What's new inMathematical Aspects of Consciousness?Note: Newest contributions are at the top! 
Year 2007 
DNA as topological quantum computer: IXIn previous postings I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII I have discussed various aspects of the idea that DNA could acts as a topological quantum computer using fundamental braiding operation as a universal 2gate. There are several grand visions about TGD Universe. One of them is as a topological quantum computer in a very general sense. This kind of visions are always oversimplifications but the extreme generality of the braiding mechanism suggest that also simpler systems than DNA might be applying tqc. The detailed model for tqc performed by DNA indeed leads to the idea that so called water memory could be realized in terms of braidings. A. Braid strands as flux tubes of color magnetic body The flux tubes defining braid strands carry magnetic field when the supra current is on. In TGD Universe all classical fields are expressible in terms of the four CP_{2} coordinates and their gradients so that em, weak, color and gravitational fields are not independent as in standard model framework. In particular, the ordinary classical em field is necessarily accompanied by a classical color field in the case of nonvacuum extremals. This predicts color and ew fields in arbitrary long scales and quantum classical correspondence forces to conclude that there exists fractal hierarchy of electroweak and color interactions. Since the classical color gauge field is proportional to Kähler form, its holonomy group is Abelian so that effectively U(1)× U(1)subset SU(3) gauge field is in question. The generation of color flux requires colored p"../articles/ at the ends of color flux tube so that the presence of pairs of quark and antiquark assignable to the pairs of wormhole throats at the ends of the tube is unavoidable if one accepts quantum classical correspondence. In the case of cell, a highly idealized model for color magnetic flux tubes is as flux tubes of a dipole field. The preferred axis could be determined by the position of the centrosomes forming a T shaped structure. DNA strands would define the idealized dipole creating this field: DNA is indeed negatively charged and electronic currents along DNA could create the magnetic field. The flux tubes of this field would go through nuclear and cell membrane and return back unless they end up to another cell. This is indeed required by the proposed model of tqc. It has been assumed that the initiation of tqc means that the supra current ceases and induces the splitting of braid strands. The magnetic flux need not however disappear completely. As a matter fact, its presence forced by the conservation of magnetic flux seems to be crucial for the conservation of braiding. Indeed, during tqc magnetic and color magnetic flux could return from lipid to DNA along another spacetime sheet at a distance of order CP_{2} radius from it. For long time ago I proposed that this kind of structures which I christened "wormhole magnetic fields"  might play key role in living matter. The wormhole contacts having quark and antiquark at their opposite throats and coding for A, T, C, G would define the places where the current flows to the "lower" spacetime sheet to return back to DNA. Quarks would also generate the remaining magnetic field and supra current could indeed cease. The fact that classical em fields and thus classical color fields are always present for nonvacuum extremals means that also the motion of any kind of p"../articles/ (spacetime sheets), say water flow, induces a braiding of magnetic flux tubes associated with molecules in water if the temporary splitting of flux tubes is possible. Hence the prerequisites for tqc are met in extremely general situation and tqc involving DNA could have developed from a much simpler form of tqc performed by water giving perhaps rise to what is known as water memory (see this, this and this). This would also suggest that the braiding operation is induced by the a controlled flow of cellular water. B. Water memory: general considerations With few exceptions so called "serious" scientists remain silent about the experiments of Benveniste and others relating to water memory (see this, this and this) in order to avoid association with the very ugly word "homeopathy". The Benveniste's discovery of water memory initiated quite dramatic sequence of events. The original experiment involved the homeopathic treatment of water by human antigene. This meant dilution of the water solution of antigene so that the concentration of antigene became extremely low. In accordance with homeopathic teachings human basophils reacted on this solution. The discovery was published in Nature and due to the strong polemic raised by the publication of the article, it was decided to test the experimental arrangement. The experimental results were reproduced under the original conditions. Then it was discovered that experimenters knew which bottles contained the treated water. The modified experiment in which experimenters did not possess this information failed to reproduce the results and the conclusion was regarded as obvious and Benveniste lost his laboratory among other things. Obviously any model of the effect taking it as a real effect rather than an astonishingly simplistic attempt of top scientists to cheat should explain also this finding. The model based on the notion of field body and general mechanism of long term memory allows to explain both the memory of water and why it failed under the conditions described.
C. Water memory in terms of molecular braidings It is interesting to look water memory from the point of view of tqc. Suppose that the molecules and water p"../articles/ (spacetime sheet of size of say cell length scale) are indeed connected by color flux tubes defining the braid strands and that splitting of the braid strands can take place so that water flow can gives rise to a braiding pattern and tqc like process. The shaking of the bottle containing the diluted homeopathic remedy is an essential element in the buildup of water memories also in the experiments of Benveniste. Just like the vigorous flow of sol near the inner monolayer, this process would create a water flow and this flow creates a braiding pattern which could provide a representation for the presence of the molecules in question. Note that the hardware of braiding could carry information about molecules (cyclotron frequencies for ions for instance). The model for the formation of scaled down variants of memories in hippocampus discussed above suggests that each half period of theta rhythm corresponds to tqc followed by a noncomputational period during which the outcome of tqc is expressed as 4D nerve pulse patterns involving cyclotron frequencies and Josephson frequency. Josephson currents at the second half period would generate dark Josephson radiation communicating the outcome of the calculation to the magnetic body. Entire hierarchy of EEGs with varying frequency scale would be present corresponding to the onion like structure of magnetic body. This pattern would provide an electromagnetic representation for the presence of the antigene and could be mimicked artificially [1,2,3]. This picture might apply be the case also in the case of water memory.
D. Why experimenter had to know which bottle contained the treated water? Why experimenter had to know which bottle contained the treated water? The role of experimenter eliminates the possibility that the (magnetic bodies of) clusters of water molecules able to mimic the (magnetic bodies of) antigene molecules electromagnetically are present in the solution at geometric now and produce the effect. The earlier explanation for experimenter's role was based on the idea that memory storage requires metabolic energy and that experimenter provides it. Tqc picture suggests a variant of this model in which experimenter makes possible the recall of memories of water represented as braiding patterns and realized via tqc. D.1 Does experimenter provide the metabolic energy needed to store the memories of water? What could be then the explanation for the failure of the modified experiment? Each memory recall reduces the occupation of the states representing bit 1 and a continual metabolic energy feed is needed to preserve the bit sequence representations of antibodies using laser light systems as bit. This metabolic energy feed must come from some source. By the universality of metabolic energy currencies population inverted manysheeted lasers in living organisms define the most natural source of the metabolic energy. Living matter is however fighting for metabolic energy so that there must be some system willing to provide it. The biological bodies of experimenters are the best candidates in this respect. In this case experimenters had even excellent motivations to provide the metabolic energy. If this interpretation is correct then Benveniste's experiment would demonstrate besides water memory also psychokinesis and direct action of desires of experimenters on physics at microscopic level. Furthermore, the mere fact that we know something about some object or direct attention to it would mean a concrete interaction of our magnetic with the object. D.2 Does experimenter make possible long term memory recall? The alternative explanation is that experimenter makes possible long term memory recall which also requires metabolic energy.
This picture is of course just one possible model and cannot be taken literally. The model however suggest that magnetic bodies of molecules indeed define the braiding; that the generalized EEG provides a very general representation for the outcome of tqc; that liquid flow provides the manner to build tqc programs  and also that shaking and sudden pulses is the concrete manner to induce visibledark phase transitions. All this might be very valuable information if one some day in the distant future tries to build topological quantum computers in laboratory.
E. Little personal reminiscence about flow I cannot resist a temptation to bore the reader with something which I have already told quite too many times. The reason why I started to seriously ponder consciousness was the wonderful experience around 1985 or so, which lasted from week two two  I do not remember precisely. To tell quite honestly and knowing the reactions induced in some hard nosed "serious" scientists: my experience was that I was enlightened. The depth and beauty of this state of consciousness was absolutely stunning and it was very hard to gradually realize that I would not get this state back. To characterize the period of my life which I would without a hesitation choose if I had to select the most important weeks of my life, the psychologist needed only two magic words  acute psychosis. The psychologist had even firmly predicted that I would soon fall in a totally autistic state! This after some routine examinations (walking along straight line and similar tests). What incredible idiots can an uncritical belief on science make of us! This experience made with single stroke clear that in many respects the existing psychology does not differ much from the medicine at middle ages. The benevolent people believing in this trash  modern psychologists  can cause horrible damage and suffering to their patients. As I started serious building of consciousness theory and learned neuroscience and biology, I began to grasp at more general level how insane the vision of the official neuroscience and biology about consciousness was. We laugh for the world view of people of middle ages but equally well they could laugh for our modern views about what we are. Going back to the experience. During it I saw my thoughts as extremely vivid and colorful patterns bringing in mind paintings of Dali and Bosch. What was strange was the continual and very complex flow at the background consisting of separate little dots. I can see this flow also now by closing my eyes lightly when in a calm state of mind. I have proposed many explanations for it and tried to figure out what this flow tries to tell to me. Sounds pompous and a little bit childish in this cynic world, but this is the first time that I dare hope of having understood the deeper message I know is there. References [1] J. Benveniste et al (1988). Human basophil degranulation triggered by very dilute antiserum against IgE. Nature 333:816818. [2] J. Benveniste et al (198?). Transatlantic transfer of digitized antigen signal by telephone link. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 99:S175 (abs.). For recent work about digital biology and further references about the work of Benveniste and collaborators see this . [3] L. Milgrom (2001), Thanks for the memory. An article in Guardian about the work of professor M. Ennis of Queen's University Belfast supporting the observations of Dr. J. Benveniste about water memory. [4] E. Strand (editor) (2007), Proceedings of the 7^{th} European SSE Meeting August 1719, 2007, Röros, Norway. Society of Scientific Exploration. For details see the chapter DNA as Topological Quantum Computer.

DNA as topological quantum computer: VIIIIn previous postings I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII I have discussed various aspects of the idea that DNA could acts as a topological quantum computer using fundamental braiding operation as a universal 2gate. In the following I will consider first the realization of the basic braiding operation: this requires some facts about phospholipids which are summarized first. Also the realization of braid color is discussed. This requires the coding of the DNA color A,T,C,G to a property of braid strand which is such that it is conserved meaning that after halting of tqc only strands with same color can reconnect. This requires long range correlation between lipid and DNA nucleotide. It seems that strand color cannot be chemical. Quark color is essential element of TGD based model of high T_{c} superconductivity and provides a possible solution to the problem: the four neutral quarkantiquark pairs with quark and antiquark at the ends of color flux tube defining braid strand would provide the needed four colors.
A. Some facts about phospholipids Phospholipids  which form about 30 per cent of the lipid content of the monolayer  contain phosphate group. The dance of lipids requires metabolic energy and the hydrophilic ends of the phospholipid could provide it. They could also couple the lipids to the flow of water in the vicinity of the lipid monolayer possibly inducing the braiding. Of course, the causal arrow could be also opposite. The hydrophilic part of the phospholipid is a nitrogen containing alcohol such as serine, inositol or ethanolamine, or an organic compound such as choline. Phospholipids are classified into 3 kinds of phosphoglycerides and sphingomyelin. A.1 Phosphoglycerides In cell membranes, phosphoglycerides are the more common of the two phospholipids, which suggest that they are involved with tqc. One speaks of phosphotidyl X, where X= serine, inositol, ethanolamine is the nitrogen containing alcohol and X=Ch the organic compound. The shorthand notion OS, PI, PE, PCh is used. The structure of the phospholipid is most easily explained using the dancer metaphor. The two fatty chains define the hydrophobic feet of the dancer, glycerol and phosphate group define the body providing the energy to the dance, and serine, inositol, ethanolamine or choline define the hydrophilic head of the dancer (perhaps "deciding" the dancing pattern). There is a lipid asymmetry in the cell membrane. PS, PE, PI in cytoplasmic monolayer (alcohols). PC (organic) and sphingomyelin in outer monolayer. Also glycolipids are found only in the outer monolayer. The asymmetry is due to the manner that the phospholipids are manufactured. PS in the inner monolayer is negatively charged and its presence is necessary for the normal functioning of the cell membrane. It activates protein kinase C which is associated with memory function. PS slows down cognitive decline in animals models. This encourages to think that the hydrophilic polar end of at least PS is involved with tqc, perhaps to the generation of braiding via the coupling to the hydrodynamic flow of cytoplasm in the vicinity of the inner monolayer.
A. 2. Fatty acids The fatty acid chains in phospholipids and glycolipids usually contain an even number of carbon atoms, typically between 14 and 24 making 5 possibilities altogether. The 16 and 18carbon fatty acids are the most common. Fatty acids may be saturated or unsaturated, with the configuration of the double bonds nearly always cis. The length and the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids chains have a profound effect on membranes fluidity as unsaturated lipids create a kink, preventing the fatty acids from packing together as tightly, thus decreasing the melting point (increasing the fluidity) of the membrane. The number of unsaturaded cis bonds and their positions besides the number of Carbon atoms characterizes the lipid. Quite generally, there are 3n Carbons after each bond. The creation of unsatured bond by removing H atom from the fatty acid could be an initiating step in the basic braiding operation creating room for the dancers. The bond should be created on both neighboring lipids simultaneously. B. How the braiding operation could be induced? One can imagine several models for what might happen during the braiding operation in the lipid bilayer. One such view is following.
C. How braid color could be realized? The conserved braid color is not necessary for the model but would imply genetic coding of the tqc hardware so that sexual reproduction would induce an evolution of tqc hardware. Braid color would also make the coupling of foreign DNA to the tqc performed by the organism difficult and realize an immune system at the level of quantum information processing. The conservation of braid color poses however considerable problems. The concentration of braid strands of same color to patches would guarantee the conservation but would restrict the possible braiding dramatically. A more attractive option is that the strands of same color find each other automatically by energy minimization after the halting of tqc. Electromagnetic Coulomb interaction would be the most natural candidate for the interaction in question. Braid color would define a faithful genetic code at the level of nucleotides. It would induce long range correlation between properties of DNA strand and the dynamics of cell immediately after the halting of tqc.
C.1 Chemical realization of color is not plausible The idea that color could be a chemical property of phospholipids does not seem plausible. The lipid asymmetry of the inner and outer monolayers excludes the assignment of color to the hyrdrophilic group PS, PI, PE, PCh. Fatty acids have N=14,...,24 carbon atoms and N=16 and 18 are the most common cases so that one could consider the possibility that the 4 most common feet pairs could correspond to the resulting combinations. It is however extremely difficult to understand how long range correlation between DNA nucleotide and fatty acid pair could be created. C.2 Could quark pairs code for braid color? It seems that the color should be a property of the braid strand. In TGD inspired model of high T_{c} superconductivity (see this) wormhole contacts having u and d_{c} and d and u_{c} quarks at the two wormhole throats feed electron's gauge flux to larger spacetime sheet. The long range correlation between electrons of Cooper pairs is created by color confinement for an appropriate scaled up variant of chromodynamics which are allowed by TGD. Hence the neutral pairs of colored quarks whose members are located the ends of braid strand acting like color flux tube connecting nucleotide to the lipid could code DNA color to QCD color. For the pairs ud_{c} with net em charge the quark and antiquark have same sign of em charge and tend to repel each other. Hence the minimization of electromagnetic Coulomb energy favors the neutral configurations uu_{c}, dd_{c} and uu_{c}, and dd_{c} coding for A, G (say) and their conjugates T and C. After the halting of tqc only these pairs would form with a high probability. The reconnection of the strands would mean a formation of a short color flux tube between the strands and the annihilation of quark pair to gluon. Note that single braid strand would connect DNA color and its conjugate rather than identical colors so that braid strands connecting two DNA strands (conjugate strands) should always traverse through an even (odd) number of cell membranes. For details see the chapter DNA as Topological Quantum Computer.

DNA as topological quantum computer: VIIIn previous postings I, II, III, IV, V, VI I have discussed how DNA topological quantum computation could be realized. If Josephson current through cell membrane ceases during tqc, tqc manifests itself as the presence of only EEG rhythm characterized by an appropriate cyclotron frequency (see posting VI). Synchronous neuron firing might therefore relate to tqc. The original idea that a phase shift of EEG is induced by the voltage initiating tqc  although wrong  was however useful in that it inspired the question whether the initiation of tqc could have something to do with what is known as a place coding by phase shifts performed by hippocampal pyramidal cells (see this and this). Playing with this idea provides important insights about the construction of quantum memories and demonstrates the amazing explanatory power of the paradigm once again. The model also makes explicit important conceptual differences between tqc a la TGD and in the ordinary sense of word: in particular those related to different view about the relation between subjective and geometric time.
1. Empirical findings The place coding by phase shifts was discovered by O'Reefe and Recce. Y. Yamaguchi describes the vision in which memory formation by so called theta phase coding is essential for the emergence of intelligence. It is known that hippocampal pyramidal cells have "place property" being activated at specific "place field" position defined by an environment consisting of recognizable objects serving as landmarks. The temporal change of the percept is accompanied by a sequence of place unit activities. The theta cells exhibit change in firing phase distributions relative to the theta rhythm and the relative phase with respect to theta phase gradually increases as the rat traverses the place field. In a cell population the temporal sequence is transformed into a phase shift sequence of firing spikes of individual cells within each theta cycle. Thus a temporal sequence of percepts is transformed into a phase shift sequence of individual spikes of neurons within each theta cycle along linear array of neurons effectively representing time axis. Essentially a time compressed representation of the original events is created bringing in mind temporal hologram. Each event (object or activity in perceptive field) is represented by a firing of one particular neuron at time τ_{n} measured from the beginning of the theta cycle. τ_{n} is obtained by scaling down the real time value t_{n} of the event. Note that there is some upper bound for the total duration of memory if scaling factor is constant. This scaling down  story telling  seems to be a fundamental aspect of memory. Our memories can even abstract the entire life history to a handful of important events represented as a story lasting only few seconds. This scaling down is thought to be important not only for the representation of the contextual information but also for the memory storage in the hippocampus. Yamaguchi and collaborators have also found that the gradual phase shift occurs at half theta cycle whereas firings at the the other half cycle show no correlation. One should also find an interpretation for this. 2. TGD based interpretation of findings How this picture relates to TGD based 4D view about memory in which primary memories are stored in the brain of the geometric past?
For details see the new chapter DNA as Topological Quantum Computer.

DNA as topological quantum computer: VIIn previous postings I have discussed how DNA topological quantum computation could be realized (see this, this, this , this, and this). A more detailed model for braid strands leads to the understanding of how high T_{c} super conductivity assigned with cell membrane (see this) could relate to tqc. 1. Are spacelike braids Abraids or Bbraids or hybrids of these? If spacelike braid strands are identified as idealized structures obtained from 3D tube like structures by replacing them with 1D strands, one can regard the braiding as a purely geometrical knotting of braid strands. The simplest realization of the braid strand would be as a hollow cylindrical surface connecting conjugate DNA nucleotide to cell membrane and going through 5 and/or 6 cycles associated with the sugar backbone of conjugate DNA nucleotides. The free electron pairs associated with the aromatic cycles would carry the current creating the magnetic field needed. There are two extreme options. For Boption magnetic field is parallel to the strand and vector potential rotates around it. For Aoption vector potential is parallel to the strand and magnetic field rotates around it. The general case corresponds to the hybrid of these options and involves helical magnetic field, vector potential, and current.
Supra currents would have quantized values and are therefore very attractive candidates. The (supra) currents could also bind lipids to pairs so that they would define single dynamical unit in 2D hydrodynamical flow. One can also think that Cooper pairs with electrons assignable to different members of lipid pair bind it to single dynamical unit. 2. Do supra currents generate the magnetic fields? Energetic considerations favor the possibility that supra currents create the magnetic fields associated with the braid strands. Supra current would be created by a voltage pulse Δ V, which gives rise to a constant supra current after it has ceased. Supra current would be destroyed by a voltage pulse of opposite sign. Therefore voltage pulses could define an elegant fundamental control mechanism allowing to select the parts of genome participating to tqc. This kind of voltage pulse could be collectively initiated at cell membrane or at DNA. Note that constant voltage gives rise to an oscillating supra current. Josephson current through the cell membrane would be also responsible for dark Josephson radiation determining that part of EEG which corresponds to the correlate of neuronal activity (see this). Note that TGD predicts a fractal hierarchy of EEGs and that ordinary EEG is only one level in this hierarchy. The pulse initiating or stopping tqc would correspond in EEG to a phase shift by a constant amount Δ Φ= ZeΔ VT/hbar , where T is the duration of pulse and Δ V its magnitude. The contribution of Josephson current to EEG responsible for beta and theta bands interpreted as satellites of alpha band should be absent during tqc and only EEG rhythm would be present. The periods dominated by EEG rhythm should be observed as EEG correlates for problem solving situations (say mouse in a maze) presumably involving tqc. The dominance of slow EEG rhythms during sleep and meditation would have interpretation in terms of tqc. 3. Topological considerations The existence of supra current for A or Bbraid requires that the flow allows a complex phase exp(iΨ) such that supra current is proportional to grad Ψ. This requires integrability in the sense that one can assign to the flow lines of A or B (combination of them in the case of AB braid) a coordinate variable Ψ varying along the flow lines. In the case of a general vector field X this requires grad Ψ= Φ X giving rot X= grad Φ/Φ as an integrability condition. This condition defines what is known as Beltrami flow (see this). The perturbation of the flux tube, which spoils integrability in a region covering the entire cross section of flux tube means either the loss of superconductivity or the disappearance of the net supra current. In the case of the Abraid, the topological mechanism causing this is the increase the dimension of the CP_{2} projection of the flux tube so that it becomes 3D (see this), where I have also considered the possibility that 3D character of CP_{2} projection is what transforms the living matter to a spin glass type phase in which very complex selforganization patterns emerge. This would conform with the idea that in tqc takes place in this phase. For details see the new chapter DNA as Topological Quantum Computer.

DNA as topological quantum computer: VIn previous postings I have discussed how DNA topological quantum computation could be realized (see this, this , this, and this). It is useful to try to imagine how gene expression might relate to the halting of tqc. There are of course myriads of alternatives for detailed realizations, and one can only play with thoughts to build a reasonable guess about what might happen. 1. Qubits for transcription factors and other regulators Genetics is consistent with the hypothesis that genes correspond to those tqc moduli whose outputs determine whether genes are expressed or not. The naive first guess would be that the value of single qubit determines whether the gene is expressed or not. Next guess replaces " is " with " can be". Indeed, gene expression involves promoters, enhancers and silencers (see this). Promoters are portions of the genome near genes and recognized by proteins known as transcription factors. Transcription factors bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, an enzyme that synthesizes RNA. In prokaryotes RNA polymerase itself acts as the transcription factor. For eukaryotes situation is more complex: at least seven transcription factors are involved with the recruitment of the RNA polymerase II catalyzing the transcription of the messenger RNA. There are also transcription factors for transcription factors and transcription factor for the transcription factor itself. The implication is that several qubits must have value "Yes" for the actual expression to occur since several transcription factors are involved with the expression of the gene in general. In the simplest situation this would mean that the computation halts to a measurement of single qubit for subset of genes including at least those coding for transcription factors and other regulators of gene expression.
2. Intronexon qubit Genes would have very many final states since each nucleotide is expected to correspond to at least single qubit. Without further measurements that state of nucleotides would remain highly entangled for each gene. Also these other qubits are expected to become increasingly important during evolution. For instance, eukaryotic gene expression involves a transcription of RNA and splicing out of pieces of RNA which are not translated to aminoacids (introns). Also the notion of gene is known to become increasingly dynamical during the evolution of eukaryotes so that the expressive power of genome increases. A single qubit associated with each codon telling whether it is spliced out or not would allow maximal flexibility. Tqc would define what genes are and the expressive power of genes would be due to the evolution of tqc programs: very much like in the case of ordinary computers. Stopping sign codon and starting codon would automatically tell where the gene begins and ends if the corresponding qubit is "Yes". In this picture the old fashioned static genes of prokaryotes without splicings would correspond to tqc programs for which the portions of genome with a given value of splicing qubit are connected. 3. What about braids between DNA, RNA, tRNA and aminoacids This simplified picture might have created the impression that aminoacids are quantum outsiders obeying classical biochemistry. For instance, transcription factors would in this picture end up to the promoter by a random process and "Print" would only increase the density of the transcription factor. If DNA is able to perform tqc, it would however seem very strange if it would be happy with this rather dull realization of other central functions of the genetic apparatus. One can indeed consider besides dark braids connecting DNA and its conjugate  crucial for the success of replication  also braids connecting DNA to mRNA and other forms of RNA, mRNA to tRNA, and tRNA to aminoacids. These braids would provide the topological realization of the genetic code and would increase dramatically the precision and effectiveness of the transcription and translation if these processes correspond to quantum transitions at the level of dark matter leading more or less deterministically to the desired outcome at the level of visible matter be it formation of DNA doublet strand, of DNAmRNA association, of mRNAtRNA association or tRNAaminoacid association. For instance, a temporary reduction of the value of Planck constant for these braids would contract these to such a small size that these associations would result with a high probability. The increase of Planck constant for braids could in turn induce the transfer of mRNA from the nucleus, the opening of DNA double strand during transcription and mitosis. Also DNAaminoacid braids might be possible in some special cases. The braiding between regions of DNA at which proteins bind could be a completely general phenomenon. In particular, the promoter region of gene could be connected by braids to the transcription factors of the gene and the halting of tqc computation to printing command could induce the reduction of Planck constant for these braids inducing the binding of the transcription factor binds to the promoter region. In a similar manner, the region of DNA at which RNA polymerase binds could be connected by braid strands to the RNA polymerase. For details see the new chapter DNA as Topological Quantum Computer of "pAdic Length Scale Hypothesis and Dark Matter Hierarchy".

One element field, quantum measurement theory and its qvariant, and the Galois fields associated with infinite primesKea mentioned John Baez's This Week's Finds 259, where John talked about oneelement field  a notion inspired by the q=exp(i2π/n)→1 limit for quantum groups. This limit suggests that the notion of oneelement field for which 0=1  a kind of mathematical phantom for which multiplication and sum should be identical operations  could make sense. Physicist might not be attracted by this kind of identification. In the following I want to articulate some comments from the point of view of quantum measurement theory and its generalization to qmeasurement theory which I proposed for some years ago (see this). I also consider and alternative interpretation in terms of Galois fields assignable to infinite primes which form an infinite hierarchy. These Galois fields have infinite number of elements but the map to the real world effectively reduces the number of elements to 2: 0 and 1 remain different. 1. q→ 1 limit as transition from quantum physics to effectively classical physics? The q→limit of quantum groups at qintegers become ordinary integers and nD vector spaces reduce to nelement sets. For quantum logic the reduction would mean that 2^{N}D spinor space becomes 2^{N}element set. N qubits are replaced with N bits. This brings in mind what happens in the transition from wave mechanism to classical mechanics. This might relate in interesting manner to quantum measurement theory. Strictly speaking, q→1 limit corresponds to the limit q=exp(i2π/n), n→∞ since only roots of unity are considered. This also correspond to Jones inclusions at the limit when the discrete group Z_{n} or or its extensionboth subgroups of SO(3) to contain reflection has infinite elements. Therefore this limit where field with one element appears might have concrete physical meaning. Does the system at this limit behave very classically? In TGD framework this limit can correspond to either infinite or vanishing Planck constant depending on whether one consider orbifolds or coverings. For the vanishing Planck constant one should have classicality: at least naively! In perturbative gauge theory higher order corrections come as powers of g^{2}/4πhbar so that also these corrections vanish and one has same predictions as given by classical field theory. 2. Qmeasurement theory and q→ 1 limit. Qmeasurement theory differs from quantum measurement theory in that the coordinates of the state space, say spinor space, are noncommuting. Consider in the sequel qspinors for simplicity. Since the components of quantum spinor do not commute, one cannot perform state function reduction. One can however measure the modulus squared of both spinor components which indeed commute as operators and have interpretation as probabilities for spin up or down. They have a universal spectrum of eigen values. The interpretation would be in terms of fuzzy probabilities and finite measurement resolution but may be in different sense as in case of HFF:s. Probability would become the observable instead of spin for q not equal to 1. At q→ 1 limit quantum measurement becomes possible in the standard sense of the word and one obtains spin down or up. This in turn means that the projective ray representing quantum states is replaced with one of n possible projective rays defining the points of nelement set. For HFF:s of type II_{1} it would be Nrays which would become points, N the included algebra. One might also say that state function reduction is forced by this mapping to single object at q→ 1 limit. On might say that the set of orthogonal coordinate axis replaces the state space in quantum measurement. We do this replacement of space with coordinate axis all the time when at blackboard. Quantum consciousness theorist inside me adds that this means a creation of symbolic representations and that the function of quantum classical correspondences is to build symbolic representations for quantum reality at spacetime level. q→ 1 limit should have spacetime correlates by quantum classical correspondence. A TGD inspired geometrotopological interpretation for the projection postulate might be that quantum measurement at q→1 limit corresponds to a leakage of 3surface to a dark sector of imbedding space with q→ 1 (Planck constant near to 0 or ∞ depending on whether one has n→∞ covering or division of M^{4} or CP_{2} by a subgroup of SU(2) becoming infinite cyclic  very roughly!) and Hilbert space is indeed effectively replaced with n rays. For q not equal to 1 one would have only probabilities for different outcomes since things would be fuzzy. In this picture classical physics and classical logic would be the physical counterpart for the shadow world of mathematics and would result only as an asymptotic notion. 3. Could 1element fields actually correspond to Galois fields associated with infinite primes? Finite field G_{p} corresponds to integers modulo p and product and sum are taken only modulo p. An alternative representation is in terms of phases exp(ik2π/p), k=0,...,p1 with sum and product performed in the exponent. The question is whether could one define these fields also for infinite primes (see this) by identifying the elements of this field as phases exp(ik2π/Π) with k taken to be finite integer and Π an infinite prime (recall that they form infinite hierarchy). Formally this makes sense. 1element field would be replaced with infinite hierarchy of Galois fields with infinite number of elements! The probabilities defined by components of quantum spinor make sense only as real numbers and one can indeed map them to real numbers by interpreting q as an ordinary complex number. This would give same results as q→ 1 limit and one would have effectively 1element field but actually a Galois field with infinite number of elements. If one allows k to be also infinite integer but not larger than than Π in real sense, the phases exp(k2π/Π) would be well defined as real numbers and could differ from 1. All real numbers in the range [1,1] would be obtained as values of cos(k2π/Π) so that this limit would effectively give real numbers. This relates also interestingly to the question whether the notion of padic field makes sense for infinite primes. The padic norm of any infinitep padic number would be power of π either infinite, zero, or 1. Excluding infinite normed numbers one would have effectively only padic integers in the range 1,...Π1 and thus only the Galois field G_{Π} representable also as quantum phases. I conclude with a nice string of text from John'z page: What's a mathematical phantom? According to Wraith, it's an object that doesn't exist within a given mathematical framework, but nonetheless "obtrudes its effects so convincingly that one is forced to concede a broader notion of existence". and unashamedely propose that perhaps Galois fields associated with infinite primes might provide this broader notion of existence! In equally unashamed tone I ask whether there exists also hierarchy of conscious entities at q=1 levels in real sense and whether we might identify ourselves as this kind of entities? Note that if cognition corresponds to padic spacetime sheets, our cognitive bodies have literally infinite geometric size in real sense. For details see the chapter Was von Neumann Right After All?.

DNA as topological quantum computer: IVIn order to have a more concrete view about realization of topological quantum computation (see the previous posting and links from it), one must understand how quantum computation can be reduced to a construction of braidings from fundamental unitary operations. The article Braiding Operators are Universal Quantum Gates by Kaufmann and Lomonaco contains a very lucid summary of how braids can be used in topological quantum computation.
Quantum computer is universal if all unitary transformations of n^{th} tensor power of a finitedimensional state space V can be realized. Universality is achieved by using only two kinds of gates. The gates of first type are single particle gates realizing arbitrary unitary transformation of U(2) in case of qubits. Only single 2particle gate is necessary and universality is guaranteed if the corresponding unitary transformation is entangling for some state pair. The standard choice for the 2gate is CNOT acting on bit pair (t,c). The value of the control bit c remains of course unchanged and the value of the target bit changes for c=1 and remains unchanged for c=0. 2. The fundamental braiding operation as a universal 2gate The realization of CNOT or gate equivalent to it is the key problem in topological quantum computation. For instance, the slow decoherence of photons makes quantum optics a promising approach but the realization of CNOT requires strongly nonlinear optics. The interaction of control and target photon should be such that for second polarization of the control photon target photon changes its direction but keeps it for the second polarization direction. For braids CNOT can be be expressed in terms of the fundamental braiding operation e_{n} representing the exchange of the strands n and n+1 of the braid represented as a unitary matrix R acting on V_{n}\otimes V_{n+1}. The basic condition on R is YangBaxter equation expressing the defining condition e_{n}e_{n+1}e_{n}= e_{n+1}e_{n}e_{n+1} for braid group generators. The solutions of YangBaxter equation for spinors are wellknown and CNOT can be expressed in the general case as a transformation of form A_{1}\otimes A_{2} R A_{3}\otimes A_{4} in which single particle operators A_{i} act on incoming and outgoing lines. 3braid is the simplest possible braid able to perform interesting tqc, which suggests that genetic codons are associated with 3braids. The dance of lipids on chessboard defined by the lipid layer would reduce R to an exchange of neighboring lipids. For instance, the matrix R= DS, D =diag(1,1,1,1) and S=e_{11}+e_{23}+e_{32}+e_{44} the swap matrix permuting the neighboring spins satisfies YangBaxter equation and is entangling. 3. What the replacement of linear braid with planar braid could mean? Standard braids are essentially linear objects in plane. The possibility to perform the basic braiding operation for the nearest neighbors in two different directions must affect the situation somehow.
The realization of single particle gates as U(2) transformations leads naturally to the extension of the braid group by assigning to the strands sequences of group elements satisfying the group multiplication rules. The group elements associated with a n^{th} strand commute with the generators of braid group which do not act on n^{th} strand. G would be naturally subgroup of the covering group of rotation group acting in spin degrees of spin 1/2 object. Since U(1) transformations generate only an overall phase to the state, one the presence of this factor might not be necessary. A possible candidate for U(1) factor is as a rotation induced by a timelike parallel translation defined by the electromagnetic scalar potential Φ=A_{t}. The natural realization for single particle gate s subset SU(2) would be as SU(2) rotation induced by a magnetic pulse. This transformation is fixed by the rotation axis and rotation angle around this axes. This kind of transformation would result by applying to the strand a magnetic pulse with magnetic field in the direction of rotation axes. The duration of the pulse determines the rotation angle. Pulse could be created by bringing a magnetic flux tube to the system, letting it act for the required time, and moving it away. U(1) phase factor could result from the electromagnetic gauge potential as a nonintegrable phase factor exp(ie∫ A_{t}dt/hbar) coming from the presence of scale potential Φ=A_{t} in the Hamiltonian. What could then be the simplest realization of the U(2) transformation in the case of cell membrane?

DNA as topological quantum computer: IIII have discussed various ideas about topological quantum computation in two previous postings. In DNA as a topological quantum computer I discussed general ideas, and made a general suggestion about how DNA might act as a topological quantum computer. In Some ideas about topological quantum computation in TGD Universe I continued with futher general ideas about braiding and its relation to tqc. Braids code for topological quantum computation. One can imagine many possible identifications of braids but this is not essential for what I am going to say below.
The braid strands must begin from DNA double strands. Precisely which part of DNA does perform tqc? Genes? Introns? Or could it be conjugate DNA which performs tqc? The function of conjugate DNA has indeed remain mystery and sharing of labor suggests itself. Conjugate DNA would do tqc and DNA would "print" the outcome of tqc in terms of RNA yielding aminoacids in case of exons. RNA could result in the case of introns. The experience about computers and the general vision provided by TGD suggests that introns could express the outcome of tqc also electromagnetically in terms of standardized field patterns. Also speech would be a form of gene expression. The quantum states braid would entangle with characteristic gene expressions. This hypothesis will be taken as starting point in the following considerations. 2. Cell membranes as modifiers of braidings defining tqc programs? What part of the cell or nucleus is specialized to perform braiding operations? The first guess was that nucleotides of the intronic part of DNA are permuted without any change in the sequence: the argument was that if introns do not express themselves chemically this activity does not perturb tqc. At the second thinking this does not look a good idea at all. First of all, introns are transcribed but then spliced out from the transcript. Secondly, they are now known to express themselves by producing RNA having some function as I had myself explained earlier (and forgotten it!). Something much more elegant is required. Two days ago I started to reconsider the problem and ended up with a nice little argument allowing to understand why cell membrane is necessary and why it is liquid crystal. The manipulation of braid strands transversal to DNA must take place at 2D surface. The ends of the spacelike braid are dancers whose dancing pattern defines the timelike braid, the running of classical tqc program. Spacelike braid represents memory storage and tqc program is automatically written to memory during the tqc. The inner membrane of the nuclear envelope and cell membrane with entire endoplasmic reticulum included are good candidates for dancing halls. The 2surfaces containing the ends of the hydrophobic ends of lipids could be the parquets and lipids the dancers. This picture seems to make sense.
There is a simple quantitative test for the proposal. A hierarchy of tqc programs is predicted, which means that the number of lipids in the nuclear inner membrane should be larger or at least of same order of magnitude that the number of nucleotides. For definiteness take the radius of the lipid molecule to be about 5 Angstroms (probably somewhat too large) and the radius of the nuclear membrane about 2.5 μm. For our own species the total length of DNA strand is about one meter and there are 30 nucleotides per 10 nm. This gives 6.3×10^{7} nucleotides: the number of intronic nucleotides is only by few per cent smaller. The total number of lipids in the nuclear inner membrane is roughly 10^{8}. The number of lipids is roughly twice the number nucleotides. The number of lipids in the membrane of a large neuron of radius of order 10^{4} meters is about 10^{11}. The fact that the cell membrane is highly convoluted increases the number of lipids available. Folding would make possible to combine several modules in sequence by the proposed connections between hydrophobic surfaces. 5. Cell replication and tqc One can look what happens in the cell replication in the hope of developing more concrete ideas about tqc in multicellular system. This process must mean a replication of the braid's strand system and a model for this process gives concrete ideas about how multicellular system performs tqc.
Centrosomes and basal bodies form the main part of Microtubule Organizing Center. They are somewhat mysterious objects and at first do not seem to fit to the proposed picture in an obvious manner.

DNA as topological quantum computer: III have been trying to develop general ideas about topological computation in terms of braidings. There are many kinds of braidings. Number theoretic braids are defined by the orbits of minima of vacuum expectation of Higgs at lightlike partonic 3surfaces (and also at spacelike 3surfaces). There are braidings defined by Kähler gauge potential (possibly equivalent with number theoretic ones) and by Kähler magnetic field. Magnetic flux tubes and partonic 2surfaces interpreted as strands of define braidings whose strands are not infinitely thin. A very concrete and very complex timelike braiding is defined by the motions of people at the surface of globe: perhaps this sometimes purposelesslooking fuss has a deeper purpose: maybe those at the higher levels of dark matter hierarchy are using us to carry out complex topological quantum computations;)! 1. General vision about quantum computation The hierarchy of Planck constants would give excellent hopes of quantum computation in TGD Universe. The general vision about quantum computation (tqc would result as special case) would look like follows.
The relationship between space and timelike braidings is interesting and there might be some connections also to 4D topological gauge theories suggested by geometric Langlands program discussed in the previous posting.
3. Quantum computation as quantum superposition of classical computations? It is often said that quantum computation is quantum superposition of classical computations. In standard path integral picture this does not make sense since between initial and final states represented by classical fields one has quantum superposition over all classical field configurations representing classical computations in very abstract sense. The metaphor is as good as the perturbation theory around the minimum of the classical action is as an approximation. In TGD framework the classical spacetime surface is a preferred extremal of Kähler action so that apart from effects caused by the failure of complete determism, the metaphor makes sense precisely. Besides this there is of course the computation associated with the spin like degrees of freedom in which one has entanglement and which one cannot describe in this manner. For tqc a particular classical computation would reduce to the time evolution of braids and would be coded by 2knot. Classical computation would be coded to the manipulation of the braid. Note that the branching of strands of generalized number theoretical braids has interpretation as classical communication. 4. The identification of topological quantum states Quantum states of tqc should correspond to topologically robust degrees of freedom separating neatly from nontopological ones.
5. Some questions A conjecture inspired by the inclusions of HFFs is that these states can be also regarded as representations of various gauge groups which TGD dynamics is conjectured to be able to mimic so that one might have connection with nonAbelian ChernSimons theories where topological Smatrix is constructed in terms of path integral over connections: these connections would be only an auxiliary tool in TGD framework.
For details see the chapter DNA as Topological Quantum Computer.

DNA as a topological quantum computer: IFor years ago I developed a model of topological quantum computation combining TGD based view about spacetime with basic ideas about topological quantum computation and ended up with the proposal that DNA might act as a topological quantum computer. The first guess (see this) was that parallel DNA or RNA strands could form braids. The problem is that the number of braid strands is limited and the computations are restricted within single cell nucleus. The need to establish the hardware for each computation separately can be also seen as a restriction. One can imagine also other manners in which DNA or RNA could act as a topological quantum computer and it good to try to state clearly what one wants.
1. The recent progress in quantum TGD and TGD inspired quantum biology After the advent of the first model for topological quantum computation in TGD Universe (see this), the mathematical and physical understanding of TGD has developed dramatically and the earlier quite speculative picture can be replaced with a framework which leads to a rather unique view about topological quantum computations by DNA. 1.1 Universe as a topological quantum computer One can say that the recent formulation of quantum TGD states that the entire Universe behaves like a topological quantum computer. This notion of topological quantum computer differs however from the standard one in many respects.
The evolution of ideas related to quantum biology provides also new valuable insights. In particular, the notion of magnetic body leads to a model of living system in which dark matter at magnetic flux quanta of the field body of biological system uses biological body as a motor instrument and sensory receptor (see this). Quantum control would be naturally via the genome and sensory input would be from cell membrane containing all kinds of receptors. This would suggest that magnetic flux sheets traverse through DNA strands and cell membranes. The quantization of magnetic flux with unit defined by Planck constant having arbitrarily large values leads naturally to the notions of supergenome and hypergenome (see this). Supergenome would consists of DNA strands of separate nuclei belonging to single magnetic flux sheet and these sequences of genomes would be like lines of text at the page of book. Supergenomes in turn can combine to form text lines at the pages of a bigger book, I have used the term hypergenome. This hierarchy of genomes would give rise to a collective gene expression at the level of organs, individuals of a species, and at the collective level consisting of populations containing several species. Even biosphere could express itself coherently via all the genomes of the biosphere. The model of topological quantum computation performed by DNA should be consistent with this general picture. 2. Model for DNA based topological quantum computation The most promising model of DNA as topological quantum computer relies on the hierarchy of genomes. The flux sheets or collections of parallel flux tubes assignable to a magnetic body would traverse the DNA strands of several nuclei so that strands would be analogous to lines of text on the page of a book. DNA strands would define the intersections of magnetic or number theoretic braids with plane and braiding would be associated with with the magnetic field lines or flux tubes transversal to DNA. The Mmatrix defining topological quantum computation would act on quantum states assignable to nucleotides. 2.1 The interpretation of nucleotides The interpretation of the A,T,C,G degree of freedom is not obvious and one can consider several options. 1) The quantum numbers entangled by braids having nothing to do with (A,T,C,G) assignable to nucleotides and the braiding does not affect nucleotides. 2) The nucleotides (A,T,C,G) correspond to four different colors (a,t,c,g) for braid strands with conjugate nucleotides defining conjugate colors. The subgroup of allowed braidings would preserve the color patterns. The minimal assumption is that braid strands connect only identical nucleotides. A stronger  probably unrealistic  assumption is that braiding permutes nucleotides physically. 3) The entangled quantum numbers are in 11 correspondence with states A, T, C, G of nucleotide. In zero energy ontology this would be possible without breaking of fundamental conservation laws. One can even consider the possibility that A,T,C,G are these quantum numbers. Topological quantum computation in time direction would thus make it possible to replace the DNA strands with new ones and provide a purely quantal mechanism of genetic evolution. Only introns could be involved with topological quantum computations in this sense since they would not induce mutations visible at the level of aminoacids. The intronic portions of genome would not be evolutionary invariants: whether or not this is the case should be easily testable. 4) The combination of options 2) and 3) might make sense for topological quantum computations in time like direction. One would have superposition of topological quantum computations associated with various color patterns and the halting of the computation would mean in general the occurrence of a mutation. The option 2) with braid strands connecting only identical nucleotides is rather attractive since it explains several facts about genome (as do also options 3) and 4)).
One can imagine two basic realizations of topological quantum computation like processes or to be more precise  entanglement by braiding. In TGD framework this entanglement could be interpreted in terms of Connes tensor product. 1. Spacelike entanglement The first realization would rely spacelike braids. Braid strands would connect identical lines of text at the page of book defined by sequences of genomes of different nuclei. Inside nucleus the strands would connect DNA and its conjugate. The braiding operation would take place between lines. In this case it would be perhaps more appropriate to speak about quantum memory storage of a function realized as entanglement. These functions could represent various rules about the behavior of and survival in the physical world. For this option A,T,C,G cannot correspond to entangled quantum numbers and the interpretation as braid colors is natural. Braiding cannot correspond to a physical braiding of nucleotides so that (A,T,C,G) could correspond to braid color (strands would connect only identical nucleotides). Strands would not connect strand and its conjugate like hydrogen bonds do but would be like long flux lines of dipole field starting from nucleotide and ending to its conjugate so that braiding would emerge naturally. Color magnetic flux tube structures of almost atom size appear in the TGD based model of nucleus and have light quarks and antiquarks at their ends (see this). This could be the case also now since quarks and antiquarks appear also in the model of high T_{c} superconductivity which should be present also in living matter (see this). 2. Lightlike entanglement Second realization would rely on lightlike braids at the boundaries of lightlike 3surfaces connecting 2surfaces assignable to single genome at different moments of time. Braiding would be dynamical and dance metaphor would apply. The lightlike surface could intersect genomes only at initial and final moments and strands would connect only identical nucleotides. Lightlikeness in the induced metric of course allows the partonic 3surface to look static at the level of imbedding space. The fundamental number theoretic braids defined by the minima of the Higgs like field associated with the modified Dirac operator would be very natural in this case. Genes would define only the hardware unless they code for the magnetic body of DNA too, which looks implausible. The presence of quantum memory and quantum programs would mean a breakdown of genetic determinism since the braidings representing memories and programs would develop quantum jump by quantum jump and distinguish between individuals with the same genome. Also the personal development of individual would take place at this level. It would be these programs (that is magnetic bodies) which would differentiate between us and our cousins with almost identical genome. 3. Biological evolution as an evolution of topological quantum computation This framework allows to understand biological evolution as an evolution of topological quantum computation like processes in which already existing programs become building blocks of more complex programs.

Fractional Quantum Hall effect in TGD frameworkThe generalization of the imbedding space discussed in previous posting allows to understand fractional quantum Hall effect (see this and this). The formula for the quantized Hall conductance is given by σ= ν× e^{2}/h,ν=m/n. Series of fractions in ν=1/3, 2/5 3/7, 4/9, 5/11, 6/13, 7/15..., 2/3, 3/5, 4/7 5/9, 6/11, 7/13..., 5/3, 8/5, 11/7, 14/9... 4/3 7/5, 10/7, 13/9... , 1/5, 2/9, 3/13..., 2/7 3/11..., 1/7.. with odd denominator have bee observed as are also ν=1/2 and ν=5/2 state with even denominator. The model of Laughlin [Laughlin] cannot explain all aspects of FQHE. The best existing model proposed originally by Jain [Jain] is based on composite fermions resulting as bound states of electron and even number of magnetic flux quanta. Electrons remain integer charged but due to the effective magnetic field electrons appear to have fractional charges. Composite fermion picture predicts all the observed fractions and also their relative intensities and the order in which they appear as the quality of sample improves. I have considered earlier a possible TGD based model of FQHE not involving hierarchy of Planck constants. The generalization of the notion of imbedding space suggests the interpretation of these states in terms of fractionized charge and electron number.
[Laughlin] R. B. Laughlin (1983), Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1395. For more details see the chapter Does TGD Predict the Spectrum of Planck Constants? .

A further generalization of the notion of imbedding spaceThe hypothesis that Planck constant is quantized having in principle all possible rational values but with some preferred values implying algebraically simple quantum phases has been one of the main ideas of TGD during last years. The mathematical realization of this idea leads to a profound generalization of the notion of imbedding space obtained by gluing together infinite number of copies of imbedding space along common 4dimensional intersection. The hope was that this generalization could explain charge fractionization but this does not seem to be the case. This problem led to a futher generalization of the imbedding space and this is what I want to discussed below. 1. Original view about generalized imbedding space The original generalization of imbedding space was basically following. Take imbedding space H=M^{4}×CP_{2}. Choose submanifold M^{2}×S^{2}, where S^{2} is homologically nontrivial geodesic submanifold of CP_{2}. The motivation is that for a given choice of Cartan algebra of Poincare algebra (translations in time direction and spin quantization axis plus rotations in plane orthogonal to this plane plus color hypercharge and isospin) this submanifold remains invariant under the transformations leaving the quantization axes invariant.
Form spaces M^{4}= M^{4}\M^{2} and CP_{2} = CP_{2}\S^{2} and their Cartesian product. Both spaces have a hole of codimension 2 so that the first homotopy group is Z. From these spaces one can construct an infinite hierarchy of factor spaces M^{4}/G_{a} and CP The hypothesis is that Planck constant is given by the ratio hbar= n_{a}/n_{b}, where n_{i} is the order of maximal cyclic subgroups of G_{i}. The hypothesis states also that the covariant metric of the Minkowski factor is scaled by the factor (n_{a}/n_{b})^{2}. One must take care of this in the gluing procedure. One can assign to the field bodies describing both self interactions and interactions between physical systems definite sector of generalized imbedding space characterized partially by the Planck constant. The phase transitions changing Planck constant correspond to tunnelling between different sectors of the imbedding space. 2. Fractionization of quantum numbers is not possible if only factor spaces are allowed The original idea was that the modification of the imbedding space inspired by the hierarchy of Planck constants could explain naturally phenomena like quantum Hall effect involving fractionization of quantum numbers like spin and charge. This does not however seem to be the case. G_{a}× G_{b} implies just the opposite if these quantum numbers are assigned with the symmetries of the imbedding space. For instance, quantization unit for orbital angular momentum becomes n_{a} where Z_{na} is the maximal cyclic subgroup of G_{a}. One can however imagine obtaining fractionization at the level of imbedding space for spacetime sheets, which are analogous to multisheeted Riemann surfaces (say Riemann surfaces associated with z^{1/n} since the rotation by 2π understood as a homotopy of M^{4} lifted to the spacetime sheet is a nonclosed curve. Continuity requirement indeed allows fractionization of the orbital quantum numbers and color in this kind of situation. Lifting up this idea to the level of imbedding space leads to the generalization of the notion of imbedding space. 3. Both covering spaces and factor spaces are possible The observation above stimulates the question whether it might be possible in some sense to replace H or its factors by their multiple coverings.
What could be the interpretation of these two kinds of spaces?

A little crazy speculation about knots and infinite primes<Kea told about some mathematical results related to knots.
1. Do knots correspond to the hierarchy of infinite primes? I have been pondering the problem how to define the counterpart of zeta for infinite primes. The idea of replacing primes with prime polynomials would resolve the problem since infinite primes can be mapped to polynomials. For some reason this idea however did not occur to me. The correspondence of both knots and infinite primes with polynomials inspires the question whether d=1dimensional prime knots might be in correspondence (not necessarily 11) with infinite primes. Rational or Gaussian rational infinite primes would be naturally selected: these are also selected by physical considerations as representatives of physical states although quaternionic and octonionic variants of infinite primes can be considered. If so, knots could correspond to the subset of states of a supersymmetric arithmetic quantum field theory with bosonic single particle states and fermionic states labelled by quaternionic primes.
Some further comments about the proposed structure of all structures are in order.
All this looks nice and the question is how to give a death blow to all this reckless speculation. Torus knots are an excellent candidate for permorming this unpleasant task but the hypothesis survives!
One can consider a concrete construction of higherdimensional knots and braids in terms of the manysheeted spacetime concept.
The concrete construction would proceed as follows.
For details see the chapter Infinite Primes and Consciousness..

How to represent algebraic complex numbers as geometric objects?I already told about the idea of representing negative integers and even rationals as padic fractals. To gain additional understanding I decided to look at Weekly Finds (Week 102) of John Baez to which Kea gave link. Fascinating reading! Thanks Kea! The outcome was the realization that the notion of rig used to categorify the subset of algebraic numbers obtained as roots of polynomials with natural number valued coefficients generalizes trivially by replacing natural numbers by padic integers. As a consequence one obtains beautiful padicization of the generating function F(x) of structure as a function which converges padically for any rational x=q for which it has prime p as a positive power divisor. Effectively this generalization means the replacement of natural numbers as coefficients of the polynomial defining the rig with all rationals, also negative, and all complex algebraic numbers find a category theoretical representation as "cardinalities". These cardinalities have a dual interpretation as padic integers which in general correspond to infinite real numbers but are mappable to real numbers by canonical identification and have a geometric representation as fractals as discussed in the previous posting. 1. Mapping of objects to complex numbers and the notion of rig The idea of rig approach is to categorify the notion of cardinality in such a manner that one obtains a subset of algebraic complex numbers as cardinalities in the categorytheoretical sense. One can assign to an object a polynomial with coefficients, which are natural numbers and the condition Z=P(Z) says that P(Z) acts as an isomorphism of the object. One can interpret the equation also in terms of complex numbers. Hence the object is mapped to a complex number Z defining a root of the polynomial interpreted as an ordinary polynomial: it does not matter which root is chosen. The complex number Z is interpreted as the "cardinality" of the object but I do not really understand the motivation for this. The deep further result is that also more general polynomial equations R(Z)= Q(Z) satisfied by the generalized cardinality Z imply R(Z)= Q(Z) as isomorphism. This means that algebra is mapped to isomorphisms. I try to reproduce what looks the most essential in the explanation of John Baez and relate it to my own ideas but take this as my talk to myself and visit This Week's Finds to learn of this fascinating idea.
The notions of generating function and rig generalize to the padic context.

Is it possible to have a set with 1 elements?I find Kea's blog interesting because it allows to get some grasp about very different styles of thinking of a mathematician and physicist. For mathematician it is very important that the result is obtained by a strict use of axioms and deduction rules. Physicist (at least me: I dare to count me as physicist) is a cognitive opportunist: it does not matter how the result is obtained by moving along axiomatically allowed paths or not, and the new result is often more like a discovery of a new axiom and physicist is evergrateful for Gödel for giving justification for what sometimes admittedly degenerates to a creative handwaving. For physicist ideas form a kind of bioshere and the fate of the individual idea depends on its ability to survive, which is determined by its ability to become generalized, its consistency with other ideas, and ability to interact with other ideas to produce new ideas. During last days we have had a little bit of discussion inspired by the problem related to the categorification of basic number theoretical structures. I have learned from Kea that sum and product are natural operations for objects of category but that subtraction and division are problematic. I dimly realize that this relates to the fact that negative numbers and inverses of integers do not have a realization as a number of elements for any set. The naive physicist inside me asks immediately: why not go from statics to dynamics and take operations (arrows with direction) as objects: couldn't this allow to define subtraction and division? Is the problem that the axiomatization of group theory requires something which purest categorification does not give? Or aren't the numbers representable in terms of operations of finite groups not enough? In any case cyclic groups would allow to realize roots of unity as operations (Z_{2} would give 1). I also wonder in my own simplistic manner why the algebraic numbers might not somehow result via the representations of permutation group of infinite number of elements containing all finite groups and thus Galois groups of algebraic extensions as subgroups? Why not take the elements of this group as objects of the basic category and continue by building group algebra and hyperfinite factors of type II_{1} isomorphic to spinors of world of classical worlds, and...yesyesyes, I must stop! This discussion led me to ask what the situation is in the case of padic numbers. Could it be possible to represent the negative and inverse of padic integer, and in fact any padic number, as a geometric object? In other words, does a set with 1 or 1/n elements exist? If this were in some sense true for all padic number fields, then all this wisdom combined together might provide something analogous to the adelic representation for the norm of a rational number as product of its padic norms. Of course, this representation might not help to define padics or reals categorically but might help to understand how padic cognitive representations defined as subsets for rational intersections of real and padic spacetime sheets could represent padic number as the number of points of padic fractal having infinite number of points in real sense but finite in the padic sense. This would also give a fundamental cognitive role for padic fractals as cognitive representations of numbers. 1. How to construct a set with 1 elements? The basic observation is that padic 1 has the representation 1=(p1)/(1p)=(p1)(1+p+p^{2}+p^{3}..) As a real number this number is infinite or 1 but as a padic number the series converges and has padic norm equal to 1. One can also map this number to a real number by canonical identification taking the powers of p to their inverses: one obtains p in this particular case. As a matter fact, any rational with padic norm equal to 1 has similar power series representation. The idea would be to represent a given padic number as the infinite number of points (in real sense) of a padic fractal such that padic topology is natural for this fractal. This kind of fractals can be constructed in a simple manner: from this more below. This construction allows to represent any padic number as a fractal and code the arithmetic operations to geometric operations for these fractals. These representations  interpreted as cognitive representations defined by intersections of real and padic spacetime sheets  are in practice approximate if real spacetime sheets are assumed to have a finite size: this is due to the finite padic cutoff implied by this assumption and the meaning a finite resolution. One can however say that the padic spacetime itself could by its necessarily infinite size represent the idea of given padic number faithfully. This representation applies also to the padic counterparts of algebraic numbers in case that they exist. For instance, roughly one half of padic numbers have square root as ordinary padic number and quite generally algebraic operations on padic numbers can give rise to padic numbers so that also these could have set theoretic representation. For p mod 4=1 also sqrt(1) exists: for instance, for p=5: 2^{2}=4=1 mod 5 guarantees this so that also imaginary unit and complex numbers would have a fractal representation. Also many transcendentals possess this kind of representation. For instance exp(xp) exists as a padic number if x has padic norm not larger than 1. log(1+xp) also. Hence a quite impressive repertoire of padic counterparts of real numbers would have representation as a padic fractal for some values of p. Adelic vision would suggest that combining these representations one might be able to represent quite a many real numbers. In the case of π I do not find any obvious padic representation (for instance sin(π/6)=1/2 does not help since the padic variant of the Taylor expansion of π/6;=arcsin(1/2) does not converge padically for any value of p). It might be that there are very many transcendentals not allowing fractal representation for any value of p. 2. Conditions on the fractal representations of padic numbers Consider now the construction of the fractal representations in terms of rational intersections of real real and padic spacetime sheets. The question is what conditions are natural for this representation if it corresponds to a cognitive representation is realized in the rational intersection of real and padic spacetime sheets obeying same algebraic equations.
3. Concrete representation Consider now a concrete candidate for a representation satisfying these constraints.

Intronic portions of genome code for RNA: for what purpose?The last issue of New Scientist contains an article about the discovery that only roughly one half of DNA expresses itself as aminoacid sequences. The article is published in Nature. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has quantified RNA transcription patterns and found that while the "standard" RNA copy of a gene gets translated into a protein as expected, for each copy of a gene cells also make RNA copies of many other sections of DNA. In particular, intron portions ("junk DNA", the portion of which increases as one climbs up in evolutionary hierarchy) are transcribed to RNA in large amounts. What is also interesting that the RNA fragments correspond to pieces from several genes which raises the question whether there is some fundamental unit smaller than gene. In particular, intron portions ("junk DNA", the portion of which increases as one climbs up in evolutionary hierarchy) are transcribed to RNA in large amounts. What is also interesting that the RNA fragments correspond to pieces from several genes which raises the question whether there is some fundamental unit smaller than gene. None of the extra RNA fragments gets translated into proteins, so the race is on to discover just what their function is. TGD proposal is that it gets braided and performs a lot of topological quantum computation (see this). Topologically quantum computing RNA fits nicely with replicating number theoretic braids associated with lightlike orbits of partonic 2surfaces and with their spatial "printed text" representations as linked and knotted partonic 2surfaces giving braids as a special case (see this). An interesting question is how printing and reading could take place. Is it something comparable to what occurs when we read consciously? Is the biological portion of our conscious life identifiable with this reading process accompanied by copying by cell replication and as secondary printing using aminoacid sequences? This picture conforms with TGD view about prebiotic evolution. Plasmoids [1], which are known to share many basic characteristics assigned with life, came first: high temperatures are not a problem in TGD Universe since given frequency corresponds to energy above thermal energy for large enough value of hbar. Plasmoids were followed by RNA, and DNA and aminoacid sequences emerged only after the fusion of 1 and 2letter codes fusing to the recent 3letter code. The cross like structure of tRNA molecules carries clear signatures supporting this vision. RNA would be still responsible for roughly half of intracellular life and perhaps for the core of "intelligent life". I have also proposed that this expression uses memetic code which would correspond to Mersenne M_{127}=2^{127}1 with 2^{126} codons whereas ordinary genetic code would correspond to M_{7}=2^{7}1 with 2^{6} codons. Memetic codons in DNA representations would consist of sequences of 21 ordinary codons. Also representations in terms of field patterns with duration of .1 seconds (secondary padic time scale associated with M_{127} defining a fundamental biorhythm) can be considered. A hypothesis worth of killing would be that the DNA coding for RNA has memetic codons scattered around genome as basic units. It is interesting to see whether the structure of DNA could give any hints that memetic codon appears as a basic unit.
[1] E. Lozneanu and M. Sanduloviciu (2003), Minimalcell system created in laboratory by selforganization, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, Volume 18, Issue 2, October, p. 335. See also Plasma blobs hint at new form of life, New Scientist vol. 179 issue 2413  20 September 2003, page 16. For details see the new chapter Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe.

Farey sequences, Riemann hypothesis, tangles, and TGDFarey sequences allow an alternative formulation of Riemann Hypothesis and subsequent pairs in Farey sequence characterize so called rational 2tangles. In TGD framework Farey sequences relate very closely to dark matter hierarchy, which inspires "Platonia as the best possible world in the sense that cognitive representations are optimal" as the basic variational principle of mathematics. This variational principle supports RH. Possible TGD realizations of tangles, which are considerably more general objects than braids, are considered. One can assign to a given rational tangle a rational number a/b and the tangles labelled by a/b and c/d are equivalent if adbc=+/1 holds true. This means that the rationals in question are neighboring members of Farey sequence. Very lighthearted guesses about possible generalization of these invariants to the case of general Ntangles are made. For more details see the chapter Category Theory, Quantum TGD, and TGD Inspired Theory of Consciousness. 
Quantum quandariesFor long time it has been clear that category theory might provide a fundamental formulation of quantum TGD. The problem has been that category theory seems to postulate quite too many objects. The reading of Quantum Quandaries by John Baez helped to see the situation in all its simplicity.

Platonism, Constructivism, and Quantum PlatonismI have been trying to understand how Category Theory and Set Theory relate to quantum TGD inspired view about fundamentals of mathematics. I managed to clarify my thoughts about what these theories are by reading the article Structuralism, Category Theory and Philosophy of Mathematics by Richard Stefanik (Washington: MSG Press, 1994). The reactions to postings in Kea's blog and email correspondence with Sampo Vesterinen have been very stimulating and inspired the attempt to represent TGD based vision about the unification of mathematics, physics, and consciousness theory in a more systematic manner. The basic ideas behind TGD vision are following. One cannot understand mathematics without understanding mathematical consciousness. Mathematical consciousness and its evolution must have direct quantum physical correlates and by quantum classical correspondence these correlates must appear also at spacetime level. Quantum physics must allow to realize number as a conscious experience analogous to a sensory quale. In TGD based ontology there is no need to postulate physical world behind the quantum states as mathematical entities (theory is the reality). Hence number cannot be any physical object, but can be identified as a quantum state or its label and its number theoretical anatomy is revealed by the conscious experiences induced by the number theoretic variants of particle reactions. Mathematical systems and their axiomatics are dynamical evolving systems and physics is number theoretically universal selecting rationals and their extensions in a special role as numbers, which can can be regarded elements of several number fields simultaneously. For details see the last section of the chapter Category Theory, Quantum TGD, and TGD Inspired Theory of Consciousness or the article Platonism, Constructivism, and Quantum Platonism. 
Sierpinski topology and quantum measurement theory with finite measurement resolutionI have been trying to understand whether category theory might provide some deeper understanding about quantum TGD, not just as a powerful organizer of fuzzy thoughts but also as a tool providing genuine physical insights. Kea is also interested in categories but in much more technical sense. Her dream is to find a category theoretical formulation of Mtheory as something, which is not the 11D something making me rather unhappy as a physicist with second foot still deep in the muds of low energy phenomenology. Kea talks about topos, nlogos,... and their possibly existing quantum variants. I have used to visit Kea's blog in the hope of stealing some category theoretic intuition. It is also nice to represent comments knowing that they are not censored out immediately if their have the smell of original thought: this is quite too often the case in alpha male dominated blogs. It might be that I had luck this morning! 1. Locales, frames, Sierpinski topologies and Sierpinski space Kea mentioned the notions of locale and frame . In Wikipedia I learned that complete Heyting algebras, which are fundamental to category theory, are objects of three categories with differing arrows. CHey, Loc and its opposite category Frm (arrows reversed). Complete Heyting algebras are partially ordered sets which are complete lattices. Besides the basic logical operations there is also algebra multiplication. From Wikipedia I learned also that locales and the dual notion of frames form the foundation of pointless topology. These topologies are important in topos theory which does not assume the axiom of choice. So called particular point topology assumes a selection of single point but I have the physicist's feeling that it is otherwise rather near to pointless topology. Sierpinski topology is this kind of topology. Sierpinski topology is defined in a simple manner: set is open only if it contains a given point p. The dual of this topology defined in the obvious sense exists also. Sierpinski space consisting of just two points 0 and 1 is the universal building block of these topologies in the sense that a map of an arbitrary space to Sierpinski space provides it with Sierpinski topology as the induced topology. In category theoretical terms Sierpinski space is the initial object in the category of frames and terminal object in the dual category of locales. This category theoretic reductionism looks highly attractive to me. 2. Particular point topologies, their generalization, and finite measurement resolution Pointless, or rather particular point topologies might be very interesting from physicist's point of view. After all, every classical physical measurement has a finite spacetime resolution. In TGD framework discretization by number theoretic braids replaces partonic 2surface with a discrete set consisting of algebraic points in some extension of rationals: this brings in mind something which might be called a topology with a set of particular algebraic points. Perhaps the physical variant for the axiom of choice could be restricted so that only sets of algebraic points in some extension of rationals can be chosen freely. The extension would depend on the position of the physical system in the algebraic evolutionary hierarchy defining also a cognitive hierarchy. Certainly this would fit very nicely to the formulation of quantum TGD unifying real and padic physics by gluing real and padic number fields to single superstructure via common algebraic points. There is also a finite measurement resolution in Hilbert space sense not taken into account in the standard quantum measurement theory based on factors of type I. In TGD framework one indeed introduces quantum measurement theory with a finite measurement resolution so that complex rays becomes included hyperfinite factors of type II_{1} (HFF, see this).
This program, which I formulated only after this section had been written, might indeed make sense (ideas never learn to emerge in the logical order of things;)). The lucky association was to the ideas about fuzzy quantum logic realized in terms of quantum 2spinor that I had developed a couple of years ago. Fuzzy quantum logic would reflect the finite measurement resolution. I just list the pieces of the argument. Spinors and qbits: Spinors define a quantal variant of Boolean statements, qbits. One can however go further and define the notion of quantum qbit, qqbit. I indeed did this for couple of years ago (the last section in Was von Neumann Right After All?). Qspinors and qqbits: For qspinors the two components a and b are not commuting numbers but nonHermitian operators. ab= qba, q a root of unity. This means that one cannot measure both a and b simultaneously, only either of them. aa^{+} and bb^{+} however commute so that probabilities for bits 1 and 0 can be measured simultaneously. State function reduction is not possible to a state in which a or b gives zero! The interpretation is that one has qlogic is inherently fuzzy: there are no absolute truths or falsehoods. One can actually predict the spectrum of eigenvalues of probabilities for say 1. qSpinors bring in mind strongly the Hilbert space counterpart of Sierpinski space. One would however expect that fuzzy quantum logic replaces the logic defined by Heyting algebra. Qlocale: Could one think of generalizing the notion of locale to quantum locale by using the idea that sets are replaced by subspaces of Hilbert space in the conventional quantum logic. Qopenness would be defined by identifying quantum spinors as the initial object, qSierpinski space. a (resp. b for dual category) would define qopen set in this space. Qopen sets for other quantum spaces would be defined as inverse images of a (resp. b) for morphisms to this space. Only for q=1 one could have the qcounterpart of rather uninteresting topology in which all sets are open and every map is continuous. Qlocale and HFFs: The qSierpinski character of qspinors would conform with the very special role of Clifford algebra in the theory of HFFs, in particular, the special role of Jones inclusions to which one can assign spinor representations of SU(2). The Clifford algebra and spinors of the world of classical worlds identifiable as Fock space of quark and lepton spinors is the fundamental example in which 2spinors and corresponding Clifford algebra serves as basic building brick although tensor powers of any matrix algebra provides a representation of HFF. Qmeasurement theory: Finite measurement resolution (qquantum measurement theory) means that complex rays are replaced by subalgebra rays. This would force the Jones inclusions associated with SU(2) spinor representation and would be characterized by quantum phase q and bring in the qtopology and qspinors. Fuzzyness of qqbits of course correlates with the finite measurement resolution. Qnlogos: For other qrepresentations of SU(2) and for representations of compact groups (see appendix of this) one would obtain something which might have something to do with quantum nlogos, quantum generalization of nvalued logic. All of these would be however less fundamental and induced by qmorphisms to the fundamental representation in terms of spinors of the world of classical worlds. What would be however very nice that if these qmorphisms are constructible explicitly it would become possible to build up qrepresentations of various groups using the fundamental physical realization  and as I have conjectured (see this)  McKay correspondence and huge variety of its generalizations would emerge in this manner. The analogs of Sierpinski spaces: The discrete subgroups of SU(2), and quite generally, the groups Z_{n} associated with Jones inclusions and leaving the choice of quantization axes invariant, bring in mind the npoint analogs of Sierpinski space with unit element defining the particular point. Note however that n≥3 holds true always so that one does not obtain Sierpinski space itself. Could it be that all of these n preferred points belong to any open set? Number theoretical braids identified as subsets of the intersection of real and padic variants of algebraic partonic 2surface define second candidate for the generalized Sierpinski space with set of preferred points. Recall that the generalized imbedding space related to the quantization of Planck constant is obtained by gluing together coverings of M^{4}×CP_{2}→ M^{4}×CP_{2}/G_{a}×G_{b} along their common points. The topology in question would mean that if some point in the covering belongs to an open set, all of them do so. The interpretation could be that the points of fiber form a single inseparable quantal unit. For more details see the chapter Was von Neumann Right After All?. 
Jones inclusions and construction of Smatrix and U matrixTGD leads naturally to zero energy ontology which reduces to the positive energy ontology of the standard model only as a limiting case. In this framework one must distinguish between the Umatrix characterizing the unitary process associated with the quantum jump (and followed by state function reduction and state preparation) and the Smatrix defining timelike entanglement between positive and negative energy parts of the zero energy state and coding the rates for particle reactions which in TGD framework correspond to quantum measurements reducing timelike entanglement. 1. Smatrix In zero energy ontology Smatrix characterizes time like entanglement of zero energy states (this is possible only for HFFs for which Tr(SS^{+})=Tr(Id)=1 holds true). Smatrix would code for transition rates measured in particle physics experiments with particle reactions interpreted as quantum measurements reducing time like entanglement. In TGD inspired quantum measurement theory measurement resolution is characterized by Jones inclusion (the group G defines the measured quantum numbers), N subset M takes the role of complex numbers, and state function reduction leads to N ray in the space M/N regarded as N module and thus from a factor to a subfactor. The finite number theoretic braid having Galois group G as its symmetries is the spacetime correlate for both the finite measurement resolution and the effective reduction of HFF to that associated with a finitedimensional quantum Clifford algebra M/N. SU(2) inclusions would allow angular momentum and color quantum numbers in bosonic degrees of freedom and spin and electroweak quantum numbers in spinorial degrees of freedom. McKay correspondence would allow to assign to G also compact ADE type Lie group so that also Lie group type quantum numbers could be included in the repertoire. Galois group G would characterize subspaces of the configuration space ("world of classical worlds") number theoretically in a manner analogous to the rough characterization of physical states by using topological quantum numbers. Each braid associated with a given partonic 2surface would correspond to a particular G that the state would be characterized by a collection of groups G. G would act as symmetries of zero energy states and thus of Smatrix. Smatrix would reduce to a direct integral of Smatrices associated with various collections of Galois groups characterizing the number theoretical properties of partonic 2surfaces. It is not difficult to criticize this picture.
2. Umatrix In a welldefined sense U process seems to be the reversal of state function reduction. Hence the natural guess is that Umatrix means a quantum transition in which a factor becomes a subfactor whereas state function reduction would lead from a factor to a subfactor. Various arguments suggest that U matrix could be almost trivial and has as a basic building block the so called factorizing Smatrices for integrable quantum field theories in 2dimensional Minkowski space. For these Smatrices particle scattering would mean only a permutation of momenta in momentum space. If Smatrix is invariant under inclusion then U matrix should be in a welldefined sense almost trivial apart from a dispersion in zero modes leading to a superpositions of states characterized by different collections of Galois groups. 3. Relation to TGD inspired theory of consciousness Umatrix could be almost trivial with respect to the transitions which are diagonal with respect to the number field. What would however make U highly interesting is that it would predict the rates for the transitions representing a transformation of intention to action identified as a padictoreal transition. In this context almost triviality would translate to a precise correlation between intention and action. The general vision about the dynamics of quantum jumps suggests that the extension of a subfactor to a factor is followed by a reduction to a subfactor which is not necessarily the same. Breathing would be an excellent metaphor for the process. Breathing is also a metaphor for consciousness and life. Perhaps the essence of living systems distinguishing them from subsystems with a fixed state space could be cyclic breathing like process N→ M supset N → N_{1} subset M→ .. extending and reducing the state space of the subsystem by entanglement followed by deentanglement. One could even ask whether the unique role of breathing exercise in meditation practices relates directly to this basic dynamics of living systems and whether the effect of these practices is to increase the value of M:N and thus the order of Galois group G describing the algebraic complexity of "partonic" 2surfaces involved (they can have arbitrarily large sizes). The basic hypothesis of TGD inspired theory of cognition indeed is that cognitive evolution corresponds to the growth of the dimension of the algebraic extension of padic numbers involved. If one is willing to consider generalizations of the existing picture about quantum jump, one can imagine that unitary process can occur arbitrary number of times before it is followed by state function reduction. Unitary process and state function reduction could compete in this kind of situation. 4. Fractality of Smatrix and translational invariance in the lattice defined by subfactors Fractality realized as the invariance of the Smatrix in Jones inclusion means that the Smatrices of N and M relate by the projection P: M→N as S_{N}=PS_{M}P. S_{N} should be equivalent with S_{M} with a trivial relabelling of strands of infinite braid. Inclusion invariance would mean translational invariance of the Smatrix with respect to the index n labelling strands of braid defined by the projectors e_{i}. Translations would act only as a semigroup and Smatrix elements would depend on the difference mn only. Transitions can occur only for mn≥ 0, that is to the direction of increasing label of strand. The group G leaving N elementwise invariant would define the analog of a unit cell in lattice like condensed matter systems so that translational invariance would be obtained only for translations m→ m+ nk, where one has n≥ 0 and k is the number of M(2,C) factors defining the unit cell. As a matter fact, this picture might apply also to ordinary condensed matter systems. For more details see the chapter Was von Neumann Right After All?.

About infinite primes, points of the world of classical worlds, and configuration space spinor fieldsThe idea that configuration space CH of 3surfaces, "the world of classical worlds", could be realized in terms of number theoretic anatomies of single spacetime point using the real units formed from infinite rationals, is very attractive. The correspondence of CH points with infinite primes and thus with infinite number of real units determined by them realizing Platonia at single spacetime point, can be understood if one assume that the points of CH correspond to infinite rationals via their mapping to hyperoctonion realanalytic rational functions conjectured to define foliations of HO to hyperquaternionic 4surfaces inducing corresponding foliations of H. The correspondence of CH spinors with the real units identified as infinite rationals with varying number theoretical anatomies is not so obvious. It is good to approach the problem by making questions.

Updated vision about infinite primesI have updated the chapter about infinite primes so that it conforms with the recent general view about number theoretic aspects of quantum TGD. A lot of obsoletia have been thrown away and new insights have emerged.
For more details see the revised chapter Infinite Primes and Consciousness. 