs placed within the Teslaphoretic (TEP) field polarize and self-assemble into wires that span from the nanoscale to the macroscale, the longest thus far being 15 cm. We show that the TEP field not only directs the self-assembly of long nanotube wires at remote distances (≥ 30 cm) but can also wirelessly power nanotube-based LED circuits. Furthermore, individualized CNTs self-organize to form long parallel arrays with high fidelity alignment to the TEP field. Thus, Teslaphoresis is effective for directed self-assembly from the bottom-up to the macroscale.
Concisely: what is found that single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) polarise and self-assemble along the electric fields created by capacitor in much longer length scales than expected. Biological applications (involving linear molecules like microtubules) come in mind. CNTs tend to also move towards the capacitance of the secondary coil of the Tesla coil (TC).
It is interesting to understand the TGD counterparts for the Maxwellian em fields involved with Tesla coils and it is found that many-sheetedness of space-time is necessary to understand the standing waves also involved. The fact that massless extremals (MEs) can carry light-like currents is essential for modelling currents classically using many-sheeted space-time. The presence of magnetic monopole flux tubes distinguishing TGD from Maxwellian theory is suggestive and could explain why Teslaphoresis occurs in so long length scales and why it induces self-organization phenomena for CNTs. The situation can be seen as a special case of more general situation encountered in TGD based model of living matter.