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Bio-Systems as Conscious Holograms

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Year 2009

New evidence for macroscopic quantum coherence in living matter

The idea that living systems might be quantum systems emerged around 1980 in Esalem conference. David Finkelstein - the chief editor of International Journal of Theoretical Physics, in which I was able to publish my works at that time - was the primus motor. Around 1995 an intense period of discussions in email groups began. Hameroff-Penrose model was one of the models discussed. The books of Penrose had a great impact on the gradual transformation of quantum consciousness to a respectable scientific topic (not everywhere: there are some distant corners of the globe such as my home country where quantum consciousness is still regarded as a pseudoscience). At that that I began serious and almost whole-daily work in TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology. The wisdom gained in this process in turn led to a progress in the mathematical formulation of quantum TGD proper made possible by a radically new vision about fundamentals.

The attitude towards the quantum vision about living systems depend on the basic prejudices of the scientist. Average hard wired guy willing to appear as an authority relies on text book wisdom and of course immediately tells that quantum effects cannot be significant in length and time scales involved and that there is absolutely no evidence for them. We should not however trust text book wisdom and -as I have learned- even less to average physicists;-)! After all, living systems look very quantal and we experience directly what could be called free will. We should rely on what we directly experience and ability to think rationally rather than authorities and be ready to question also the existing view about quantum physics.

What could biology and neuroscience give to the quantum physics? This should be the question. If the standard quantum physics does not allow the needed macroscopic quantum phases, we must modify the quantum physics. Even quantum consciousness theorists have usually adopted the view that wave mechanics is enough for understanding of living matter. Penrose has been an exception since he proposes that quantum gravity could be important. Perhaps it is not a mere co-incidence that persons who most passionately believe that the old theory is enough, have also the most limited skills as theorists.

During years I have learned that there is a lot of indirect experimental evidence for the quantum view (the strange findings about the functioning of cell membrane, the effects of ELF em fields on vertebrate brain,...), and have used these bits of experimental data to develop TGD based view about quantum physics. This involves the identification of dark energy and dark matter in terms of macroscopic quantum phases with non-standard large value of Planck constant, the new view about space-time and about the relationship between experienced time and time of physicists, new view about quantum states based on zero energy ontology, etc.. Also p-adic physics is essential in the proposed view about correlates of cognition and intention. Of course, this all this is very speculative and my frustrating realization has been that the good theory necessarily comes long before the experiments directly testing it.

During years the experimentation to test the presence of quantum effects in living matter has begun. And the positive evidence is accumulating. In Discover magazine there is an article titled Is Quantum Mechanics Controlling Your Thoughts? telling among other things about the latest direct evidence of quantum effects provided by experiments related to photosynthesis and odor perception.

Quantum coherence and photosynthesis

The article summarizes in popular terms the contents of the paper Evidence for wavelike energy transfer through quantum coherence in photosynthetic systems by Fleming and collaborators reporting evidence for quantum coherence in photosynthesis. The absorption of photon induces electron current from the point of capture- chlorosome- to the reaction centers. The semiclassical theory predicts the dissipation of the electronic energy to be about 20 per cent whereas the observed dissipation is only about 5 per cent. This suggests quantum coherence. The following abstract of the original article summarizes the essentials.

Photosynthetic complexes are exquisitely tuned to capture solar light efficiently, and then transmit the excitation energy to reaction centres, where long term energy storage is initiated. The energy transfer mechanism is often described by semiclassical models that invoke 'hopping' of excited-state populations along discrete energy levels. Two-dimensional Fourier transform electronic spectroscopy has mapped6 these energy levels and their coupling in the Fenna�Matthews�Olson (FMO) bacteriochlorophyll complex, which is found in green sulphur bacteria and acts as an energy 'wire' connecting a large peripheral light-harvesting antenna, the chlorosome, to the reaction centre. The spectroscopic data clearly document the dependence of the dominant energy transport pathways on the spatial properties of the excited-state wavefunctions of the whole bacteriochlorophyll complex. But the intricate dynamics of quantum coherence, which has no classical analogue, was largely neglected in the analyses�even though electronic energy transfer involving oscillatory populations of donors and acceptors was first discussed more than 70 years ago11, and electronic quantum beats arising from quantum coherence in photosynthetic complexes have been predicted and indirectly observed. Here we extend previous two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy investigations of the FMO bacteriochlorophyll complex, and obtain direct evidence for remarkably long-lived electronic quantum coherence playing an important part in energy transfer processes within this system. The quantum coherence manifests itself in characteristic, directly observable quantum beating signals among the excitons within the Chlorobium tepidum FMO complex at 77 K. This wavelike characteristic of the energy transfer within the photosynthetic complex can explain its extreme efficiency, in that it allows the complexes to sample vast areas of phase space to find the most efficient path.

The popular article translates the article to the following piece of text.

To unearth the bacteria�s inner workings, the researchers zapped the connective proteins with multiple ultra-fast laser pulses. Over a span of femto�seconds, they followed the light energy through the scaffolding to the cellular reaction centers where energy conversion takes place. Then came the revelation: Instead of haphazardly moving from one connective channel to the next, as might be seen in classical physics, energy traveled in several directions at the same time. The researchers theorized that only when the energy had reached the end of the series of connections could an efficient pathway retroactively be found. At that point, the quantum process collapsed, and the electrons� energy followed that single, most effective path.

My own interpretation would be following.

  1. Remarkably long lived electronic quantum coherence is claimed to be present. Authors propose that quantum computation like process - quantum random walk -could be in question. If I have understood correctly, the proposed process can halt only by a state function reduction localizing the electron at the reaction center. Completely standard Schrödinger evolution in the network would be otherwise in question. The good news is that the average time to find from the entrance to exit in this kind of process is exponentially shorter than in the classical random walk. One can say that exit plus all other points are always reached after some minimum time and it is enough to perform the state function reduction localizing the electron to the exit.

  2. Somewhat confusingly, the popularizers claim that the authors argue (I do not have access to the original article) that the quantum random walk selects the shortest path from the chlorosome to the reaction center is in question. Quantum collapse is a non-deterministic process and if it selects the path in this particular case it can select any path with some probability, not always the shortest one. The selection of the shortest path is not necessarily needed since the quantum random walk with fixed entrance and exit is by its inherent nature exponentially faster than its classical counterpart. The proposed interpretation makes sense only if the state function reduction takes place immediately after the electron's state function at the exit becomes non-vanishing. Does it? I cannot say.

If one accepts this view, the sole problem is to understand how macroscopic quantum coherence is possible in the length scales considered. There are good arguments supporting the view that this is not the case for the ordinary quantum mechanics. In TGD framework the hierarchy of Planck constants suggests that both macroscopic quantum coherence and very low dissipation rate are due to the large value of hbar for electrons. For instance, for hbar=5×hbar0 the naive estimate is that dissipation rate should reduce by a factor 1/5 and coherence times and lengths should increase by a factor 5. I have proposed much larger values of hbar in the model of living system. In particular, the model for high temperature super-conductivity assigns to these systems basic biological length scales from p-adic length scale hypothesis (5 nm thickness of lipid layer of cell membrane corresponds to L(149), 10 nm thickness of lipid layer to L(151) and the length scale 2.5 μm of cell nucleus to L(167)). The electron Compton length is scaled up by a factor 211 to so that it corresponds to the p-adic length scale L(149)=5 nm. This would scale up the fundamental bio-time scale of .1 seconds predicted by TGD to be the time scale assignable to causal diamond of electron by factor 222 to about 4 × 105 seconds.

For TGD based ideas about photosynthesis see the chapter Macroscopic quantum coherence and quantum metabolism as different sides of the same coin.

Odor perception and quantum coherence

The article discusses also the work of the biophysicist Luca Turin related to odor perception as additional support for quantum brain. Before going to the article it is good to summarize the basic ideas about sensory qualia (colors, odors, ...) in TGD inspired theory of consciousness.

  1. In TGD framework the identification of qualia follows from the identification of quantum jump as a moment of consciousness. Just as quantum numbers characterize the physical state, the increments of quantum numbers characterize the quantum jump between two states. This leads to a capacitor model of the sensory receptor in which the sensory perception corresponds to a generalized di-electric breakdown in which various p"../articles/ carrying some quantum numbers flow between electrodes and the change of the quantum numbers at second electrodes gives rise to the sensory quale in question.

  2. It is important that sensory qualia are assigned to the sensory receptors rather than to the neural circuitry of brain as in standard neuroscience. This leads to objections (phantom leg for instance) which are circumvented in TGD based vision about 4-D brain. For instance, phantom leg would correspond to sensory memory resulting by sharing the mental image about pain residing in the geometric past when the leg still existed. A massive back-projection generating virtual sensory input from brain (or from the magnetic body via brain) is needed to build the actual perception as a kind of art-work by filtrating from the actual sensory input a lot of unessential stuff and amplifying the essential features.
  3. The discovery of Callahan that odor perception of insects seems to be based on IR light inspired my own the proposal that photons at IR frequencies could be involved with the odor perception so that odor perception would be at molecular level seeing by IR light. Even hearing could involve similar "seeing" in appropriate frequency range. Massless extremals (topological light rays) would serve as kind of wave guides parallel to axons along which light would propagate as kind of laser beams between receptor and brain. This would also explain why the mediation of auditory input takes so rapidly.

  4. I have also proposed frequency coding for the sensory qualia. The first proposal which I dubbed as "Spectroscopy of Consciousness" stated that cyclotron frequencies assignable to various biologically important ions -much below IR range- associated with as such correspond to sensory qualia. Later I gave up this idea and proposed that frequencies code provide only a symbolic representations- define their names- as one might say. The information about qualia and more general sensory data would be represented in terms of cyclotron frequencies inducing dynamical patterns of the cyclotron Bose-Einstein condensates of biologically important ions residing at the magnetic body receiving the sensory information.

I attach a small piece of the article here to give a popular summary about the work of Luca Turin.

Quantum physics may explain the mysterious biological process of smell, too, says biophysicist Luca Turin, who first published his controversial hypothesis in 1996 while teaching at University College London. Then, as now, the prevailing notion was that the sensation of different smells is triggered when molecules called odorants fit into receptors in our nostrils like three-dimensional puzzle pieces snapping into place. The glitch here, for Turin, was that molecules with similar shapes do not necessarily smell anything like one another. Pinanethiol [C10H18S] has a strong grapefruit odor, for instance, while its near-twin pinanol [C10H18O] smells of pine needles. Smell must be triggered, he concluded, by some criteria other than an odorant�s shape alone.

What is really happening, Turin posited, is that the approximately 350 types of human smell receptors perform an act of quantum tunneling when a new odorant enters the nostril and reaches the olfactory nerve. After the odorant attaches to one of the nerve�s receptors, electrons from that receptor tunnel through the odorant, jiggling it back and forth. In this view, the odorant�s unique pattern of vibration is what makes a rose smell rosy and a wet dog smell wet-doggy.

The article A spectroscopic mechanism for primary olfactory perception by Turin explains in detail his theory and various experimental tests. Here are the core ideas in more quantitative terms.

  1. The theory originates from the proposal of Dyson (not that Dyson;-)!) proposed already 1938 that odor perception might rely on the vibrational spectrum of the odorant rather than its shape alone. The spectrum would be in the wave length range 2.5-10 μm corresponding to photon energies in the range .5 eV - .125 eV. This vibrational spectrum would be excited by the current of electrons tunneling from the receptor to the odorant molecule.

  2. The proposal is that odor receptor can be regarded as a pair formed by a source and sink of electrons. If there is nothing between source and sink, tunneling can occur if there is electronic energy state with same energy in both source and sink. If there is an odorant molecule between source and sink with vibrational energy E, tunneling can occur indirectly: the electron can excite a vibrational state with this energy and tunneling can occur only if the difference of electron energies in source and sink is E. Therefore the presence of odor molecule would be detected from the occurrence of the tunneling and vibrational energy spectrum would characterize the odor molecule.

One can compare the model of Turin with TGD based ideas.

  1. The theory of Turin conforms at the general level with the receptor model. The "electrodes" of the sensory capacitor would correspond to the source and sink of electrons and the presence of the odorant molecule between the "electrodes" would induce the current. The current of electrons from the source to the sink should induce the change of total quantum numbers defining the odor quale.

  2. The first thing to notice is that the upper bound .5 eV for IR energies corresponds to the nominal value of the metabolic energy quantum identified as the energy liberated as proton drops from the atomic space-time sheet with k=137 to a very large space-time sheet or the same process for electron Cooper at k=149 space-time sheet. If Cooper pairs are involved, the latter process would occur in the length scale defined by the thickness of the lipid layer of the cell membrane (5 nm). The lower bound corresponds to a metabolic energy quantum assignable to k= 139 for protons and k=151 transition for electrons (thickness of cell membrane).

  3. Second point to notice is that TGD predicts a fractal hierarchy of spectra of metabolic energy quanta coming as E(Δk,n)= 2-ΔkE0(1-2-n), n=1,2,..., converging to E(Δk,∞)= 2-ΔkE0 for given p-adic length scale characterized by the difference Δk=k-k0 . E0 denotes the zero point kinetic energy of particle at space-time sheet with p-adic length scale k=k0 and is inversely proportional to the mass of the particle. The transfer of electrons and/or protons between different space-time sheets with any perception for purely metabolic reasons. The simplest option is that since the electrons at the side of the source receive their energy in this manner, their energy spectrum is given by E(Δk,n) (there is of course some resolution meaning a cutoff in n). The specificity of the receptor would require preference of some specific metabolic energy quanta E(Δk,n). If this spectrum characterizes the receptor independently of its chemistry, then not only metabolic energy quanta but also the mechanism of sensory perception is universal. This proposal fails if the receptor has always same spectrum of E(Δk,n) since all receptors would detect all odors.

It is interesting to relate the theory of Turin with the hypothesis of Callahan that the odor perception of insects uses IR light.

  1. Callahan's work (Callahan, P. S. (1977). Moth and Candle: the Candle Flame as a Sexual Mimic of the Coded Infrared Wavelengths from a Moth Sex Scent. Applied Optics. 16(12) 3089-3097) suggests that the IR photons emitted by the odorant in the transitions between the vibrational states and received by the odor receptor are basically responsible for the odor perception. Turin in turn proposes that the pattern of vibrational excitations in the odor molecule characterizes the perception. These views are consistent if the pattern of vibrational excitations is in 1-1 correspondence with the flow pattern of electrons between different space-time sheets at the receptors if a kind of self-organization pattern results: this is expected to take place in presence of a metabolic energy feed.

  2. In Callahan's model for the odor perception of insects the simplest odor receptor would "see" the IR light emitted by the odor molecules. Also Turin explains -with different assumptions- that the situation is analogous to that prevailing in retina in that there are receptors sensitive to characteristic energy ranges of photons. One would expect that the odor perception of insects is something very simple. The so called vomeronasal organ is known to be responsible for the perception of socially important odors not generating conscious experience at our level of self hierarchy but having important effect on behavior (perfume industry has long ago realized this!). Vomeronasal organ could utilize this kind of primitive odor receptors.

  3. The rate for the spontaneous transitions emitting IR light could be rather low. A more advanced receptor would induce more transitions by using tunneling electrons to excite vibrational energy levels in the odorant. This would be like using lamp to see better! The analogy with the transistor is also suggestive: the small base current induced by IR radiation generated by the odor molecule would be amplified in the process. Since the source contains electrons in excited states (at smaller space-time sheets), odor molecules could send negative energy photons dropping electrons to the large space-time sheet along which tunneling is possible. Induced emission would cause a domino like flow of electrons and excitations of the vibrational states of the odor molecule as the counterpart of di-electric breakdown would take place.

  4. What could then the physical correlates for the primary odor qualia? The increments of some quantum numbers assignable to electrons at the source should be in question. Could the energies E(k,n) characterizing the receptor define the primary odors? Odors and tastes are indeed very intimately related to metabolic activities;-). A natural consequence would be that besides the radiation generated by the transfer of electrons between space-time sheets would induce odor and perhaps also taste sensation. Organisms serve as food for other organisms so that an optimal detection of nutrients would be the outcome.

Could one assume that also other receptors use metabolic energy quanta as basic excitation energies?

  1. The first objection is that similar "metabolic qualia" would result in all receptors. This is not a problem if these qualia are qualia not conscious to us but conscious to neuronal selves. For instance, in the TGD based model for visual colors the increments of color quantum numbers (in QCD sense!) define the basic colors, which means that colored p"../articles/ must be in question (TGD variant of quark color implies the existence of scaled variants of QCD like physics and predicts that also electrons have colored excitations for which there is indeed a growing experimental evidence).

  2. Second objection is that it does not seem possible to identify E(k,n) as excitation energies in the case of vision. The relevant range of photon energies is [1.65,3.3] eV. By scaling the metabolic energy quantum by a power of 2, the nominal values of relevant maximal metabolic energy quanta E(k,n=∞) are 2 eV and 4 eV. The series of energies approaching 2 eV below 2 eV is 1, 1.5, 1.75, ..., 2 eV so that the range below 2 eV representing red light would be covered. Above 2 eV the series is 2, 3, 3.50,...,4 eV so that the region above 2 eV (orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet) would contain only single line at 3 eV (violet). If the incoming photon can kick the electron to an excited state with energy E0 at the smaller space-time sheet the spectrum contains also the energies E(k,n)+E0. For E0=1.3 eV these excitation energies would come as 2.3, 2.8, 3.05,... 3.3 eV and cover this range.

For TGD based view about qualia see the chapter Quantum Model for Qualia.

Free radicals, expanding Earth, water memory, and Cambrian revolution

The title is intentionally chosen to involve notions which one would expect to have absolutely nothing in common. The purpose is to show that this expectation might be wrong.

Consider first the free radical theory (see this and this). The theory states that free radical produced in mitochondria are responsible for the ageing since they are highly reactive and cause damage for the DNA. One can however wonder what is the mechanism causing the generation of the free radicals.

A TGD based justification for the free radical theory came as unexpected application of the quantum model for how metabolic batteries are loaded in many-sheeted space-time. The kicking of electrons to smaller space-time sheet loads metabolic batteries in TGD Universe. The dropping of electrons back liberates metabolic energy. These processes occur all the time in ADP<-->ATP "Karma's" cycle. In earlier posting I discussed quantitative model for the burning of water producing hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen (this process could provide a mechanism of storing solar energy by a mechanism analogous to photosynthesis).

This kicking also induces 2H2O-->H2O2+H2 as eplained in previous posting. Unfortunately, the kicked electrons induced very probably many process unavoidably producing highly reactive reaction products (for finnish readers this gives new meaning for the saying "Ei el�m�st� selvi� hengiss�!"). The generation of these harmful reaction products can be interpreted in terms of second law of thermodynamics: loading process involves some dissipation of energy to unintended purposes and increase of entropy and this leads to ageing. Antioxidants is the means of the organism to minimize these effects. The fortunate aspect is that hydrogen peroxide can be used by the immune system to kill harmful bacteria as Mae-Wan Ho tells in one of the "../articles/ (for a list of references including references to Mae-Wan Ho's "../articles/ see the earlier posting).

The fortunate outcome is oxygenation of atmosphere, which has played key role in evolution (see the article of Mae-Wan Ho providing a valuable overall view). For instance, the increase of the oxygen fraction from 2 per cent to about 20 per cent is believed to have preceded Cambrian revolution and its further increase to about 40 per cent in maximum is believed to have made possible the emergence of organisms with gigantic size with large metabolic needs (trees, dinosauri and other lizards, and insects). The subsequent reduction of the oxygen fraction down to 15 per cent in minimum has been seen as a reason for the disappearence of large insects and reptiles and also as a reason for long period of stagnation in evolution.

The TGD based model of Expanding Earth explains the strange fact that all continents form a single super-continent if the radius of Earth is scaled down by a factor of 1/2. Expansion is assumed to be due to the occurrence of a quantum phase transition increasing the value of Planck constant by a factor 2 for the space-time sheet of Earth (see also the chapter Quantum Astrophysics" of "Physics in Many-Sheeted Space-time". This led to the proposal that the reduction of gravitational force by a factor 1/4 during the expansion also contributed to the increase of the size. A related proposal is that the underground water reservoirs carrying highly developed life forms were bursted to the surface of Earth in Cambrian explosion. An interesting question is whether the burst of large amounts of underground water to the surface of Earth was the mechanism leading to the oxygenation of the atmosphere. The oxygen could have been present in the interior before the expansion and allowed the evolution of photosynthesis (important progress takes often place underground;-)).

For a more detailed representation or latest progress see the chapter Quantum Model for Nerve Pulse of "TGD and EEG" or the chapter Homeopathy in Many-Sheeted Space-Time of Bio-Systems as Conscious Holograms.

Burning water, photo synthesis, and water memory

This posting draws connections between anomalies described in the recent series of postings in the conceptual framework provided by TGD inspired quantum biology. The first posting Water Memory and Genes was devoted to the discovery of a mechanism of water memory by a group of scientists led by Luc Montagnie, who received Nobel prize for the discovery of HIV virus.

  1. What was done was filtration of human cells infected by bacteria in sterilization purpose to eliminate the infected cells. Human cells were added to the filtrate. Rather magically, the infection returned to the filtrate within few weeks. Something having size of order of nanoscale leaked through. It was also found that when the filtrate was diluted by water to produce an analog of homeopathic remedy, it produced at multiples of kHz if the dilution factor was in range 10-7-10-12.
  2. The second discovery was that if you have two bottles of remedies containing a solute of nanostructures such that for the first one dilution factor is small and for the second in the critical range so that it radiates at kHz frequencies. What was found that in the final situation neither radiates but only if the dilutions correspond to the same bacterial species! I proposed two interpretations. The first one was that the nanoscale systems in the highly diluted system are starving and gain metabolic energy by sending negative energy photons to the low dilution system and this makes them possible to replicate and achieve higher dilution after which the process stops.

  3. One of the most fascinating possibilities suggested by the discovery is that the nanoscale structures identified as certain gene of the bacteria plus possibly something else (the magnetic body of gene in TGD context) might have been able to regenerate the bacteria themselves! This would require a non-chemical representation of genetic code and its translation to DNA or RNA. For about year ago I indeed discovered a realization of genetic code in terms of dark nuclei with states of nucleons representing the code words (see the chapter Nuclear String Model of p-Adic length Scale Hypothesis and Dark Matter Hierarchy).

This posting was followed by a series of postings (Water electric as proto cell , A model-for-chiral-selection, and Burning water and photosynthesis) inspired by the "../articles/ of Mae-Wan Ho, and the outcome was a considerable progress in detailing the TGD based view about quantum biology.

These findings allow a more detailed interpretation of the findings of the experiments of the group of Luc Montagnie described in the first posting.

  1. In the posting Burning water and photosynthesis I told about a connection between photosynthesis in which water indeed burns and the mysterious burning of water induced by radiowaves in GHz range and interpreted in terms of a decomposition of water molecules to hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen: 2H2→ H2O2. The interpretation was that radiowaves are resonantly transformed to dark photons with same frequency but with very large value of Planck constant and hence energy followed by transformation to ordinary IR photons with much higher frequency but same energy energy around .4 eV. The finding that Raman scattering (non-elastic scattering of photons on molecules) around this energy occurs in the burning water supports this view. The natural guess is that also in the recent case something similar occurs.

  2. This kind of frequency scaling is one of the basic mechanisms of water memory as I learned for the first time from the lecture of Cyril Smith in CASYS conference many years ago. One of the basic findings was that there is an unknown mechanism transforming low frequencies to high ones and vice versa. The low frequencies are scaled up by a factor which has a preferred value r≈2× 1011 interpreted in TGD framework as the ratio of the dark matter Planck constant to the ordinary one. I christened this correlation as a scaling law of homeopathy.

  3. It is interesting to apply the law to kHz frequency. In this case the law would give frequency f=2× 1014 Hz. The corresponding energy is .826 eV, which is essentially twice the energy quantum associated with burning water and thus has interpretation as a p-adically scaled up frequency (by one octave). Interestingly, Mae-Wan Ho states in one of her "../articles/ that "to use water as electron-donor, and hence to produce oxygen, requires the creation of the chlorophyll-a in cyanobacteria and green plants that can be boosted to a higher electrochemical potential of 0.82 V". Hence .83 eV is very near to a metabolically interesting energy.

  4. This finding supports the view that kHz radiation produced by nano-structures corresponds to dark phase conjugate photons with energy equal to a metabolic energy quantum. The interpretation would be that the unidentified nanoscale systems in the highly diluted system are starving and get metabolic energy by sending negative energy quanta in the hope that there are metabolic energy reservoirs around able to absorb them. If biophotons are Bose Einstein condensates of dark cyclotron photons at the flux tubes of magnetic body acting like population reversed lasers, they could serve as metabolic energy reservoir as suggested in Water electric as proto cell on basis of the discovery described by Mae-Wan Ho in the article Water Electric.

  5. A continual fight for metabolic resources is raging everywhere in Nature, presumably also at the monocellular level. It would not be surprising if harmful bacteria would have forgotten the rules of fair play(;-)) and would try to steal the metabolic energy of other organisms stored (say) as biophotons by sending phase conjugate light to the biophoton resources of multicellular organisms. Nor it would be surprising if living organisms would have developed manners to prevent this. The fine tuning of the metabolic frequencies so that only the members of the same species can share the energy could guarantee this. Also password like protocols might have developed and either or both of them might be involved.

    In the two-bottle experiments the nanoscale systems in the highly diluted system would gain metabolic energy by sending negative energy photons received by the low dilution system. The gain of metabolic energy would make possible for the nanosystems to replicate and achieve higher dilution after which the process would stop as was indeed observed. That this took place only for the bacteria of same species supports the interpretation that frequency tuning or password mechanism was involved. This metabolic mechanism (quantum credit card as I have called it) could be a completely general mechanism energy sharing mechanism for cells of the same multicellular organism and perhaps even same species in TGD Universe.

For more detailed representation see the chapter Quantum Model for Nerve Pulse of "TGD and EEG". See also the earlier water memory related posting and the chapter Homeopathy in Many-Sheeted Space-Time,where also the nuclear realization of the genetic code is discussed.

Burning water and photosynthesis

For a physicist liberated from the blind belief in reductionism, biology transforms to a single gigantic anomaly about which recent day physics cannot say much. During years I have constructed several models for these anomalies helping to develop a more detailed view about how the new physics predicted by quantum TGD could allow to understand biology and consciousness.

The basic problem is of course the absence of systematic experimentation so that it is possible to imagine many new physics scenarios. For this reason the article series of Mae-Wan Ho [6,7,8,9] in ISIS was a very pleasant surprise, and already now has helped considerably in the attempts to develop the ideas further.

The first article "Water electric" [6] told about the formation of exclusion zones around hydrophilic surfaces, typically gels in the experiments considered [6]. The zones were in potential of about 100 meV with respect to surroundings (same order of magnitude as membrane potential) and had thickness ranging to hundreds of micrometers (the size of a large cell): the standard physics would suggests only few molecular layers instead of millions. Sunlight induced the effect. This finding allow to develop TGD based vision about how proto cells emerged and also the model for chiral selection in living matter by combining the finding with the anomalies of water about which I had learned earlier.

The article "Can water burn?" [7] tells about the discovery of John Kanzius -a retired broadcast engineer and inventor. Kanzius found that water literally burns if subjected to a radio frequency radiation at frequency of 13.56 MHz [17]. The mystery is of course how so low frequency can induce burning. The article "The body does burn water" [8 notices that plant cells burn water routinely in photosynthesis and that also animal cells burn water but the purpose is now to generate hydrogen peroxide which kills bacteria (some readers might recall from childhood how hydrogen peroxide was used to sterilize wounds!). Hence the understanding of how water burns is very relevant for the understanding of photosynthesis and even workings of the immune system.

1. Living matter burns water routinely

Photosynthesis burns water by decomposing water to hydrogen and oxygen and liberating oxygen. Oxygen from CO2 in atmosphere combines with the oxygen of H2O to form O2 molecules whereas H from H2O combines with carbon to form hydrocarbons serving as energy sources for animals which in turn produce CO2. This process is fundamental for aerobic life. There is also a simpler variant of photosynthesis in which oxygen is not produced and applied by an-aerobic life forms. The article "Living with Oxygen" by Mae-Wan Ho gives a nice overall view about the role of oxygen [9]. As a matter fact, also animals burn water but they do this to produce hydrogen peroxide H2O2 which kills very effectively bacteria.

Burning of water has been studied as a potential solution for how to utilize the solar energy to produce hydrogen serving as a natural fuel [7]. The reaction O2+H2 → 2H2O occurs spontaneously and liberates energy of about 1.23 eV. The reverse process 2H2 → H2O2+H2 in the presence of sunlight means burning of water, and could provide the manner to store solar energy. The basic reaction 2H2O + 4 hν→ H2O2+H2 stores the energy of four photons. What really happens in this process is far from being completely understood. Quite generally, the mechanisms making possible extreme efficiency of bio-catalysis remain poorly understood. Here new physics might be involved. I have discussed models for photosynthesis and ADP→ ATP process involved with the utilization of the biochemical energy already earlier [4].

2. How water could burn in TGD Universe?

The new results could help to develop a more detailed model about what happens in photosynthesis. The simplest TGD inspired sketch for what might happen in the burning of water goes as follows.

  1. Assume that 1/4 of water molecules are partially dark (in sense of nonstandard value of Planck constant) or at least at larger space-time sheets in atto-second scale [13,14,15,16]. This would explain the H1.5O formula explaining the results of neutron diffraction and electron scattering.

  2. The question is what this exotic fraction of water precisely is. The models for water electret, exclusion zones and chiral selection lead to concrete ideas about this. Electrons assignable to the H atoms of (partially) dark H2O reside at space-time sheet ke=151 (this p-adic length scale corresponds to 10 nm, the thickness of cell membrane). At least the hydrogen atom for this fraction of water molecules is exotic and findings from neutron and electron scattering suggest that both proton and electron are at non-standard space-time sheets but not necessarily at the same space-time sheet. The model for the burning requires that electron and proton are at different space-time sheets in the initial situation.

  3. Suppose all four electrons are kicked to the space-time sheet of protons of the exotic hydrogen atoms labeled by kp. This requires the energy Eγ = (1-2-n)E0(kp) (the formula involves idealizations). At this space-time sheet protons and electrons are assumed to combine spontaneously to form two H2 atoms. Oxygen atoms in turn are assumed to combine spontaneously to form O2.

  4. For kf=148 and n=3 minimum energy needed would be 4Eγ = 4×.4=1.6 eV. For kp=149 (thickness of lipid layer) and n=2 one would have 4Eγ = 4×.3462=1.385 eV whereas H2O2+ H2→ 2H2O liberates energy 1.23 eV. Therefore the model in which electrons are at cell membrane space-time sheet and protons at the space-time sheet assignable to single lipid layer of cell membrane suggests itself. This would also mean that the basic length scales of cell are already present in the structure of water. Notice that there is no need to assume that Planck constant differs from its standard value.

There is no need to add, that the model is an unashamed oversimplification of the reality. It might however catch the core mechanism of photosynthesis.

3. Burning of salt water induced by RF radiation

Mae-Wan Ho's article "Can water Burn?" [7] provides new information about burning salt water [17], in particular reports that the experiments have been replicated. The water is irradiated using polarized radio frequency light at frequency 13.56 MHz. The energy of radio frequency quantum is Erf=.561×10-7 eV and provides only a minor fraction Erf/E = .436×10-7 of the needed energy which is E=1.23 eV for single 2H2O→ H2O2+H2 event. The structure of water has been found to change, in particular something happens to O-H bonds. The Raman spectrum of the water has changed in the energy range [0.37, 0.43] eV. Recall that the range of metabolic energy quanta E(k,n)=(1-2-n)E0(k) varies for electron in the range [.35, .46] eV in the model for the formation of exclusion zone induced by light. Therefore the photons assigned to changes in Raman spectrum might be associated with the transfer of electrons between space-time sheets.

My original proposal [1] was that some fraction of radio wave photons are dark or transform to dark photons with large Planck constant hbar. At that time I did not realize the connection with photosynthesis and actual burning of water. The recent experimental findings suggest that dark radio frequency photons transform to photons inducing splitting of water as in photosynthesis so that that one should have r=hbar/hbar0=Erf/4E. One could say that large number of radio wave photons combine to form a single bundle of photons forming a structure analogous to what mathematician calls covering space. In the burning event the dark photon would transform to ordinary photon with the same energy. This process would thus transform low energy photons to high energy protons with the ratio r=hbar/hbar0.

Therefore the mechanism for the burning of water in the experiment of Kanzius could be a simple modification of the mechanism behind burning of water in photosynthesis.

  1. Some fraction of dark radio frequency photons are dark or are transformed to dark photons in water and have energies around the energy needed to kick electrons to smaller space-time sheets .4 eV. After this they are transformed to ordinary photons and induce the above process. Their in-elastic scattering from molecules (that is Raman scattering) explains the observation of Raman scattered photons. For a fixed value of hbar the process would occur in resonant manner since only few metabolic quanta are allowed.

  2. How dark radio frequency photons could be present or could be produced in water? Cyclotron radiation assignable to say electrons in magnetic field comes in mind. If the cyclotron radiation is associated with electrons it requires a magnetic field of 4.8 Gauss the cyclotron frequency is 13.56 MHz. This is roughly ten times the nominal value BE=.5 Gauss of the Earth's magnetic field and 24 times the value of dark magnetic field Bd = .4BE=.2 Gauss needed to explain the effects of ELF em fields on vertebrate brain. For cyclotron protons the corresponding magnetic field would be .9 Tesla and for ordinary value of hbar could reside at space-time sheets with size roughly of order of size of lipid layer. Maybe dark matter at flux tubes of Earth's magnetic field with Planck constant equal to hbar/hbar0 = [1/4]×[E/(Erf)] transforms radio frequency photons to dark photons or induces resonantly the generation of cyclotron photons, which in turn leak out from magnetic flux tubes and form ordinary photons inducing the burning of water. Eγ=.4 eV would give hbar/hbar0=1.063×221 and Eγ=.36 eV would give hbar/hbar0=.920×221.

  3. Magnetic fields of magnitude .2 Gauss are in central role in TGD based model of living matter and there are excellent reasons to expect that this mechanism could be involved also with processes involved with living matter. There is indeed evidence for this. The experiments of Gariaev demonstrated that the irradiation of DNA with 2 eV laser photons (which correspond to one particular metabolic energy quantum) induced generation of radio wave photons having unexpected effects on living matter (enhanced metabolic activity) [18], and that even a realization of genetic code in terms of the time variation of polarization direction could be involved. TGD based model [2, 4] identifies radio-wave photons as dark photons with same energy as possessed by incoming visible photons so that a transformation of ordinary photons to dark photons would have been in question. The model assumed hierarchy of values of magnetic fields in accordance with the idea about onion like structure of the magnetic body.

An interesting question concerns the role of salt in the process (and in cells). Is there some trivial explanation for why it must be present or is new physics involved also here? In the experimental arrangement leading to the generation of exclusion zones the pH of water was important control factor, and it might be that the presence of salt has an analogous role to that of protons.

For more detailed representation see the chapter Quantum Model for Nerve Pulse of "TGD and EEG". See also the earlier water memory related posting and the chapter Homeopathy in Many-Sheeted Space-Time of Bio-Systems as Conscious Holograms where also the nuclear realization of the genetic code is discussed.


[1The chapter Dark Nuclear Physics and Condensed Matter of "p-Adic length Scale Hypothesis and Dark Matter Hierarchy".

[2]The chapter Bio-Systems as Conscious Holograms of "Biosystems as Conscious Holograms".

[3] The chapter Homeopathy in Many-Sheeted Space-Time of "Biosystems as Conscious Holograms".\\ .

[4] The chapter Macroscopic Quantum Coherence and Quantum Metabolism as Different Sides of the Same Coin of"Biosystems as Conscious Holograms".

[ 5 The chapter The Notion of Wave-Genome and DNA as Topological Quantum Computer of "Genes and Memes".

[6] Mae-Wan Ho (2009), Water electric. Institute of Science in Society report.

[ 7 Mae-Wan Ho (2009), Can Water burn. Institute of Science in Society report.

[8 Mae-Wan Ho (2009), The body does burn water. Institute of Science in Society report.

[9 Mae-Wan Ho (2009), Living with Oxygen. Institute of Science in Society report.

[10 Zheng, Jian-ming, Pollack, G. (2003), Long-range forces extending from polymer-gel surfaces.

[11] G. Pollack, X. Figueroa, Qing Z. (2009), Molecules, water, and radiant energy: new clues for the origin of life. International journal of molecular sciences 2009;10(4):1419-29.

[ 12 Z. Merali (2006), Water gave life on Earth a guiding hand, New Scientist, issue 2540, 25 February.

[13 M. Chaplin (2005), Water Structure and Behavior.

The description of 41 anomalies of water contains also explanation of H1.5O anomaly.

[14] J. K. Borchardt(2003), The chemical formula H2O - a misnomer, The Alchemist 8 Aug (2003).

[15] R. A. Cowley (2004), Neutron-scattering experiments and quantum entanglement, Physica B 350 (2004) 243-245.

[16] R. Moreh, R. C. Block, Y. Danon, and M. Neumann (2005), Search for anomalous scattering of keV neutrons from H2O-D2O mixtures, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 185301.

[17] Burning salt water.

[18] P. P. Gariaev et al(2002), The spectroscopy of bio-photons in non-local genetic regulation, Journal of Non-Locality and Remote Mental Interactions, Vol 1, Nr 3.

A model for chiral selection

Chiral selection of bio-molecules is one of the basic mysteries of biology and it is interesting to see whether the existing bits of data combined with vision about quantum TGD could help to build a coherent picture about the situation. Let us first try to identify the most important pieces of the puzzle.

  1. Chiral selection requires parity breaking in the scale of biomolecules. Standard model predicts parity breaking interactions but the effects are extremely small above intermediate boson length scale which is by a factor 10-7 shorter than atomic length scale. The proposed solution of the problem is that dark variants of intermediate gauge bosons are in question so that the Compton lengths of intermediate gauge bosons are scaled up by a factor r=hbar/hbar0. Below the dark Compton length weak gauge bosons would be effectively massless and above it possess ordinary masses. Large parity breaking effects induced by dark intermediate gauge bosons would be possible.

  2. For instance, for r=244 for which EEG photons have energies just above thermal threshold at room temperature, the effective p-adic length scale would correspond to L (k), k=89+44=133 of about .2 Angstrom. This scale in turn would scale up to L(133+44=177). Secondary p-adic length scale assignable to k=89 which is important in zero energy ontology would correspond to k=2×89 = 178 which corresponds to about L(178) ≈ 100 μm, the length scale assignable to large cells and the thickness of water layers in the the experiments of Pollack and Zheng.

  3. Parity breaking interaction is associated with spin and the interaction energy of form k s•EZ, where s is the spin of particle and EZ is Z0 electric field. Classical induced gauge fields are very strongly correlated in TGD since they are expressible in terms of four CP2 coordinates and their gradients. Hence classical electromagnetic field E is in the generic case accompanied by classical Z0 field E Z = aE. This means that if there is classical electromagnetic field and charge density at the dark space-time sheet, large parity breaking effect is possible at the level of spin. The induced Z0 electric field could force the spins to become parallel and in this manner induce also magnetization.

The crucial finding about which I learned three years ago is that L glutamate is more stable than R glutamate in water and that heavy water does not induce this effect (see this). This suggests a connection with Pollack-Zheng effect (see this and this) which I discussed in previous posting. Heavy water nuclei have vanishing spin whereas hydrogen nuclei have spin 1/2 so that H2 in water molecules can be in spin singlet or triplet states (para and orto configurations). Could the nuclear spin of water molecules somehow induce parity breaking and the magnetic interaction distinguishing between these molecules?

  1. Suppose that bio-molecules in question have magnetic moment and water carries magnetic field, most naturally at dark magnetic flux tubes. The parity breaking interaction energy -p•E with dark electric field remains invariant under reflection and rotation of π changing the orientation of the mirror image of the molecule with respect to electric field. The interaction energy with magnetic field however changes its sign since magnetic moment is not affected by the reflection but changes direction under rotation. The angular momentum of the molecule responsible for the magnetic moment can of course change sign but since the transformation involves acts on angular momenta only, it is not a symmetry of entire system. Indeed, if there is interaction between angular momentum degrees of freedom and geometric degrees of freedom the magnetic interaction energy for the mirror image is different. Suppose that the breaking of reflection symmetry induced by the chirality of the molecule induces internal electric field Eint. The parity breaking interaction energy k s•E int would indeed break the symmetry in the transformation changing the directions of angular momenta and spins.

  2. It deserves to be emphasize that the parity breaking of the molecule itself would induce the symmetry breaking if molecule possesses dark magnetic body. One can actually imagine a cascade of parity breakings proceeding from shorter to longer length scales in this manner.

  3. The mechanism creating electric field could be the charging of water, perhaps by the Pollack-Zheng mechanism and having in TGD framework an interpretation as a basic mechanism storing the energy of sunlight to metabolic energy (kicking of electrons and/or protons to a smaller space-time sheet so that oppositely charge space-time sheets emerge as a consequence). A direct connection with metabolism would be admittedly a highly satisfactory feature of the mechanism.

  4. Parity breaking energy k s•E for say dark protons assignable to hydrogen nuclei of bio-molecules in the internal electric field of the molecule or dark protons of water molecules in the electric field induced by Pollack-Zheng effect does not change sign under the reflection of the molecule so that spin polarization independent of chirality could result form both water molecules in crystal like phase and for bio-molecules possessing dark protons (and dark hydrogen atoms). This could in turn serve as a seed for magnetization essential for the existence of dark magnetic flux tubes.

If water is replaced with heavy water there is no difference between L and R. What distinction H and D could explain this difference?

  1. The basic difference between water and heavy water nuclei is that for water nucleus is just proton having spin 1/2 so that H2 in water molecule can be in spin triplet and singlet states. Fractions of the two states are 3/4 and 1/4 in the absence of external magnetic field.

  2. On the other hand, in atto-second time scale (corresponding length scale is 3 Angstroms) water is known to behave effectively as H1.5O [5,6,7,8]. A possible explanation is that 1/4:th of H nuclei/atoms are effectively dark having large Planck constant. The dark protons cannot correspond to H2 in spin singlet state since the interaction energy ks•E would be small in this case. Dark spin triplet states of H2 could however induce parity breaking in water and make crystal like water phase both electret and magnet. If the spin s z=1 with negative interaction energy with E becomes dark then 1/4 of hydrogen atoms would be dark and H1.5O formula would hold true. For D2O this mechanism would not work.

  3. The model for homeopathy led to the idea that dark nuclei consisting of scale up variants of nucleons possibly having size of order atomic length scale could be crucial for understanding living matter. The states of nucleons correspond naturally to those DNA, RNA, and aminocids and vertebrate genetic code emerges naturally with DNA code word replaced with 3 quark state with entanglement between the quarks representing the information. Could it be that dark protons of water combine to form dark nuclei providing a fundamental representation of the genetic code and could the spin of protons induce electro-weak chiral symmetry breaking. Also now this mechanism fails for D2O.

For more detailed representation see the chapter Quantum Model for Nerve Pulse. See also the earlier water memory related posting and the chapter Homeopathy in Many-Sheeted Space-Time of Bio-Systems as Conscious Holograms where also the nuclear realization of the genetic code is discussed.


[1] Mae-Wan Ho (2009), Water electric. Institute of Science in Society report.

[2] Zheng, Jian-ming, Pollack, G. (2003), Long-range forces extending from polymer-gel surfaces. [3] G. Pollack, X. Figueroa, Qing Z. (2009), Molecules, water, and radiant energy: new clues for the origin of life. International journal of molecular sciences 2009;10(4):1419-29.

[4]Z. Merali (2006), Water gave life on Earth a guiding hand, New Scientist, issue 2540, 25 February.

[5 ]M. Chaplin (2005), Water Structure and Behavior.

The description of 41 anomalies of water contains also explanation of H1.5O anomaly.

[6] J. K. Borchardt(2003), The chemical formula H2O - a misnomer, The Alchemist 8 Aug (2003).

[7] R. A. Cowley (2004), Neutron-scattering experiments and quantum entanglement, Physica B 350 (2004) 243-245.

[8] R. Moreh, R. C. Block, Y. Danon, and M. Neumann (2005), Search for anomalous scattering of keV neutrons from H2O-D2O mixtures, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 185301.

Water electric as protocell?

Ulla Matfolk sent to me some interesting material at the web page of Dr. Mae-Wan Ho. The first article is Water electric. The second one is Making Fuel from Water. Both "../articles/ relate closely to what might be called the holy grail of artificial photosynthesis. The unreasonable effectiveness of photosynthesis in the sense that the waste of energy during the process is extremely small, makes artificial photosynthesis an excellent candidate for the final solution of energy problems as far energy sources and minimization of wastes are considered. In the following I comment only the first paper in detail from TGD viewpoint.

How photosynthesis manages to be so effective is one of the mysteries of biology. TGD based view about metabolic energy involves two ideas.

  1. TGD predicts a hierarchy of metabolic energy quanta(see this and this) The basic quanta come as E(k)= 2kE0, where k is positive or negative integer and E0≈.5 eV holds true. For instance, 2 eV metabolic energy quantum corresponding to red light corresponds to k=3. This is actually oversimplification since there is a cascade of quanta E(k,n)= (1-2-n)E(k) converging to E(k) for each p-adic length scale. These energies correspond to energies liberated when electron or proton drops to a larger space-time sheet at the limit when second space-time becomes very large and the particle starts from rest and remains to rest: this is second idealization. The idea is that these universal metabolic energy quanta preceded the metabolism based on chemical storage of energy and that the primary step in photosynthesis is kicking of proton or electron to a smaller space-time sheet.

  2. Second idea relies on the hierarchy of Planck constants.
    1. The rate of dissipation - that this the energy wasted per unit time - is inversely proportional to hbar in the first naive guess and means that macroscopically quantum coherent dark matter dissipates very little. Could photon kick charged dark p"../articles/ to smaller space-time sheet where they dissipate very little? Or could photosynthesis capture ordinary or dark photons of sunlight to some layer of the onion like structure formed by the magnetic body of the organism, where it kicks p"../articles/ to smaller space-time sheets. This light could correspond to biophotons liberated as the biological body of the organism dies.
    2. Could this storage of photons have preceded chemical storage of energy in living matter? And could this energy reserve explain some rather mysterious findings about the ability of some people to survive without ordinary metabolic energy feed (usually saints and this kind of people telling that light is enough for them to survive;-). Also animals are capable to these metabolic miracles: see the article Researchers Seek to Demystify the Metabolic Magic of Sled Dogs. Of course, the storage of energy to that of dark matter or dark photons confined to the net defined by magnetic flux tubes could be the eventual manner to avoid energy waste and associated entropy growth inducing environmental problems. Hierarchy of Planck constants would allow the storage in arbitrary long length scales for given energy of photon so that even a community of organisms could have collective metabolic energy resources: maybe synergy has something to do with this;-).

The first article gives quantitative support for this picture.

Exclusion zones

The article summarizes the sequence of events initiated by the discovery of Gerald Pollack and his student Zheng Jian-ming. As a matter fact, the fascinating findings described in detail by Gerald Pollack in (the introduction of - I could not of course afford any book as a scientific dissident in Finland!) his book were absolutely crucial for the recent TGD based view about quantum biology in which dark matter plays key role.

  1. Pollack and his student discovered that suspensions of colloids and dissolved substances are excluded from a region extending some hundreds of micrometres from the surfaces of hydrophilic gels. An �exclusion zone� (EZ) of this magnitude conflicts the belief that interfacial water forming at liquid-solid, or liquid-air interfaces can be no more than a few layers of molecules thick. What�s observed is a million layers or more!

    Comment: The sizes of cells vary up to hundreds of micrometers and cells are by definition structures which are isolated from the environment. Maybe EZs represent protocells or their predecessors. That the surface was that of gel might be important. In TGD based model of living matter gels have magnetic bodies and their presence might relate to the formation of the thick water layer in non-standard phase.

  2. Similar exclusion zones were found next to any hydrophilic surface including surfaces coated with a monolayer of hydrophilic molecules, and around ion exchange resin beads. Electric charge appears to be important, as EZ failed to form around charge-exhausted resin beads. Although EZ can form in pure water, it is enhanced and stabilized by low concentrations of buffer (2 to 10 mM at pH 7).

    Comment: Hydrophily could quite generally correspond to the formation of magnetic flux tubes connecting the hydrophilic surface to water molecules as assumed in TGD inspired model of protein folding and bio-catalysis.

  3. The EZ phase is very different from the bulk water. An unusually ordered crystalline phase where the molecules are less free to move is suggestive. The UV and visible absorption spectrum gave a single absorption peak at ≈ 270 nm in the UV region completely absent in the bulk phase. The infrared emission record showed that the EZ radiates very little compared with bulk water, as would be expected on account of the reduced mobility of water molecules. The magnetic resonance imaging mapping similarly gave a transverse relaxation time (T2) of 25.4 + 1 ms, which is shorter than the 27.1 + 0.4 ms recorded for the bulk water phase, again indicative of restricted motion.

    Comment: The reduced radiation might mean that part of photons are dark and bound inside magnetic flux tubes defining a structure responsible for the formation of gel like phases inside cell and perhaps also inside EZ. The interpretation as biophotons is suggestive. This phase of water could be predecessor of the water in cell interior since in the crystalline phase long bio polymers like DNA and aminoacid sequences would be stable against hydration.

  4. EZ had a different electrical potential from the bulk phase, by as much as 100 � 200 mV, depending on the hydrophilic surface. With a negatively charged surface such as polyacrylic acid or Nafion (widely used as a proton exchange membrane), the potential is negative compared with the bulk water away from the EZ. Simultaneously, the hydrogen ion (proton, H+) concentration is high just outside the EZ, decreasing in a gradient away from it. This indicates that the formation of the EZ is accompanied by a separation of positive and negative electrical charges, which led to the build up of electrical potential between the EZ and the bulk water. In effect, the water has become an electrical battery, and can provide electricity through an external circuit.

    Comment: Cell membrane is also a battery and the potential is around 50-80 mV to be compared with 100 � 200 mV, and the size scale of cell varies from 5 micrometer to hundreds of micrometers so that EZs could be involved with the formation of cell and cell membranes. The kicking of electrons or protons to smaller space-time sheet could be the mechanism inducing electric potential at a given space-time sheet. The formation of battery would mean that water could some day used to store very effectively the energy of solar radiation.

A connection with photosynthesis

Separating H+ from e- (electron) is the first step of photosynthesis in green plants which provides energy for most of the biosphere. In this case the energy comes from solar radiation. The separation of charges requires energy also in the case of EZ and the question is where this energy comes from in the case of EZ.

  1. A clue came after having inadvertently left the experimental chamber with the EZ on the microscope overnight. Next morning, the EZ had shrunk considerably. But after turning on the microscope lamp, it began to immediately grow again, restoring itself within minutes to its former size. The energy for EZ formation comes from light, as in photosynthesis, but it can use the low energy part of the solar spectrum that photosynthesis cannot.

    Comment: Could one consider the possibility that photosynthesis involves unknown step and this step is just the kicking of electrons or protons to a smaller space-time sheet. This step would also induce the separation of charges and the generation of electric potential.

  2. Although the entire spectrum of visible light appeared effective in making the EZ grow, the most effective part is in the infrared region, peaking at ≈ 3 100 nm. A 10 minute exposure at that wavelength expanded the width of an EZ 3.7 times, and after an hour of exposure, the expansion was more than 6 times. After the light was turned off, the EZ remained constant for about 30 minutes before beginning to shrink, reaching halfway to its baseline level in about 15 minutes.

    Comment: 3100 nm corresponds to .4 eV. The nominal value of the fundamental metabolic energy quantum is around E0=.5 eV and one has E(k=0,n=3)= 0.4375 eV for this value of E0. Perhaps the photons indeed kick electrons or protons to a smaller space-time sheet.

    1. In the case of protons the smaller space-time sheet would correspond to atomic space-time sheets characterized by p≈2137: the larger one would correspond to to k=141.

    2. For electrons the size of the smaller space-time sheet would be by a factor mp/me= 940/.5=1880≈ 211 larger and would correspond to k= 137+11=148. This is one half of the thickness of the lipid layer of cell membrane. The larger space-time sheet would correspond to cell membrane thickness L(151)=10 nm and perhaps the dark space-time sheet serving as a template for the formation of the cell membrane! If .4 eV corresponds to electron, then proton would correspond to .44 eV giving for the metabolic energy quantum the value E0(p)= 0.5029 eV in the case of proton and E0(e)= 0.4616 eV in the case of electron.

  3. When the UV and visible range was tested, a peak in the degree of EZ expansion was detected at 270 nm in the UV region, corresponding to the characteristic absorption peak of EZ that was identified before. However, as the optical power used in the UV and visible region was 600 times that in the IR, the most profound effect was identified in the IR region, particularly at 3 100 nm.

    Comment: 270 nm corresponds to the energy 4.5926 eV. E=4 eV is the nearest metabolic energy quantum. This energy does not correspond directly to any metabolic energy quantum assignable to .4 eV or .43 eV. One must be however cautious with conclusions since the model is very rough.

  4. The mechanism of EZ formation is still unknown. But the two wavelengths that expand the EZ most effectively may offer some hint. The UV 270 nm is close to the 250 nm (≈5 eV) required to ionize water under standard state conditions and taking into account the hydration of the resulting ions. The 3 100 nm peak, on the other hand is close to the OH stretch of the ring hexamer identified as the most abundant species in infrared predissociation spectroscopy of large water clusters, and also in neon matrices by infrared spectroscopy. These results suggest that photoexcitation of ring hexamers and photoionisation followed by ejection of protons play synergistic roles in the assembly of the EZ phase. Pollack and colleagues believe that the infrared radiation, though normally insufficient to break OH bonds, can nevertheless work via resonance induced dissociation of large hydrogen-bonded networks.

    Comment: Ring hexamers bring in mind the crucial role of aromatic cycles in TGD inspired model of DNA as topological quantum computer which leads also to a model of ADP→ ATP transition involving reconnection of magnetic flux tubes and having also information theoretic interpretation as a change of the topology of the braid structure defining topological quantum computer program (see this). Magnetic flux tubes carrying dark electrons begin from these and can end up to other biomolecules or water. Just a guess: could they end on ring hexamers?


The findings suggest additional details to the TGD based view about living matter.

  1. The kicking of electrons or protons or both of them to a larger space-time sheet would be the first step in photosynthesis as indeed suggested for years ago. The energy of 3100 nm photons indeed corresponds to that for the fundamental metabolic energy quantum.

  2. The findings suggest also a mechanism for how solar radiation generates proto cells or their predecessors. The resulting phases of water have size extending to those for largest cells and the water could involve a gel like phase in which magnetic flux tubes containing dark matter could play a key role and eventually lead to quantum computer like behavior (see this). The kicking of electrons (or protons) to smaller space-time sheet would induce ionization at given space-time sheet so that electric potential difference would result. The magnitude of the potential difference is of a correct order of magnitude. Cell membrane scale is present as a p-adic length scale for the space-time sheet of electrons before the kicking to the smaller space-time sheet and these space-time sheets could act as templates for the formation of cell membrane.

  3. Interestingly, TGD based model of high Tc super conductivity predicts that both cell membrane length scale and size scale of cell are involved with the super-conductivity (see this). Cell membrane acts as a Josephson junction in TGD based model of cell membrane, nerve pulse, and EEG (see this).

For more detailed representation and for references see the chapter Homeopathy in Many-sheeted Space-time.

Genes and homeopathy

After long time I had opportunity to read a beautiful experimental article. Not about the latest dramatic experimental breakthroughs in proving F theory to be the only possible theory of everything and even more;-) but about experimental biology. Yolene Thomas, who worked with Benveniste, kindly sent the article to me. The freely loadable article is Electromagnetic Signals Are Produced by Aqueous Nanostructures Derived from Bacterial DNA Sequences by Luc Montagnier, Jamal Aissa, St�phane Ferris, Jean-Luc Montagnier, and Claude Lavall�e published in the journal Interdiscip. Sci. Comput. Life Sci. (2009).

1. Basic findings at cell level

I try to list the essential points of the article. Apologies for biologists: I am not a specialist.

  1. Certain pathogenic micro-organisms are objects of the study. The bacteria Mycoplasma Pirum and E. Choli belong to the targets of the study. The motivating observation was that some procedures aimed at sterilizing biological fluids can yield under some conditions the infectious micro-organism which was present before the filtration and absent immediately after it. For instance, one filtrates a culture of human lymphocytes infected by M. Pirum, which has infected human lymphocytes to make it sterile. The filters used have 100 nm and 20 nm porosities. M. Pirum has size of 300 nm so that apparently sterile fluids results. However if this fluid is incubated with a mycoplasma negative culture of human lymphocytes, mycoplasma re-appears within 2 or 3 weeks! This sounds mysterious. Same happens as 20 nm filtration is applied to a a minor infective fraction of HIV, whose viral p"../articles/ have size in the range 100-120 nm.

  2. These findings motivated a study of the filtrates and it was discovered that they have a capacity to produce low frequency electromagnetic waves with frequencies in good approximation coming as the first three harmonics of kHz frequency, which by the way plays also a central role in neural synchrony. What sounds mysterious is that the effect appeared after appropriate dilutions with water: positive dilution fraction varied between 10-7 and 10-12. The uninfected eukaryotic cells used as controls did not show the emission. These signals appeared for both M. Pirum and E. Choli but for M. Pirum a filtration using 20 nm filter canceled the effect. Hence it seems that the nano-structures in question have size between 20 and 100 nm in this case.

    A resonance phenomenon depending on excitation by the electromagnetic waves is suggested as an underlying mechanism. Stochastic resonance familiar to physicists suggests itself and also I have discussed it while developing ideas about quantum brain (see this). The proposed explanation for the necessity of the dilution could be kind of self-inhibition. Maybe a gel like phase which does not emit radiation is present in sufficiently low dilution but is destroyed in high dilutions after which emission begins. Note that the gel phase would not be present in healthy tissue. Also a destructive interference of radiation emitted by several sources can be imagined.

  3. Also a cross talk between dilutions was discovered. The experiment involved two tubes. Donor tube was at a low dilution of E. Choli and "silent" (and carrying gel like phase if the above conjecture is right). Receiver tube was in high dilution (dilution fraction 10-9) and "loud". Both tubes were placed in mu-metal box for 24 hours at room temperature. Both tubes were silent after his. After a further dilution made for the receiver tube it became loud again. This could be understood in terms of the formation of gel like phase in which the radiation does not take place. The effect disappeared when one interposed a sheath of mu-metal between the tubes. Emission of similar signals was observed for many other bacterial specials, all pathogenic. The transfer occurred only between identical bacterial species which suggests that the signals and possibly also frequencies are characteristic for the species and possibly code for DNA sequences characterizing the species.

  4. A further surprising finding was that the signal appeared in dilution which was always the same irrespective of what was the original dilution.

2. Experimentation at gene level

The next step in experimentation was performed at gene level.

  1. The killing of bacteria did not cancel the emission in appropriate dilutions unless the genetic material was destroyed. It turned out that the genetic material extracted from the bacteria filtered and diluted with water produced also an emission for sufficiently high dilutions.

  2. The filtration step was essential for the emission also now. The filtration for 100 nm did not retain DNA which was indeed present in the filtrate. That effect occurred suggests that filtration destroyed a gel like structure inhibiting the effect. When 20 nm filtration was used the effect disappeared which suggests that the size of the structure was in the range 20-100 nm.

  3. After the treatment by DNAse enzyme inducing splitting of DNA to pieces the emission was absent. The treatment of DNA solution by restriction enzyme acting on many sites of DNA did not suppress the emission suggesting that the emission is linked with rather short sequences or with rare sequences.

  4. The fact that pathogenic bacteria produce the emission but not "good" bacteria suggests that effect is caused by some specific gene. It was found that single gene - adhesin responsible for the adhesion of mycoplasma to human cells- was responsible for the effect. When the cloned gene was attached to two plasmids and the E. Choli DNA was transformed with the either plasmid, the emission was produced.

3. Some consequences

The findings could have rather interesting consequences.

  1. The refinement of the analysis could make possible diagnostics of various diseases and suggests bacterial origin of diseases like Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, Multiple Sclerosis and Rheumatoid Arthritis since the emission signal could serve as a signature of the gene causing the disease. The signal can be detected also from RNA viruses such as HIV, influenza virus A, and Hepatitis C virus.

  2. Emission could also play key role in the mechanism of adhesion to human cells making possible the infection perhaps acting as a kind of password.

The results are rather impressive. Some strongly conditioned skeptic might have already stopped reading after encountering the word "dilution" and associating it with a word which no skeptic scientist in his right mind should not say aloud: "homeopathy"! By reading carefully what I wrote above, it is easy to discover that the experimenters unashamedly manufactured a homeopathic remedy out of the filtrate! And the motivating finding was that although filtrate should not have contained the bacteria, they (according to authors), or at least the effects caused by them, appeared within weeks to it! This is of course impossible in the word of skeptic.

The next reaction of the skeptic is of course that this is fraud or the experimenters are miserable crackpots. Amusingly, one of the miserable crackpots is Nobelist Luc Montagnier whose research group discovered AIDS virus.

4. How TGD could explain the findings?

Let us leave the raging skeptics for a moment and sketch possible explanations in TGD framework.

  1. Skeptic would argue that the filtration allowed a small portion of infected cells to leak through the filter. Many-sheeted space-time suggests a science fictive variant of this explanation. During filtration part of the infected cells is "dropped" to large space-time sheets and diffused back to the original space-time sheets during the next week. This would explain why the micro-organisms were regenerated within few weeks. Same mechanism could work for ordinary molecules and explain homeopathy. This can be tested: look whether the molecules return back to the the diluted solution in the case of a homeopathic remedy.

  2. If no cells remain in the filtrate, something really miraculous looking events are required to make possible the regeneration of the effects serving as the presence of cells. This even in the case that DNA fragments remain in the filtrate.

    1. The minimum option is that the presence of these structures contained only the relevant information about the infecting bacteria and this information coded in terms of frequencies was enough to induce the signatures of the infection as a kind of molecular conditioning. Experimentalists can probably immediately answer whether this can be the case.

    2. The most radical option is that the infecting bacteria were actually regenerated as experimenters claim! The information about their DNA was in some form present and was transcribed to DNA and/or RNA, which in turn transformed to proteins. Maybe the small fragment of DNA (adhesin) and this information should have been enough to regenerate the DNA of the bacterium and bacterium itself. A test for this hypothesis is whether the mere nanop"../articles/ left from the DNA preparation to the filtrate can induce the regeneration of infecting molecules.

The notion of magnetic body carrying dark matter quantum controlling living matter forms the basic element of TGD inspired model of quantum biology and suggests a more concrete model. For a possible experimental support for the notion see the earlier posting.

  1. If the matter at given layer of the onion-like structure formed by magnetic bodies has large hbar, one can argue that the layer corresponds to a higher evolutionary level than ordinary matter with longer time scale of memory and planned action. Hence it would not be surprising if the magnetic bodies were able to replicate and use ordinary molecules as kind of sensory receptors and motor organs. Perhaps the replication of magnetic bodies preceded the replication at DNA level and genetic code is realized already at this more fundamental level somehow. Perhaps the replication of magnetic bodies induces the replication of DNA as I have suggested.

  2. As I have discussed in my earlier postings and and in the books at my homepage, the magnetic body of DNA would make DNA a topological quantum computer (see this). DNA itself would represent the hardware and magnetic bodies would carry the evolving quantum computer programs realized in terms of braidings of magnetic flux tubes. The natural communication and control tool would be cyclotron radiation besides Josephson radiation associated with cell membranes acting as Josephson junctions. Cyclotron frequencies are indeed the only natural frequencies that one can assign to molecules in kHz range. There would be an entire fractal hierarchy of analogs of EEG making possible the communication with and control by magnetic bodies.

  3. The values of Planck constant would define a hierarchy of magnetic bodies which corresponds to evolutionary hierarchy and the emergence of a new level would mean jump in evolution. Gel like phases could serve as a correlate for the presence of the magnetic body. The phase transitions changing the value of Planck constant and scale up or down the size of the magnetic flux tubes. They are proposed to serve as a basic control mechanism making possible to understand the properties and the dynamics of the gel phases and how biomolecules can find each other in the thick molecular soup via a phase transition reducing the length of flux tubes connecting the biomolecules in question and thus forcing them to the vicinity of each other.

Consider now how this model could explain the findings.

  1. Minimal option is that the the flux tubes correspond to "larger space-time sheets" and the infected cells managed to flow into the filtrate along magnetic flux tubes from the filter. This kind of transfer of DNA might be made possible by the recently discovered nanotubes already mentioned.

  2. Maybe the radiation resulted as dark photons invisible for ordinary instruments transformed to ordinary photons as the gel phase assignable with the dark matter at magnetic flux tube network associated with the infected cells and corresponding DNA was destroyed in the filtration.

    This is not the only possible guess. A phase conjugate cyclotron radiation with a large value of Planck constant could also allow for the nanostructures in dilute solute to gain metabolic energy by sending negative energy quanta to a system able to receive them. Indeed the presence of ambient radiation was necessary for the emission. Maybe that for sufficiently dilute solute this mechanism allows to the nanostructures to get metabolic energy from the ambient radiation whereas for the gel phase the metabolic needs are not so demanding. In the similar manner bacteria form colonies when metabolically deprived. This sucking of energy might be also part of the mechanism of disease.

  3. What could be the magnetic field inducing the kHz radiation as a synchrotron radiation?

    1. For instance, kHz frequency and its harmonics could correspond to the cyclotron frequencies of proton in magnetic field which field strength slightly above that for Earth's magnetic field (750 Hz frequency corresponds to field strength of BE, where BE/=.5 Gauss, the nominal strength of Earth's magnetic field). A possible problem is that the thickness of the flux tubes would be about cell size for Earth's magnetic field from flux quantization and even larger for dark matter with a large value of Planck constant. Of course, the flux tubes could make themselves thinner temporarily and leak through the pores.
    2. If the flux tube is assumed to have thickness of order 20-100 nm, the magnetic field for ordinary value of hbar would be of order .1 Tesla from flux quantization and in the case of DNA the cyclotron frequencies would not depend much on the length of DNA fragment since the it carries a constant charge density. Magnetic field of order .2 Tesla would give cyclotron frequency of order kHZ from the fact that the field strength of .2 Gauss gives frequency of about .1 Hz. This correspond to a magnetic field with flux tube thickness ≈ 125 nm, which happens to be the upper limit for the porosity. Dark magnetic flux tubes with large hbar are however thicker and the leakage might involve a temporary phase transition to a phase with ordinary value of hbar reducing the thickness of the flux tube. Perhaps some genes (adhesin) plus corresponding magnetic bodies representing DNA in terms of cyclotron frequencies depending slightly on precise weight of the DNA sequence and thus coding it correspond to the frequency of cyclotron radiation are the sought for nano-structures.

  4. While developing a model for homeopathy based on dark matter I ended up with the idea that dark matter consisting of nuclear strings of neutrons and protons with a large value of hbar and having thus a zoomed up size of nucleon could be involved. The really amazing finding was that nucleons as three quark systems allow to realize vertebrate code in terms of states formed from entangled quarks (see this and this and also the earlier posting)! One cannot decompose codons to letters as in the case of the ordinary genetic code but codons are analogous to symbols representing entire words in Chinese. The counterparts of DNA, RNA, and aminoacids emerge and genetic code has a concrete meaning as a map between quantum states.

    Without any exaggeration this connection between dark hadronic physics and biology has been one of the greatest surprises of my professional life. It suggests that dark matter in macroscopic quantum phase realizes genetic code at the level of nuclear physics and biology only provides one particular (or probably very many as I have proposed) representations of it. If one takes this seriously one can imagine that genetic information is represented by these dark nuclear strings of nanoscopic size and that there exists a mechanism translating the dark nuclei to ordinary DNA and RNA sequences and thus to biological matter. This would explain the claimed regeneration of the infected cells.

  5. Genetic code at dark matter level would have far reaching implications. For instance, living matter - or rather, the magnetic bodies controlling it - could purposefully perform genetic engineering. This forces me to spit out another really dirty word, "Lamarckism"! We have of course learned that mutations are random. The basic objection against Lamarckism is that there is no known mechanism which would transfer the mutations to germ cells. In the homeopathic Universe of TGD the mutations could be however performed first for the dark nucleon sequences. After this these sequences would diffuse to germ cells just like homeopathic remedies do, and after this are translated to DNA or RNA and attach to DNA.

We are living exciting times. If someone wants to share this experience with me, she or he can can consult the chapter Homeopathy in Many-Sheeted Space-Time, where also the nuclear realization of the genetic code is discussed. If the word "hopeopathy" in the title is too much for the stomach of the reader, he can consult also the chapter Nuclear String Model of p-Adic length Scale Hypothesis and Dark Matter Hierarchy.

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