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Constant torque as a manner to force phase transition increasing the value of Planck constant
The challenge is to identify physical mechanisms forcing the increase of effective Planck constant h_{eff} (whether to call it effective or not is to some extent matter of taste). The work with certain potential applications of TGD led to a discovery of a new mechanism possibly achieving this. The method would be simple: apply constant torque to a rotating system. I will leave it for the reader to rediscover how this can be achieved. It turns out that the considerations lead to considerable insights about how large h_{eff} phases are generated in living matter.
Could constant torque force the increase of h_{eff}?
Consider a rigid body allowed to rotated around some axes so that its state is characterized by a rotation angle φ.
Assumed that a constant torque τ is applied to the system.
 The classical equations of motion are
I d^{2}φ/dt^{2}= τ .
This is true in an idealization as point particle characterized by its moment of inertia around the axis of rotation. Equations of motion are obtained from the variational principle
S= ∫ Ldt , L= I(dφ/dt)^{2}/2 V(φ) , V(φ)= τφ .
Here φ denotes the rotational angle. The mathematical problem is that the potential function V(φ) is either manyvalued or discontinuous at φ= 2π.
 Quantum mechanically the system corresponds to a Scrödinger equation
 hbar^{2}/2I× ∂^{2}Ψ/∂φ^{2} +τ φ Ψ = i∂Ψ/∂ t .
In stationary situation one has
 hbar^{2}/2I× ∂^{2}Ψ/∂φ^{2} +τ φ Ψ = EΨ .
 Wave function is expected to be continuous at φ=2π. The discontinuity of potential at φ= φ_{0} poses further strong conditions on the solutions: Ψ should vanish in a region containing the point φ_{0}. Note that the value of φ_{0} can be chosen freely.
The intuitive picture is that the solutions correspond to strongly localized wave packets in accelerating motion. The wavepacket can for some time vanish in the region containing point φ_{0}. What happens when this condition does not hold anymore?
 Dissipation is present in the system and therefore also state function reductions. Could state function reduction occur when the wave packet contains the point, where V(φ) is discontinuous?
 Or are the solutions welldefined only in a spacetime region with finite temporal extent T? In zero energy ontology (ZEO) this option is automatically realized since spacetime sheets are restricted inside causal diamonds (CDs). Wave functions need to be welldefined only inside CD involved and would vanish at φ_{0}. Therefore the mathematical problems related to the representation of accelerating wave packets in noncompact degrees of freedom could serve as a motivation for both CDs and ZEO.
There is however still a problem. The wave packet cannot be in accelerating motion even for single full turn. More turns are wanted. Should one give up the assumption that wave function is continuous at φ=φ_{0}+ 2π and should one allow wave functions to be multivalued and satisfy the continuity condition Ψ(φ_{0})=Ψ(φ_{0}+n2π), where n is some sufficiently large integer. This would mean the replacement of the configuration space (now circle) with its nfold covering.
The introduction of the nfold covering leads naturally to the hierarchy of Planck constants.
 A natural question is whether constant torque τ could affect the system so that φ=0 ja φ=2π do not represent physically equivalent configurations anymore. Could it however happen that φ=0 ja φ= n2π for some value of n are still equivalent? One would have the analogy of manysheeted Riemann surface.
 In TGD framework 3surfaces can indeed be analogous to nsheeted Riemann surfaces. In other words, a rotation of 2π does not produce the original surface but one needs n2π rotation to achieve this. In fact, h_{eff}/h=n corresponds to this situation geometrically! Spacetime itself becomes nsheeted covering of itself: this property must be distinguished from manysheetedness. Could constant torque provide a manner to force a situation making spacetime nsheeted and thus to create phases with large value of h_{eff}?
 Schrödinger amplitude representing accelerated wave packet as a wavefunction in the nfold covering would be nvalued in the ordinary Minkowski coordinates and would satisfy the boundary condition
Ψ(φ)= Ψ(φ+ n2π) .
Since V(φ) is not rotationally invariant this condition is too strong for stationary solutions.
 This condition would mean Fourier analysis using the exponentials exp(imφ/n) with time dependent coefficients c_{m}(t) whose time evolution is dicrated by Schröndinger equation. For ordinary Planck constant this would mean fractional values of angular momentum
L_{z}= m/n hbar .
If one has h_{eff}=nhbar, the spectrum of L_{z} is not affected. It would seem that constant torque forces the generation of a phase with large value of h_{eff}! From the estimate for how many turns the system rotates one can estimate the value of h_{eff}.
What about stationary solutions?
Giving up stationary seems the only option on basis of classical intuition. One can however ask whether also stationary solutions could make sense mathematically and could make possible completely new quantum phenomena.
 In the stationary situation the boundary condition must be weakened to
Ψ(φ_{0})= Ψ(φ_{0}+ n2π) .
Here the choice of φ_{0} characterizes the solution. This condition quantizes the energy. Normally only the value n=1 is possible.
 The manyvaluedness/discontinuity of V(φ) does not produce problems if the condition
Ψ(φ_{0},t)=Ψ(φ_{0}+ n2π,t) =0 , & 0<t<T .
is satisfied. Schrödinger equation would be continuous at φ=φ_{0}+n2π. The values of φ_{0} would correspond to a continuous state basis.
 One would have two boundary conditions expected to fix the solution completely for given values of n and φ_{0}. The solutions corresponding to different values of φ_{0} are not related by a rotation since V(φ) is not invariant under rotations. One obtains infinite number of continous solution families labelled by n and they correspond to different phases if h_{eff} is different from them.
The connection with WKB approximation and Airy functions
Stationary Schrödinger equation with constant force appears in WKB approximation and follows from a linearization of the potential function at nonstationary point. A good example is Schröndinger equation for a particle in the gravitational field of Earth. The solutions of this equation are Airy functions which appear also in the electrodynamical model for rainbow.
 The standard form for the Schrödnger equation in stationary case is obtained using the following change of variables
u+e= kφ , k^{3}=2τ I/hbar^{2} , e=2IE/hbar^{2}k^{2} .
One obtains Airy equation
d^{2}Ψ/du^{2} uΨ =0 .
The eigenvalue of energy does not appear explicitly in the equation. Boundary conditions transform to
Ψ(u_{0}+ n2π k )= Ψ(u_{0}) =0 .
 In nonstationary case the change of variables is
u= kφ , k^{3}=2τ I/hbar^{2} , v=(hbar^{2}k^{2}/2I)× t
One obtains
d^{2}Ψ/du^{2} uΨ =i∂_{v} Ψ .
Boundary conditions are
Ψ(u+ kn2π,v )= Ψ(u,v) , 0 ≤ v≤ hbar^{2}k^{2}/2I× T .
An interesting question is what h_{eff}=n× h means? Should one replace h with h_{eff}=nh as the condition that the spectrum of angular momentum remains unchanged requires. One would have k ∝ n^{2/3} ja e∝ n^{4/3}. One would obtain boundary conditions nonlinear with respect to n.
Connection with living matter
The constant torque  or more generally nonoscillatory generalized force in some compact degrees of freedom  requires of a continual energy feed to the system. Continual energy feed serves as a basic condition for selforganization and for the evolution of states studied in nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Biology represents a fundamental example of this kind of situation. The energy feeded to the system represents metabolic energy and ADPATP process loads this energy to ATP molecules. Also now constant torque is involved: the ATP synthase molecule contains the analog of generator having a rotating shaft. Since metabolism and the generation of large h_{eff} phases are very closely related in TGD Universe, the natural proposal is that the rotating shaft forces the generation of large h_{eff} phases.
For details and background see the chapter
Macroscopic quantum coherence and quantum metabolism as different sides of the same coin: part II" of "Biosystems as Conscious Holograms".
For detals and background see the chapter Macroscopic quantum coherence and quantum metabolism as different sides of the same coin: Part II for details.

A general model for metabolism
The general strategy in attempts to understand metabolism is based on the assumption that a very large class of anomalous phenomena rely on same basic mechanism. This includes life as a phenomenon, water memory and homeopathy, free energy phenomena involving overunity phenomena related to the dissociation of water, lightning and ball lightning, anomalous effects associated with rotating magnetic systems, phenomena related to UFOs (light balls), even remote mental interactions. One must have a unified explanation for all these phenomena based on a real theory.
Plasmoid as primitive life form would the underlying connecting thread between these phenomena so that all the listed phenomena would involve life and prebiotic (or possibly postbiotic!) life. This gives very strong constraints on the model. Plasmoid should consists of the analogs of linear biomolecules, it should metabolize and communicate, in TGD Universe it should have magnetic body, and even genetic code might be realized. In particular, the simplified analog of biological metabolism would be at work. In living matter photosynthesis relies on the splitting of water whereas cell respiration relies on the reversal of this process producing carbon dioxide and water. Something very similar should happen in free energy systems involving electrolysis, and the fact that water splitting occurs also in several free energy phenomena suggests that these processes are analogous to photosynthesis and store energy to "molecules" analogous to various linear biomolecules, in particular sugars. Even the counterpart of ADPATP process might be realized.
TGD suggests a very general model for the metabolism of prebiotic systems (or postbiotic ones:the identification depends on what general vision about evolution is adopted) identifed as plasmoids consisting of cyclic linear structures formed by exotic water molecules. For a dark water molecule one proton would be dark and dark protons of the neighboring exotic water molecules would bind to form a linear structure identifiable as dark nucleus: this picture is a direct generalization of nuclear string model (see this, this, and this). These linear structures would define the analogs of linear biomolecules. This metabolism would be more fundamental than ordinary biochemical metabolism and form a yet unkown part of the latter. One cannot exclude the possibility that also other than water molecules contain dark protons: the signature would be the presence of apparently unallowed covalent bonds due to the fact the dark proton is not visible. In the following I will discuss the basic principles involved.
1. Three possible models for liberation of metabolic energy
One can imagine three different models for the liberation of metabolic energy.
 The simplest TGD based model is as a phase transition increasing the value of padic prime p assignable to the spacetime sheet at which particle is topologically condensed:
 Particle "drops" to a larger spacetime sheet with larger padic prime p_{1} with p_{1}/p≈ 2^{k}. The problem is that different particles need not drop simultaneously so that coherent liberation of energy is not automatic consequence of the assumption.
 The spacetime sheet itself suffers a phase transition increasing its padic length scale. In absence of interactions (particles in box) the energies are scaled down by factor 2^{k} and the difference is liberated as usable energy. Coherent liberation of energy is achieved automatically. If the particle insider the spacetime sheet is free in good approximation a model as particle in box applies, and if the expansion of the spacetime sheet takes place adiabatically, the quantum numbers characterizing the state of the particle do not change in the transition. As a consequence, the energy E = k∑_{i} n_{i}^{2}hbar^{2}/2mL_{p}^{2} is reduced as L_{p} ∝ p^{1/2} increases to L_{p1}, where p_{1}/p≈ 2^{k} holds true. The difference of vacuum energies is liberated as usable energy in coherent manner: this is of special significance in living systems. This has led to the identification of padic length scales that would correspond to fundamental metabolic quantum with value about .5 eV. Entire hierarchy of metabolic quanta is predicted.
 The spacetime sheet could also carry magnetic energy and particles are expected to be in cyclotron states and perhaps form a cyclotron BoseEinstein condensate. In this case the phase transition reduces the value of B but preservers the magnetic flux so that B→ B/2^{k}, p_{1}/p≈ 2^{k}, takes place. This scales down the energies of cyclotron states by the same scaling factor 2^{k} as in the case of free particle. The liberated energy is in good approximation just the cyclotron energy for large enough values of k. Coherence is achieved automatically. The value of the fundamental metabolic energy quantum and the value of endogenous magnetic field of about B_{end}=.2 Gauss deduced from the experiments of Blackman and others fix the value of h_{eff}. It would be proportional to particle mass number A.
 The earlier model for the liberation of cyclotron energy was based on the assumption that the value of B is not changed but that the value of magnetic quantum number n changed. If n is reduced one achieves liberation of energy. Coherence of the transition might produce problems now. Both models can explain the observations of Blackman and others concerning the effects of ELF radiation on vertebrate brain since the spectrum of photons energies inducing effects correspond to cyclotron energies for the latter option and in excellent approximation to it for the previous model. The mechanism is however quite different.
This phase transition for the larger spacetime sheet can take place in two steps.
 First a phase transition increasing h_{eff} of the background spacetime sheet by n=2^{k} occurs. This leaves ZPKE invariant but scales up the size of the spacetime sheet by 2^{k/2}. The interpretation would be as "electric expansion" of Brown's gas. No energy transfer takes place since both kinetic and magnetic energies are invariant under the scaling of hbar. Note however than in the original situation the magnetic field can be very strong so that zooming up from microscopic scales can happen.
 After this a phase transition reducing Planck constant back to h but increasing padic length scale by 2^{k} occurs. The size scale of the background spacetime sheet is not affected but the zero point kinetic energy is reduced by factor 2^{k} and liberated as usable energy. This phase transition would take place for the dark component of Brown's gas in the melting of the metal and other similar phenomena. Also the liberation of metabolic energy in living matter could correspond to this phase transition.
This model for electric expansion, implosion, and energy liberation assumes nothing about the particles involved since dark particle means ordinary particle topologically condensed on dark spacetime sheet and having wave function delocalized in the nsheeted structure. For instance, water can be dark in this sense. One could indeed consider the possibility that the vapour phase identified as charged water cluster is just water containing positive ions H^{3}_{+} or protons and electrons and that phase transition to large hbar phase expands the spacetime sheet at which water is topologically condensed at evaporates the water. Ordinary liquid to gas transition could proceed in the same manner and involve liberation of ZPKE at the second step of the process. In the general case the binding energy involved with the formation of the denser phase could compensate for the energy gain in the increase of the padic prime so that the melting would require energy feed.
2. Model for the building bricks of plasmoids
I have already earlier discussed a model for dark proton sequences as primitive life forms. The observation discussed by Moray B. King inspired a more detailed formulation of the model of plasmoids identified as primitive life forms in TGD framework.
 The key observation was that the model for dark nuclei (see this and this), in particular dark proton, predicts counterparts of DNA, RNA, tRNA, and aminoacids and also vertebrate genetic code follows naturally. This together with nuclear string model led to the vision that life appears already at the level of dark variants of nuclei. The observed anomalous H_{1.5}O stoichiometry of water in attosecond scale supports the view that dark protons appear in ordinary water.
 This model was first introduced to explain water memory and homeopathy. The basic idea was that the process creating homeopathic remedy induces the analog of molecular evolution for the dark proton sequences, which in turn provide representations for the molecules appearing in environment. These representations would be fundamental also for the functioning of immune system of living matter. The dark life could provide R&D laboratory for living matter allowing to test say various gene candidates and transcribe them to ordinary biological DNAs if they are successful in the virtual model world. Evolution would not be random but directed just as evolution of technologies.
 The latest step in the process (see this) was the proposal that cell membranes involve dark proton sequences providing a representation of dark DNA and connected by magnetic flux tubes to the units of DNA in genome. These two DNA representations would be identical. Quite generally, dark and ordinary biomolecules might be connected by magnetic flux tubes.
This picture does not yet provide model for the metabolism of the building bricks of plasmoids. Something very much analogous to the splitting of sugars to carbon dioxide and water is however expected. Since carbon is not present now, this leaves only the option that the linear dark structures are nothing but exotic form of water for which the proton of one hydrogen atom of each water molecule is dark. These dark protons would combine by strong interactions to a nuclear string and OH groups would be attached to them. The cyclic analog of DNA, RNA, or aminoacid realizing genetic code would be the outcome. The stoichiometry H_{1.5}O observed in attosecond time scale would be achieved in average sense if the portions of exotic and dark water are same. The prediction is that dark water is heavier than ordinary water: the molecular weight would correspond to average length of the dark water cycle. This is consistent with the observations about Brown's gas.
Plasmoid should also possess a magnetic body. This requires a currents rotating along the cyclic structures. The obvious identification of the current is as dark supra currents assignable to dark protons so that the building bricks of plasmoid would be analogous to superconducting rings.
3. Model for the metabolism of plasmoids
The proposed dark analogs of basic biomolecules would be created through the analog of photosynthesis involving the splitting of water to H + OH followed by H→ H_{dark} and by recombination to a sequence of dark water molecules. The process would be analogous to translation of mRNA to aminoacids and could proceed by an analogous mechanism. The process would be spontaneous since the energy of cyclotron states would not change in h→ h_{eff}= 2^{k}× h.
Metabolic energy would be liberated in the decay of the exotic water back to water with h_{eff}=h and padic prime scaled by about 2^{k}. This process is completely analogous to the splitting of various linear biomolecules in metabolism in order to obtain metabolic energy. This process would explain the ability of cool Brown's gas to melt metal for instance. When fossil fuels are used, the outcome is carbon dioxide and water. Now only water is obtained so that this form of free energy might not contribute to the warming of environment.
The process differs from ZPE in that it does not provide any endless source of energy. Since water is in practice an unlimited natural resource, this shold not be a problem. A closed cycle at the level of visible matter is obtained only if the reverse phase transition transforming the water with h_{eff}=h and padic prime p_{1}≈ 2^{k/2}p to that with h_{eff}=2^{k}× h and padic prime p takes place spontaneously.
The irradiation with carrier frequency f_{h} and modulation frequency f_{l} such that one has f_{l}/f_{h}= 2^{k} is one possibility which I have proposed. Dark solar radiation at magnetic flux tubes with magnetic field B_{end}=.2 Gauss (guess from the experiments of Blackman; also many other values can be considered) could provide automatically the needed pulsed radiation inducing the phase transition. The most optimistic option is that this transition occurs even in the case of closed system in which water circulates.
Before attempting to identify reasonable candidates for f_{l} and f_{h} it is useful to consider estimates for h_{eff}/h=2^{k}. Note that this assumption might be too strong: the vision about evolution as emergence of number theoretical complexity suggests that so called Fermat integers defining polygons, which are constructible using ruler and compass, define favored values of h_{eff}/h=n (see this). These integers are expressible as products of different Fermat primes F_{n}= 2^{2k}+1 and power of 2. The known Fermat primes correspond to k= 0,1,2,3,4 and are 3,5,17,257,65537. Only the two lowest ones differ significantly from power of two.This raises the question whether also the scale hierarchies 3^{1/2}L(k), 5^{1/2}L(k), and 15^{1/2}L(k) are important besides padic length scale hierarchy L(k)= 2^{k/2}R_{CP2}. They could be associated with the algebraic extensions of padic numbers involving 3^{1/2} and5^{1/2}.
 The condition that cold nuclear fusion is possible via the TGD based mechanism requires dark variant of weak interactions corresponds to scaled up padic length scale of order atomic size. The condition that weak bosons are effectively massless in atomic length scale gives one estimate for h_{eff}/h. The condition that weak scale characterized by M_{89} is increased to that characterized by M_{127} gives h_{eff}/h=2^{48}≈ 2.8× 10^{14}.
 Second estimate for h_{eff}/h follows from the condition that cyclotron energy for given charged particle is of the order of metabolic energy quantum. For proton B_{end}=.2 Gauss gives f_{c}=300 Hz. The energy is about .5 eV for h_{eff}/h= 1.37×10^{14} rather near to h_{eff}/h= 2^{47} which is by a factor of 1/2 smaller than the previous estimate. It is however clear that the estimates are internally consistent: skeptic would see this as a pure accident and someone taking anthropic principle seriously as an outcome of evolution in very general sense. Note that for electron the metabolic energy quantum would be about 938 eV suggesting that keV energy scale assignable to the dark weak interactions has its own metabolic energy quantum.
For ion of mass number A and ionization z the value producing the same value of metabolic quantum is A/z× 1.37× 10^{14}. An alternative assumption is a hierarchy of metabolic quanta coming as z/A multiples of the fundamental metabolic energy quantum for a fixed value of h_{eff}/h. The condition that the metabolic energy quantum is above thermal energy of photon at physiological temperature for which peak wavelength for blackbody radiation corresponds to energy of .13 eV. This gives A/z≤ .5/.13=3.84. The estimate is too stringent since Ca^{++} with A/z=20 should allow metabolic energy quantum above the thermal energy. This suggests that h_{eff}/h characterizes given ion and that its multiples coming as power of two are allowed.
 For h_{eff}/h=n=2^{kdark} with k_{dark} ∈ {47,48} dark electron would have padic length scale L(k), k=127+ d_{dark}∈ [174,175]. This corresponds to a Compton length l_{c}∈ [28,4] μm. That this corresponds to the size scale of cell gives additional support for the vision. Note also that for electron the size scale of CD identified as secondary padic time scale associated with M_{127}=2^{127}1 corresponds to .1 seconds, which defines a fundamental biorhythm. Proton Compton length would be scaled to the range [15,21] nm (10 nm defines the thickness of the cell membrane) and light current quarks with energy of 520 MeV to the size scale of cell nucleus.
A reasonable guess is that the candidates for f_{h} and f_{l} should satisfy the condition f_{h}/f_{l}=2^{k}, k=47 or k=48. f_{h} can be deduced from the estimate for h_{eff}.
 Schumann frequency 7.8 Hz is the first candidate for the modulating frequency. This would give UV frequency f_{h}≈ 1.1 × 10^{15} Hz corresponding to energy of 9.7 eV for k=47, which corresponds to the energy scale for covalent bonds. The energy scale of hydrogen atom is 13.6 eV.
 For the cyclotron frequency of DNA (which depends only weakly on the length of the DNA sequence due to the constant charge density per unit length) of about 1 Hz (the frequency of heart beat) one would obtain f_{h}=1.4× 10^{14} Hz for k=47, which corresponds to energy of 1.4 eV and is just below the visible range starting around 1.65 eV. The scaling of this energy by 3^{1/2}/2, 5^{1/2}/4, and15^{1/2}/4. For k=48 the energy would be to 3.3 eV, which is quite near to the UV end 3.36 eV of visible portion of spectrum. Again one can ask whether just accidents are in question.
Allowing the generalization of the padic length scale hypothesis one obtains 7 photon energies in the visible range corresponding to the scalings of 1.4 eV by [3^{1/2}/2, 5^{1/2}/4, 5^{1/2}/2, , 15^{1/2}/4, 3^{1/2}, 2, 3^{1/2}/8,5^{1/2}] giving E/eV= [1.71, 1.57, 2.21, 1.91, 2.42, 2.71, 2.80, 3.13]. Note that 2 eV corresponds to red light and metabolic energy quantum of .50 eV to k=51. An interesting question is whether these special frequencies relate to the peak wave lengths for color vision.
A macroscopic variant of photosynthesis using the possibly existing dark photons at the flux tubes of B_{end}=.2 Gauss can be imagined. The flux tubes of B_{end} could correspond to those of B_{E} with nominal value .5 Gauss if a weakening of the field value takes place inside living matter. Note that in case of h_{eff}/h∼ 10^{14} this field value would correspond to about 10^{10} Tesla for the ordinary value of hbar (a field strengths assignable to supernovas!) and assignable to electron Compton scale.
The sequences of these two phase transitions involved with dark metabolism would be very much analogous to ..ATPADPATP... "Karma's cycle". There is also a strong analogy with breathing and even sleepwakeup cycle and longer biorhythms. pAdic fractality forces to ask whether all these rhythms involve the same dark metabolic cycle but in different scales. Increase of h_{eff} indeed corresponds to an increase of "IQ" in TGD inspired theory of consciousness and its reduction to its lowering. This could quite concretely correspond the experience of becoming tired. There is also a close analogy with the state function reduction sequence in ZEO. State function reductions occur alternatively at the opposite boundaries of causal diamond (CD) of given scale and I have proposed an interpretation in terms of generalized sleepawake cycles.
4. Does dark biology represent pre or postbiotic evolution?
The discovery of dark proton realization of genetic codons (see this and this) was an accident and I am still puzzled about whether the vertebrate genetic code can really emerge from dark nuclear physics or is it only a curiosity or self deception. The first interpretation for the dark code is as a code associated with prebiotic evolution (see this). This is suggested by the enormous simplicity for the analogs of counterparts of linear biomolecules, and the fact that the utilization of metabolic energy means that these "molecules" decay to ordinary water. In this view life would have migrated from dark spacetime sheets to visible spacetime sheets. This higher level life would be gradually migrating to lower levels in the hierarchy and taking visible matter to its control and that biological evolution represents a step in this process.
There are however some objections against this view. The dark code corresponds to vertebrate code, which can be seen as an outcome of along genetic evolution. There are also other codes, which are less perfect (see the chapter of "Genes and Memes" representing a number theoretic approach to genetic code). For instance, the meaning of the codeword is context dependent for some codons and Peter Gariaev has proposed that this context dependence is a more general phenomenon. One would expect that prebiotic code is much simpler than genetic code and I have considered a model for how genetic code might have emerged from more primitive codes with 4 and 16 code words as a "product code" (see this).
These objections inspire the question whether life could migrate from lower to higher scales. The dark genetic code would in this framework correspond to the emergence of a new level in evolution  perhaps identifiable as cultural evolution. This would explain why dark variant of the genetic code corresponds to vertebrate code. One could also solve Fermi paradox (see this) due to the fact that no signs of intelligent life have been observed in cosmos and probabilistic estimate suggests that cosmos is full of life. The answer could be very simple: in some stage the civilization transforms to dark matter invisible to us! The civilizations are there but living on magnetic flux quanta and probably communicate with us telepathically. The higher evolutionary level would also conform with the fact that the spatial and temporal scales of consciousness are much longer than for the consciousness assignable to visible manner. This could allow also to understand the mystery of crop circles. To my opinion many of them are genuine, and the interpretation as some kind of cognitive representations analogous to those realized in brain is highly suggestive. Certainly these representations would represent mental images of conscious entities, which are at higher evolutionary level than us kenociteallb/crop1,crop2.
Many great leaps in evolution have occurred via crisis periods involving extinction. Could it be that gradual transition to dark matter based life could be begin as a response to the recent crises of human kind? The gradual transition of life to the dark matter level would indeed solve the energy problem by coupling us to the energy sources assignable to the dark matter hierarchy at various magnetic bodies. It would also solve the problem caused by the climate warming if it is indeed is due to the liberation of CO_{2} as fossil fuels are used. The dark matter "molecules" as analogs of biomolecules and hydrocarbons would produce only water when used.
See the chapter Macroscopic quantum coherence and quantum metabolism as different sides of the same coin: Part II for details.
About Concrete Realization of Remote Metabolism
The idea of remote metabolism  or quantum credit card as I have also called it  emerged for more than decade ago and zero energy ontology (ZEO) provides justification for it. The idea is that the system needing energy sends negative energy to a system able to receive the negative energy and make a transition to a lower energy state. This kind of mechanism would be ideal for biology, where rapid reactions to a changing environment are essential for survival and there is no time for sending a request for energy.
The model of remote metabolism is applied to biology. It is shown that the basic notions of the theory of Ling about cell metabolism inspired by various anomalies have natural counterparts in TGD based model relying on the notion of magnetic body. Remote metabolism can be considered as a completely general mechanism of metabolism with magnetic body of ATP or system containing it carrying the metabolic energy and sucked from it by the user. In particular, the role of ATP is discussed in Ling's theory and from the point of view of TGD inspired theory of consciousness.
It is easy to imagine new technologies relying on negative energy signals propagating to the geometric past and ZEO justifies these speculations. Remote metabolism could make possible a new kind of energy technology making it unnecessary to carry fuel. The discoveries of Tesla made more than century ago plus various free energy anomalies provide excellent material for developing these ideas, and one ends up with a concrete proposal for how dark photons and dark matter could be produced in capacitor like systems analogous to cell membranes and acting as Josephson junctions and how energy could be sucked from "large" magnetic bodies.
The model identifies Josephson frequency with the subharmonic of the frequency characterizing the periodicity of a periodic voltage perturbation assumed to correspond to cyclotron frequency in biological applications. Together with quantization conditions for charge and effective Planck constant leads to precise quantitative predictions for capacitor like systems acting as dark capacitors. Also a relationship between the magnetic field at magnetic body of the system and the voltage of the capacitor like Josephson junction emerges.
The predictions allow new quantitative insights about biological evolution as emergence of Josephson junctions realized as capacitor like systems both at the level of cell, DNA and proteins, and brain. h_{eff} can be related to Josephson frequency and cyclotron frequency and thus to measurable parameters. h_{eff} serves as a kind of intelligence quotient and its maximization requires the maximization of both the voltage and area of the membrane like capacitor system involved. This is what has happened during evolution. Indeed, the internal cell membranes, cortical layers and of DNA double strand in chromosomes are strongly folded, and the value of membrane electric field is roughly twice the value of the electric field for which dielectric breakdown occurs in air. Even 40 Hz thalamocortical resonance frequency can be understood in the framework of model.
The properties of Tesla's "cold electricity" suggest strongly interpretation in terms of dark matter in TGD sense. This leads to a proposal that a transition to dark phase occurs when the value of voltage equals to the rest mass of charged particle involved. This criterion is generalizes to the case of cell membrane and relates the values of h_{eff}, padic prime p, and threshold potential for various charged particles to each other. The idea that nerve pulse corresponds to the breakdown of superconductivity as a transition from dark to ordinary phase receives additional support. The resulting picture conforms surprisingly well with the earlier speculations involving dark matter and padically scaled variants of weak and color interactions in biologically relevant length scales. An extremely simple mechanism producing ATP involving only the kicking of two protonic Cooper pairs through the cell membrane by Josephson photon is proposed. Also the proposal that neutrino Cooper pairs could be highly relevant not only for cognition and but also metabolism finds support.
See the new chapter About Concrete Realization of Remote Metabolism for details.

After a work of more than decade after the realisation that homeopathy might be understood in TGD Universe, I still find that I have not given an absolutely convincing answer to the question "What is the exact mechanism of homeopathy?". The basic rules is that "like cures alike". Why should this be the case? Let us go our arguments through once again.
 Certainly the imprinting of water using molecules causing the illness  call these molecules just I for brevity  must be an essential part of the healing mechanism. The imprinting means imprinting of water with some frequencies in the low frequency spectrum of I. The TGD inspired idea is that the magnetic body of appropriate water cluster or even dark nucleon sequence representing DNA sequence, call this entity I^{*}, is able to mimic I in the sense that its cyclotron frequency spectrum is same.
 This in turn strongly suggests that the molecules in the organism to be healed  call them P  have a long range interaction with molecules I induced by dark photons with cyclotron frequencies but having energies above thermal threshold. The interaction involves a formation of a magnetic flux tube accompanied by a parallel topological light ray/ "massless extremal" (ME) along which dark photons at specific resonance frequencies propagate and induce resonant interaction between P and I. Thus both the formation of flux tube bridge and the resonant interaction made possible by it, would be essential for the homeopathic healing to take place. In fact, in TGD inspired theory of consciousness, the formation of resonating flux tube connections makes possible the quantum coherence for the combined system I+P and serves as a correlate for attention between I and P.
 The presence of the entities I^{*} able to mimic the cyclotron frequency spectrum of I and forming resonant flux tube bonds with molecules H is however not enough to explain the healing effect (I have already considered some answers but they do not convince me). To understand this, one must be able to understand how I causes the illness. The answer of the standard medicine is that the mechanism is chemical and thus requires contact interaction between I and P. It is easy to believe this. Standard medicine also tells that in order to prevent the chemical interaction between I and P , one must use some medicine molecules M, preventing this chemical interaction. It is easy to believe also this.
In TGD Universe there is indeed a very natural mechanism preventing the chemical interaction between I and P. The reduction of the value of the effective Planck constant associated with the flux tubes connecting I and P leads to a contraction of the flux tube length (proportional to hbar_{eff}). This indeed makes possible a chemical contact interaction between both I and P causing the illness. In fact, I have proposed this mechanism as a completely general mechanism of catalyst action allowing biomolecules to find each other in the the dense biomolecular soup. But this holds true also for I^{*} and P! Using terms of "molecular psychology" , the entities I^{*} mimicking I steal the attention of molecules P so that molecules I cannot cause the illness anymore!
This indeed looks extremely simple and natural and thus also convincing. What is important is that the proposed mechanism is not in conflict with standard medicine: it only makes possible the miracles of biochemistry and provides a completely new mechanism of healing. It is easy to imagine that a new kind of medicine using only water imprinted by the cyclotron frequency spectra of molecules responsible for the illness. This medicine would be completely free of the negative basically chemical  side effects of the ordinary drugs. This mechanism would also use all the knowledge gained by ordinary biochemistry based medicine: if the relevant molecule I is known, it can be used to imprint water to get I^{*}.
Also the effect of vaccines could rely on the "like cures alike" mechanism albeit in different form. Now the molecules or organisms  call them just B  causing the disease would be injected directly into the body rather than water. Water memory could give rise to a mimicry of B:s and give rise to primitive immunity. A more refined mechanism proposed earlier would involve dark DNA mimicking B:s and translating to ordinary DNA sequences coding for proteins able to catch B:s by the same flux tube mechanism.
The proposed mechanism of homeopathic healing leaves open the exact mechanism behind the cyclotron mimicry. The entities I^{*} could be water clusters with magnetic bodies mimicking those of I, they could be water clusters which have stolen the magnetic bodies of I, or they could be even dark DNA accompanying water molecules and able to mimic I. Of course, the least science fictive option is that the possibly existing dark DNA couples only with ordinary DNA by the flux tube mechanism.
The interpretation of biophotons as decay products of dark photons in energy conserving phase transition hbar_{eff}→ hbar suggests that the dark photons involved with the communications have rather large value of hbar_{eff} given by hbar_{eff}=f_{h}/f_{l}. The simplest working hypothesis is that dark photons have same energy spectrum as biophotons. The prediction would be that biophoton spectrum from a homeopathic remedy  in particular its fluctuations  should correlate with the spectrum of the cyclotron frequencies. A weaker hypothesis is that the energies of dark photons are above thermal energy at physiological temperature.
For background see the chapter Homeopathy in ManySheeted Spacetime.

Science News tells about a finding that transplanted eyes located far outside the head of vertebrate can see without a direct connection to brain. The connection to spine is however present.
The experimenters surgically removed donor embryo eye primordia, marked them with fuorescent proteins, and grafted them into the posterior region of recipient embryos. This induced the growth of the ectopic eyes. The natural eyes of recipients were removed. Fluorescent spectroscopy revealed the natural innervation patterns but none of the animals developed connections to brain.
To determine whether the animals having only ectopic eyes could see the training system was divided to quadrants of water illuminated by either red or blue LED light, and experimenters gave slight electric shocks in a particular quadrant. What was found that about 19 per cent of animals with optic nerves connected to the spine learned to avoid the quadrant in which they received electric shocks.
What experiments show that it is possible to see without neural connections to brain. The question is whether only the spinal cord or also the brain was involved with the learning. Probably neuroscientist could immediately answer this question but for an innocent layman like me the answer is far from obvious. Experimenters seem to think that brain is involved. As Douglas J. Blackinston, the first author of the paper "Ectopic Eyes Outside the Head in Xenopus Tadpoles Provide Sensory Data For LightMediated Learning," in the February 27 issue of the Journal of Experimental Biology, states "Here, our research reveals the brain's remarkable ability, or plasticity, to process visual data coming from misplaced eyes, even when they are located far from the head."
If brain is involved and the learned response is not a mere reflex involving only the spine, there must be information transfer to brain  perhaps along spine  but not as nerve pulses.
In TGD framework these findings inspire several questions.
 Does the ability to see colors mean that visual colors are perceived at the level of retina rather than brain? The phenomenon of phantom limb supports strongly the standard view that various qualia emerge at the level of brain. On the other hand, the almostprediction of TGD inspired theory of consciousness is that the primary sensory percept  and therefore also color qualia  can be assigned with the sensory organs. In TGD framework brain and body are 4dimensional so that the pain in nonexisting limb would be pain in the real limb of the geometric past.
Brain would build cognitive representations  standardized mental images  about the sensory input by decomposing the perceptive field to objects. Brain would of course induce also motor response by associating to these standardized mental images motor actions.
 In order to build standardized mental images brain would generate feedback as a virtual sensory input to the sensory receptors. Virtual sensory input would be realized using what I have called dark photons having "topological light rays" as spacetime correlates and assignable to the magnetic flux tubes connecting body parts together. Two new notions are involved: magnetic body  the primary intentional agent  and the signalling using photons, which are dark in the sense that they are characterized by a large effective value hbar_{eff} of Planck constant coming as an integer multiple of hbar so that for say energy of visible photon the wavelength can be much longer than micrometer.
 It has of course known for a long time that EEG carries precise information about the state of brain, and the natural question is why so? Magnetic body must receive data from biological body and the hypothesis is that EEG and its variants and possible scaled variants of EEG involving dark photons with large enough value of Planck constant to make their energies higher than thermal energy make this communications possible. Dark photons would be assigned to what I have used to call "topological light rays" assignable to magnetic flux tubes. The basic functions of EEG would therefore be communication to and control by magnetic body.
For instance, quite recent experiment involved two rats as model animals. The first rat learned to press one of the two levers in response to a light signal over the correct level to get the reward. Second rat received the EEG response of the first rat and learned to respond in the same manner on basis of this response only so that this sensory response served as a virtual sensory or cognitive input for it.
Magnetic body would generate also motor response using brain as a control instrument. Is the motor response in the recent case a kind of reflex action using only spine? Or are brain and magnetic body involved? Certainly the magnetic body could use brain as an intermediate control instrument. How much of the plasticity usually assigned with brain is actually flexibility of the magnetic body? And who is learning: is it brain or the magnetic body?
 The communication using dark photons and the presence of magnetic body would make possible the participation of also brain to the learning process. For instance, the communication from the ectopic eye to brain could utilize quantum coherent dark photons travelling along the route ectopic eye → appropriate layer of magnetic body → brain. One can imagine also a dark photon communication along magnetic flux tubes parallel to spine.
For background see the chapter General Theory of Qualia.
