What's new inpAdic Length Scale Hypothesis and Dark Matter HierarchyNote: Newest contributions are at the top! 
Year 2007 
Are the abundances of heavier elements determined by cold fusion in interstellar medium?According to the standard model, elements not heavier than Li were created in Big Bang. Heavier elements were produced in stars by nuclear fusion and ended up to the interstellar space in supernova explosions and were gradually enriched in this process. Lithium problem forces to take this theoretical framework with a grain of salt. The work of Kervran [1] suggests that cold nuclear reactions are occurring with considerable rates, not only in living matter but also in nonorganic matter. Kervran indeed proposes that also the abundances of elements at Earth and planets are to high degree determined by nuclear transmutations and discusses some examples. For instance, new mechanisms for generation of O and Si would change dramatically the existing views about evolution of planets and prebiotic evolution of Earth. This inspires the question whether elements heavier than Li could be produced in interstellar space by cold nuclear reactions. In the following I consider a model for this. The basic prediction is that the abundances of heavier elements should not depend on time if the interstellar production dominates. The prediction is consistent with the recent experimental findings challenging seriously the standard model. 1. Are heavier nuclei produced in the interstellar space? TGD based model for cold fusion by plasma electrolysis and using heavy water explains many other anomalies: for instance, H_{1.5} anomaly of water and Lithium problem of cosmology (the amount of Li is considerably smaller than predicted by Big Bang cosmology and the explanation is that part of it transforms to dark Li with larger value of hbar and present in water). The model allows to understand the surprisingly detailed discoveries of Kervran about nuclear transmutations in living matter (often by bacteria) by possible slight modifications of mechanisms proposed by Kervran. If this picture is correct, it would have dramatic technological implications. Cold nuclear reactions could provide not only a new energy technology but also a manner to produce artificially various elements, say metals. The treatment of nuclear wastes might be carried out by inducing cold fissions of radioactive heavy nuclei to stable products by allowing them to collide with dark Lithium nuclei in water so that Coulomb wall is absent. Amazingly, there are bacteria which can live in the extremely harsh conditions provided by nuclear reactor were anything biological should die. Perhaps these bacteria carry out this process in their own body. The model also encourages to consider a simple model for the generation of heavier elements in interstellar medium: what is nice that the basic prediction differentiating this model from standard model is consistent with the recent experimental findings. The assumptions are following.
The basic prediction of TGD inspired model is that the abundances of the nuclei in the interstellar space should not depend on time if the rates are so high that equilibrium situation is reached rapidly. The hbar increasing phase transformation of the nuclear spacetime sheet determines the time scale in which equilibrium sets on. Standard model makes different prediction: the abundances of the heavier nuclei should gradually increase as the nuclei are repeatedly reprocessed in stars and blown out to the interstellar space in supernova explosion. Amazingly, there is empirical support for this highly nontrivial prediction [2]. Quite surprisingly, the 25 measured elemental abundances (elements up to Sn(50,70) (tin) and Pb(82,124) (lead)) of a 12 billion years old galaxy turned out to be very nearly the same as those for Sun. For instance, oxygen abundance was 1/3 from that from that estimated for Sun. Standard model would predict that the abundances should be .01.1 from that for Sun as measured for stars in our galaxy. The conjecture was that there must be some unknown law guaranteing that the distribution of stars of various masses is time independent. The alternative conclusion would be that heavier elements are created mostly in interstellar gas and dust.
3. Could also "ordinary" nuclei consist of protons and negatively charged color bonds? The model would strongly suggest that also ordinary stable nuclei consist of protons with proton and negatively charged color bond behaving effectively like neutron. Note however that I have also consider the possibility that neutron halo consists of protons connected by negatively charged color bonds to main nucleus. The smaller mass of proton would favor it as a fundamental building block of nucleus and negatively charged color bonds would be a natural manner to minimizes Coulomb energy. The fact that neutron does not suffer a beta decay to proton in nuclear environment provided by stable nuclei would also find an explanation.
[1] C. L. Kervran (1972), Biological transmutations, and their applications in chemistry, physics, biology, ecology, medicine, nutrition, agriculture, geology, Swan House Publishing Co. [2] J. Prochaska, J. C. Howk, A. M. Wolfe (2003), The elemental abundance pattern in a galaxy at z = 2.626, Nature 423, 5759 (2003). See also Distant elements of surprise. For details see the chapter Nuclear String Hypothesis.

The work of Kanarev and Mizuno about cold fusion in electrolysisThe article of Kanarev and Mizuno [1] reports findings supporting the occurrence of cold fusion in NaOH and KOH hydrolysis. The situation is different from standard cold fusion where heavy water D_{2}O is used instead of H_{2}O.
References
[1] Cold fusion by plasma electrolysis of water, Ph. M. Kanarev and T. Mizuno (2002),
[2] M. Chaplin (2005), Water Structure and Behavior,
[3] C. Charbonnel and F. Primas (2005), The lithium content of the Galactic Halo stars.
[4]C. L. Kervran (1972), Biological transmutations, and their applications in chemistry, physics, biology, ecology, medicine, nutrition, agriculture, geology, Swan House Publishing Co.
[5] Cold fusion is back at the American Chemical Society. [7] P. Kanarev (2002), Water is New Source of Energy, Krasnodar. [8] JC. Li and D.K. Ross (1993), Evidence of Two Kinds of Hydrogen Bonds in Ices. JC. Li and D.K. Ross, Nature, 365, 327329.

Ultra high energy cosmic rays as supercanonical quanta?Lubos tells about the announcement of Pierre Auger Collaboration relating to ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. I glue below a popular summary of the findings.
Scientists of the Pierre Auger Collaboration announced today (8 Nov. 2007) that active galactic nuclei are the most likely candidate for the source of the highestenergy cosmic rays that hit Earth. Using the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina, the largest cosmicray observatory in the world, a team of scientists from 17 countries found that the sources of the highestenergy p"../articles/ are not distributed uniformly across the sky. Instead, the Auger results link the origins of these mysterious p"../articles/ to the locations of nearby galaxies that have active nuclei in their centers. The results appear in the Nov. 9 issue of the journal Science.About million cosmic ray events have been recorded and 80 of them correspond to p"../articles/ with energy above the so called GKZ bound, which is .54 × 10^{11} GeV. Electromagnetically interacting p"../articles/ with these energies from distant galaxies should not be able to reach Earth. This would be due to the scattering from the photons of the microwave background. About 20 p"../articles/ of this kind however comes from the direction of distant active galactic nuclei and the probability that this is an accident is about 1 per cent. P"../articles/ having only strong interactions would be in question. The problem is that this kind of p"../articles/ are not predicted by the standard model (gluons are confined). 1. What does TGD say about the finding? TGD provides an explanation for the new kind of p"../articles/.
Supercanonical quanta are created by the elements of supercanonical algebra, which creates quantum states besides the super KacMoody algebra present also in super string model. Both algebras relate closely to the conformal invariance of lightlike 3surfaces.
3. Also hadrons contain supercanonical quanta One can say that TGD based model for hadron is at spacetime level kind of combination of QCD and old fashioned string model forgotten when QCD came in fashion and then transformed to the highly unsuccessful but equally fashionable theory of everything.

Does Higgs boson appear with two padic mass scales?The padic mass scale of quarks is in TGD Universe dynamical and several mass scales appear already in low energy hadron mass formulas. Also neutrinos seem to correspond to several mass scales and the large variation of electron's effective mass in condensed matter might be also partially due to the variation of padic mass scale. The values of Higgs mass deduced from high precision electroweak observables converges to two values differing by order of magnitude (see this and this) and this raises the question whether also Higgs mass scale could vary and depend on experimental situation. 1. Higgs mass in standard model In standard model Higgs and W boson masses are given by m_{H}^{2}= 2v^{2}λ=μ^{2}λ^{3}, m_{W}^{2}= g^{2}v^{2}/4= [e^{2}/8sin^{2}(θ_{W})] μ^{2}λ^{2} . This gives λ= [π/2α_{em}sin^{2}(θ_{W})] (m_{H}/m_{W})^{2} . In standard model one cannot predict the value of m_{H}. 2. Higgs mass in TGD In TGD framework one can try to understand Higgs mass from padic thermodynamics as resulting via the same mechanism as fermion masses so that the value of the parameter λ would follow as a prediction. One must assume that padic temperature equals to T_{p}=1. The natural assumption is that Higgs can be regarded as superposition of pairs of fermion and antifermion at opposite throats of wormhole contact. With these assumptions the thermal expectation of the Higgs conformal weight is just the sum of contributions from both throats and two times the average of the conformal weight over that for quarks and leptons: s_{H}= 2× <s> = 2× [∑_{q} s_{q} +∑_{L} s_{L}]/(N_{q}+N_{L}) = 2∑_{g=0}^{2} s_{mod}(g)/3+ (s_{L}+s_{νL}+ s_{U}+s_{D})/2 = 26+5+4+5+8/2= 37 . A couple of comments about the formula are in order.
The first guess would be that the padic length scale associated with Higgs boson is M_{89}. Second option is p≈ 2^{k}, k=97 (restricting k to be prime). If one allows k to be nonprime (these values of k are also realized) one can consider also k=91=7×13. By scaling from the expression for the electron mass, one obtains the estimates
m_{H}(89)≈ (37/5)^{1/2}× 2^{19}m_{e}≈ 727.3 GeV , A couple of comments are in order.
The value of λ is given in the three cases by
λ(89)≈ 4.41 , Unitarity would thus favor k=97 and k=91 also favored by the high precision data and k=91 is just at the unitarity bound λ=1) (here I am perhaps naive!). A possible interpretation is that for M_{89} Higgs mass forces λ to break unitarity bound and that this corresponds to the emergence of M_{89} copy of hadron physics. For more details see the chapter Massless p"../articles/ and particle massivation.

Connes tensor product and perturbative expansion in terms of generalized braid diagrams
Many steps of progress have occurred in TGD lately.
In the previous posting I explained how generalized braid diagrams emerge naturally as orbits of the minima of Higgs defined as a generalized eigenvalue of the modified Dirac operator. The association of generalized braid diagrams to incoming and outgoing 3D partonic legs and possibly also vertices of the generalized Feynman diagrams forces to ask whether the generalized braid diagrams could give rise to a counterpart of perturbation theoretical formalism via the functional integral over configuration space degrees of freedom. The question is how the functional integral over configuration space degrees of freedom relates to the generalized braid diagrams. The basic conjecture motivated also number theoretically is that radiative corrections in this sense sum up to zero for critical values of Kähler coupling strength and Kähler function codes radiative corrections to classical physics via the dependence of the scale of M^{4} metric on Planck constant. Cancellation occurs only for critical values of Kähler coupling strength α_{K}: for general values of α_{K} cancellation would require separate vanishing of each term in the sum and does not occur. The natural guess is that finite measurement resolution in the sense of Connes tensor product can be described as a cutoff to the number of generalized braid diagrams. Suppose that the cutoff due to the finite measurement resolution can be described in terms of inclusions and Mmatrix can be expressed as a Connes tensor product. Suppose that the improvement of the measurement resolution means the introduction of zero energy states and corresponding lightlike 3surfaces in shorter time scales bringing in increasingly complex 3topologies. This would mean following.
There are still some questions. Radiative corrections around given 3topology vanish. Could radiative corrections sum up to zero in an ideal measurement resolution also in 2D sense so that the initial and final partonic 2surfaces associated with a partonic 3surface of minimal complexity would determine the outcome completely? Could the 3surface of minimal complexity correspond to a trivial diagram so that free theory would result in accordance with asymptotic freedom as measurement resolution becomes ideal? The answer to these questions seems to be 'No'. In the padic sense the ideal limit would correspond to the limit p→ 0 and since only p→ 2 is possible in the discrete length scale evolution defined by primes, the limit is not a free theory. This conforms with the view that CP_{2} length scale defines the ultimate UV cutoff. For more details see the chapter Massless P"../articles/ and Particle Massivation.

Number theoretic braids and global view about anticommutations of induced spinor fields
The anticommutations of induced spinor fields are reasonably well understood locally. The basic objects are 3dimensional lightlike 3surfaces. These surfaces can be however seen as random lightlike orbits of partonic 2surfaces taking which would thus seem to take the role of fundamental dynamical objects. Conformal invariance in turn seems to make the 2D partons 1D objects and number theoretical braids in turn discretizes strings. And it also seems that the strands of number theoretic braid can in turn be discretized by considering the minima of Higgs potential in 3D sense. Somehow these apparently contradictory views should be unifiable in a more global view about the situation allowing to understand the reduction of effective dimension of the system as one goes to short scales. The notions of measurement resolution and number theoretic braid indeed provide the needed insights in this respect. 1. Anticommutations of the induced spinor fields and number theoretical braids The understanding of the number theoretic braids in terms of Higgs minima and maxima allows to gain a global view about anticommutations. The coordinate patches inside which Higgs modulus is monotonically increasing function define a division of partonic 2surfaces X^{2}_{t}= X^{3}_{l}\intersection δ M^{4}_{+/,t} to 2D patches as a function of time coordinate of X^{3}_{l} as lightcone boundary is shifted in preferred time direction defined by the quantum critical submanifold M^{2}× CP_{2}. This induces similar division of the lightlike 3surfaces X^{3}_{l} to 3D patches and there is a close analogy with the dynamics of ordinary 2D landscape. In both 2D and 3D case one can ask what happens at the common boundaries of the patches. Do the induced spinor fields associated with different patches anticommute so that they would represent independent dynamical degrees of freedom? This seems to be a natural assumption both in 2D and 3D case and correspond to the idea that the basic objects are 2 resp. 3dimensional in the resolution considered but this in a discretized sense due to finite measurement resolution, which is coded by the patch structure of X^{3}_{l}. A dimensional hierarchy results with the effective dimension of the basic objects increasing as the resolution scale increases when one proceeds from braids to the level of X^{3}_{l}. If the induced spinor fields associated with different patches anticommute, patches indeed define independent fermionic degrees of freedom at braid points and one has effective 2dimensionality in discrete sense. In this picture the fundamental stringy curves for X^{2}_{t} correspond to the boundaries of 2D patches and anticommutation relations for the induced spinor fields can be formulated at these curves. Formally the conformal time evolution scaled down the boundaries of these patches. If anticommutativity holds true at the boundaries of patches for spinor fields of neighboring patches, the patches would indeed represent independent degrees of freedom at stringy level. The cutoff in transversal degrees of freedom for the induced spinor fields means cutoff n≤ n_{max} for the conformal weight assignable to the holomorphic dependence of the induced spinor field on the complex coordinate. The dropping of higher conformal weights should imply the loss of the anticommutativity of the induced spinor fields and its conjugate except at the points of the number theoretical braid. Thus the number theoretic braid should code for the value of n_{max}: the naive expectation is that for a given stringy curve the number of braid points equals to n_{max}. 2. The decomposition into 3D patches and QFT description of particle reactions at the level of number theoretic braids What is the physical meaning of the decomposition of 3D lightlike surface to patches? It would be very desirable to keep the picture in which number theoretic braid connects the incoming positive/negative energy state to the partonic 2surfaces defining reaction vertices. This is not obvious if X^{3}_{l} decomposes into causally independent patches. One can however argue that although each patch can define its own fermion state it has a vanishing net quantum numbers in zero energy ontology, and can be interpreted as an intermediate virtual state for the evolution of incoming/outgoing partonic state. Another problem  actually only apparent problem has been whether it is possible to have a generalization of the braid dynamics able to describe particle reactions in terms of the fusion and decay of braid strands. For some strange reason I had not realized that number theoretic braids naturally allow fusion and decay. Indeed, cusp catastrophe is a canonical representation for the fusion process: cusp region contains two minima (plus maximum between them) and the complement of cusp region single minimum. The crucial control parameter of cusp catastrophe corresponds to the time parameter of X^{3}_{l}. More concretely, two valleys with a mountain between them fuse to form a single valley as the two real roots of a polynomial become complex conjugate roots. The continuation of lightlike surface to slicing of X^{4} to lightlike 3surfaces would give the full cusp catastrophe. In the catastrophe theoretic setting the time parameter of X^{3}_{l} appears as a control variable on which the roots of the polynomial equation defining minimum of Higgs depend: the dependence would be given by a rational function with rational coefficients. This picture means that particle reactions occur at several levels which brings in mind a kind of universal mimicry inspired by Universe as a Universal Computer hypothesis. Particle reactions in QFT sense correspond to the reactions for the number theoretic braids inside partons. This level seems to be the simplest one to describe mathematically. At parton level particle reactions correspond to generalized Feynman diagrams obtained by gluing partonic 3surfaces along their ends at vertices. Particle reactions are realized also at the level of 4D spacetime surfaces. One might hope that this multiple realization could code the dynamics already at the simple level of single partonic 3surface. 3. About 3D minima of Higgs potential The dominating contribution to the modulus of the Higgs field comes from δ M^{4}_{+/} distance to the axis R_{+} defining quantization axis. Hence in scales much larger than CP_{2} size the geometric picture is quite simple. The orbit for the 2D minimum of Higgs corresponds to a particle moving in the vicinity of R_{+} and minimal distances from R_{+} would certainly give a contribution to the Dirac determinant. Of course also the motion in CP_{2} degrees of freedom can generate local minima and if this motion is very complex, one expects large number of minima with almost same modulus of eigenvalues coding a lot of information about X^{3}_{l}. It would seem that only the most essential information about surface is coded: the knowledge of minima and maxima of height function indeed provides the most important general coordinate invariant information about landscape. In the rational category where X^{3}_{l} can be characterized by a finite set of rational numbers, this might be enough to deduce the representation of the surface. What if the situation is stationary in the sense that the minimum value of Higgs remains constant for some time interval? Formally the Dirac determinant would become a continuous product having an infinite value. This can be avoided by assuming that the contribution of a continuous range with fixed value of Higgs minimum is given by the contribution of its initial point: this is natural if one thinks the situation information theoretically. Physical intuition suggests that the minima remain constant for the maxima of Kähler function so that the initial partonic 2surface would determine the entire contribution to the Dirac determinant. For more details see the chapter Massless states and Particle Massivation.

Fractional Quantum Hall effect in TGD frameworkThe generalization of the imbedding space discussed in previous posting allows to understand fractional quantum Hall effect (see this and this). The formula for the quantized Hall conductance is given by σ= ν× e^{2}/h,ν=m/n. Series of fractions in ν=1/3, 2/5 3/7, 4/9, 5/11, 6/13, 7/15..., 2/3, 3/5, 4/7 5/9, 6/11, 7/13..., 5/3, 8/5, 11/7, 14/9... 4/3 7/5, 10/7, 13/9... , 1/5, 2/9, 3/13..., 2/7 3/11..., 1/7.. with odd denominator have bee observed as are also ν=1/2 and ν=5/2 state with even denominator. The model of Laughlin [Laughlin] cannot explain all aspects of FQHE. The best existing model proposed originally by Jain [Jain] is based on composite fermions resulting as bound states of electron and even number of magnetic flux quanta. Electrons remain integer charged but due to the effective magnetic field electrons appear to have fractional charges. Composite fermion picture predicts all the observed fractions and also their relative intensities and the order in which they appear as the quality of sample improves. I have considered earlier a possible TGD based model of FQHE not involving hierarchy of Planck constants. The generalization of the notion of imbedding space suggests the interpretation of these states in terms of fractionized charge and electron number.
[Laughlin] R. B. Laughlin (1983), Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1395. For more details see the chapter Dark Nuclear Physics and Condensed Matter.

Could one demonstrate the existence of large Planck constant photons using ordinary camera or even bare eyes?If ordinary light sources generate also dark photons with same energy but with scaled up wavelength, this might have effects detectable with camera and even with bare eyes. In the following I consider in a rather lighthearted and speculative spirit two possible effects of this kind appearing in both visual perception and in photos. For crackpotters possibly present in the audience I want to make clear that I love to play with ideas to see whether they work or not, and that I am ready to accept some convincing mundane explanation of these effects and I would be happy to hear about this kind of explanations. I was not able to find any such explanation from Wikipedia using words like camera, digital camera, lense, aberrations.. Why light from an intense light source seems to decompose into rays? If one also assumes that ordinary radiation fields decompose in TGD Universe into topological light rays ("massless extremals", MEs) even stronger predictions follow. If Planck constant equals to hbar= q×hbar_{0}, q=n_{a}/n_{b}, MEs should possess Z_{na} as an exact discrete symmetry group acting as rotations along the direction of propagation for the induced gauge fields inside ME. The structure of MEs should somewhat realize this symmetry and one possibility is that MEs has a wheel like structure decomposing into radial spokes with angular distance Δφ= 2π/n_{a} related by the symmetries in question. This brings strongly in mind phenomenon which everyone can observe anytime: the light from a bright source decomposes into radial rays as if one were seeing the profile of the light rays emitted in a plane orthogonal to the line connecting eye and the light source. The effect is especially strong if eyes are stirred. Could this apparent decomposition to light rays reflect directly the structure of dark MEs and could one deduce the value of n_{a} by just counting the number of rays in camera picture, where the phenomenon turned to be also visible? Note that the size of these wheel like MEs would be macroscopic and diffractive effects do not seem to be involved. The simplest assumption is that most of photons giving rise to the wheel like appearance are transformed to ordinary photons before their detection. The discussions about this led to a little experimentation with camera at the summer cottage of my friend Samppa Pentikäinen, quite a magician in technical affairs. When I mentioned the decomposition of light from an intense light source to rays at the level of visual percept and wondered whether the same occurs also in camera, Samppa decided to take photos with a digi camera directed to Sun. The effect occurred also in this case and might correspond to decomposition to MEs with various values of n_{a} but with same quantization axis so that the effect is not smoothed out. What was interesting was the presence of some stronger almost vertical "rays" located symmetrically near the vertical axis of the camera. The shutter mechanism determining the exposure time is based on the opening of the first shutter followed by closing a second shutter after the exposure time so that every point of sensor receives input for equally long time. The area of the region determining input is bounded by a vertical line. If macroscopic MEs are involved, the contribution of vertical rays is either nothing or all unlike that of other rays and this might somehow explain why their contribution is enhanced. Addition: I learned from Samppa that the shutter mechanism is unnecessary in digi cameras since the time for the reset of sensors is what matters. Something in the geometry of the camera or in the reset mechanism must select vertical direction in a preferred position. For instance, the outer "aperture" of the camera had the geometry of a flattened square. Anomalous diffraction of dark photons Second prediction is the possibility of diffractive effects in length scales where they should not occur. A good example is the diffraction of light coming from a small aperature of radius d. The diffraction pattern is determined by the Bessel function J_{1}(x), x=kdsin(θ), k= 2π/λ. There is a strong light spot in the center and light rings around whose radii increase in size as the distance of the screen from the aperture increases. Dark rings correspond to the zeros of J_{1}(x) at x=x_{n} and the following scaling law for the nodes holds true sin(θ_{n})= x_{n}λ/2πd. For very small wavelengths the central spot is almost pointlike and contains most light intensity. If photons of visible light correspond to large Planck constant hbar= q× hbar_{0} transformed to ordinary photons in the detector (say camera film or eye), their wavelength is scaled by q and one has sin(θ_{n})→ q× sin(θ_{n}) The size of the diffraction pattern for visible light is scaled up by q. This effect might make it possible to detect dark photons with energies of visible photons and possibly present in the ordinary light.
For details see the chapter Dark Nuclear Physics and Condensed Matter.

Burning salt water with radio waves and large Planck constantThis morning my friend Samuli Penttinen send an email telling about strange discovery by engineer John Kanzius: salt water in the test tube radiated by radiowaves at harmonics of a frequency f=13.56 MHz burns. Temperatures about 1500 K which correspond to .15 eV energy have been reported. You can radiate also hand but nothing happens. The orginal discovery of Kanzius was the finding that radio waves could be used to cure cancer by destroying the cancer cells. The proposal is that this effect might provide new energy source by liberating chemical emergy in an exceptionally effective manner. The power is about 200 W so that the power used could explain the effect if it is absorbed in resonance like manner by salt water. The energies of photons involved are very small, multiples of 5.6× 10^{8} eV and their effect should be very small since it is difficult to imagine what resonant molecular transition could cause the effect. This leads to the question whether the radio wave beam could contain a considerable fraction of dark photons for which Planck constant is larger so that the energy of photons is much larger. The underlying mechanism would be phase transition of dark photons with large Planck constant to ordinary photons with shorter wavelength coupling resonantly to some molecular degrees of freedom and inducing the heating. Microwave oven of course comes in mind immediately.
Recall that one of the empirical motivations for the hierarchy of Planck constants came from the observed quantum like effects of ELF em fields at EEG frequences on vertebrate brain and also from the correlation of EEG with brain function and contents of consciousness difficult to understand since the energies of EEG photons are ridiculously small and should be masked by thermal noise. In TGD based model of EEG (actually fractal hierarchy of EEGs) the values hbar/hbar_{0} =2^{k11}, k=1,2,3,..., of Planck constant are in a preferred role. More generally, powers of two of a given value of Planck constant are preferred, which is also in accordance with padic length scale hypothesis. For details see the chapter Dark Nuclear Physics and Condensed Matter.

Blackhole production at LHC and replacement of ordinary blackholes with supercanonical blackholesTommaso Dorigo has an interesting posting about blackhole production at LHC. I have never taken this idea seriously but in a welldefined sense TGD predicts blackholes associated with supercanonical gravitons with strong gravitational constant defined by the hadronic string tension. The proposal is that supercanonical blackholes have been already seen in Hera, RHIC, and the strange cosmic ray events (see the previous posting). Ordinary blackholes are naturally replaced with supercanonical blackholes in TGD framework, which would mean a profound difference between TGD and string models. Supercanonical blackholes are dark matter in the sense that they have no electroweak interactions and they could have Planck constant larger than the ordinary one so that the value of α_{s}=α_{K}=1/4 is reduced. The condition that α_{K} has the same value for the supercanonical phase as it has for ordinary gauge boson spacetime sheets gives hbar=26×hbar_{0}. With this assumption the size of the baryonic supercanonical blacholes would be 46 fm, the size of a big nucleus, and would define the fundamental length scale of nuclear physics. 1. RHIC and supercanonical blackholes In high energy collisions of nuclei at RHIC the formation of supercanonical blackholes via the fusion of nucleonic spacetime sheets would give rise to what has been christened a color glass condensate. Baryonic supercanonical blackholes of M_{107} hadron physics would have mass 934.2 MeV, very near to proton mass. The mass of their M_{89} counterparts would be 512 times higher, about 478 GeV. The "ionization energy" for Pomeron, the structure formed by valence quarks connected by color bonds separating from the spacetime sheet of supercanonical blackhole in the production process, corresponds to the total quark mass and is about 170 MeV for ordinary proton and 87 GeV for M_{89} proton. This kind of picture about blackhole formation expected to occur in LHC differs from the stringy picture since a fusion of the hadronic mini blackholes to a larger blackhole is in question. An interesting question is whether the ultrahigh energy cosmic rays having energies larger than the GZK cutoff (see the previous posting) are baryons, which have lost their valence quarks in a collision with hadron and therefore have no interactions with the microwave background so that they are able to propagate through long distances. 2. Ordinary blackholes as supercanonical blackholes In neutron stars the hadronic spacetime sheets could form a gigantic supercanonical blackhole and ordinary blackholes would be naturally replaced with supercanonical blackholes in TGD framework (only a small part of blackhole interior metric is representable as an induced metric).

Pomeron, valence quarks, and supercanonical dark matterThe recent developments in the understanding of hadron mass spectrum involve the realization that hadronic k=107 spacetime sheet is a carrier of supercanonical bosons (and possibly their supercounterparts with quantum numbers of right handed neutrino) (see this) . The model leads to amazingly simple and accurate mass formulas for hadrons. Most of the baryonic momentum is carried by supercanonical quanta: valence quarks correspond in proton to a relatively small fraction of total mass: about 170 MeV. The counterparts of string excitations correspond to supercanonical manyparticle states and the additivity of conformal weight proportional to mass squared implies stringy mass formula and generalization of Regge trajectory picture. Hadronic string tension is predicted correctly. Model also provides a solution to the proton spin puzzle. In this framework valence quarks would correspond to a color singlet state formed by spacetime sheets connected by color flux tubes having no Regge trajectories and carrying a relatively small fraction of baryonic momentum. This kind structure, known as Pomeron, was the anomalous part of hadronic string model. Valence quarks would thus correspond to Pomeron. 1. Experimental evidence for Pomeron Pomeron originally introduced to describe hadronic diffractive scattering as the exchange of Pomeron Regge trajectory [1]. No hadrons belonging to Pomeron trajectory were however found and via the advent of QCD Pomeron was almost forgotten. Pomeron has recently experienced reincarnation [2,3,4]. In Hera ep collisions, where proton scatters essentially elastically whereas jets in the direction of incoming virtual photon emitted by electron are observed. These events can be understood by assuming that proton emits color singlet particle carrying small fraction of proton's momentum. This particle in turn collides with virtual photon (antiproton) whereas proton scatters essentially elastically. The identification of the color singlet particle as Pomeron looks natural since Pomeron emission describes nicely diffractive scattering of hadrons. Analogous hard diffractive scattering events in pX diffractive scattering with X=antip [3] or X=p [4] have also been observed. What happens is that proton scatters essentially elastically and emitted Pomeron collides with X and suffers hard scattering so that large rapidity gap jets in the direction of X are observed. These results suggest that Pomeron is real and consists of ordinary partons.
2. Pomeron as the color bonded structure formed by valence quarks In TGD framework the natural identification of Pomeron is as valence The lightness and electroweak neutrality of Pomeron support the view that photon stripes valence quarks from Pomeron, which continues its flight more or less unperturbed. Instead of an actual topological evaporation the bonds connecting valence quarks to the hadronic spacetime sheet could be stretched during the collision with photon. The large value of α_{K}=1/4 for supercanonical matter suggests that the criterion for a phase transition increasing the value of Planck constant (this) and leading to a phase, where α_{K} propto 1/hbar is reduced, could occur. For α_{K} to remain invariant, hbar_{0}→ 26×hbar_{0} would be required. In this case, the size of hadronic spacetime sheet, "color field body of the hadron", would be 26× L(107)=46 fm, roughly the size of the heaviest nuclei. Note that the sizes of electromagnetic field bodies of current quarks u and d with masses of order few MeV is not much smaller than the Compton length of electron. This would mean that supercanonical bosons would represent dark matter in a welldefined sense and Pomeron exchange would represent a temporary separation of ordinary and dark matter. Note however that the fact that supercanonical bosons have no electroweak interactions, implies their dark matter character even for the ordinary value of Planck constant: this could be taken as an objection against dark matter hierarchy. My own interpretation is that supercanonical matter is dark matter in the strongest sense of the world whereas ordinary matter in the large hbar phase is only apparently dark matter because standard interactions do not reveal themselves in the expected manner. 3. Astrophysical counterpart of Pomeron events Pomeron events have a direct analogy in astrophysical length scales. I have commented about this already earlier. In the collision of two galaxies dark and visible matter parts of the colliding galaxies have been found to separate by Chandra Xray Observatory. Imagine a collision between two galaxies. The ordinary matter in them collides and gets interlocked due to the mutual gravitational attraction. Dark matter, however, just keeps its momentum and keeps going on leaving behind the colliding galaxies. This kind of event has been detected by the Chandra XRay Observatory by using an ingenious manner to detect dark matter. Collisions of ordinary matter produces a lot of Xrays and the dark matter outside the galaxies acts as a gravitational lens. 4. Supercanonical bosons and anomalies of hadron physics Supercanonical bosons suggest a solution to several other anomalies related to hadron physics. Spin puzzle of proton has been already discussed in previous postings. The events observed for a couple of years ago in RHIC (see this) suggest a creation of a blackhole like state in the collision of heavy nuclei and inspire the notion of color glass condensate of gluons, whose natural identification in TGD framework would be in terms of a fusion of hadronic spacetime sheets containing supercanonical matter materialized also from the collision energy. The blackhole states would be blackholes of strong gravitation with gravitational constant determined by hadronic string tension and gravitons identifiable as J=2 supercanonical bosons. The topological condensation of mesonic and baryonic Pomerons created from collision energy on the condensate would be analogous to the sucking of ordinary matter by real blackhole. Note that also real black holes would be dense enough for the formation of condensate of supercanonical bosons but probably with much large value of Planck constant. Neutron stars could contain hadronic supercanonical condensate. In the collision, valence quarks connected together by color bonds to form separate units would evaporate from their hadronic spacetime sheets in the collision just like in the collisions producing Pomeron. The strange features of the events related to the collisions of high energy cosmic rays with hadrons of atmosphere (the p"../articles/ in question are hadron like but the penetration length is anomalously long and the rate for the production of hadrons increases as one approaches surface of Earth) could be also understood in terms of the same general mechanism. 5. Fashions and physics The story of Pomeron is a good example about the destructive effect of reductionism, fashions, and career constructivism in the recent day theoretical physics. For more than thirty years ago we had hadronic string model providing satisfactory qualitative view about nonperturbative aspects of hadron physics. Pomeron was the anomaly. Then came QCD and both hadronic string model and Pomeron were forgotten and low energy hadron physics became the anomaly. No one asked whether valence quarks might relate to Pomeron and whether stringy aspects could represent something which does not reduce to QCD. To have some use for strings it was decided that superstring model describes not only gravitation but actually everything and now we are in a situation in which people are wasting their time with AdS/CFT duality based model in which N=4 supersymmetric theory is decided to describe hadrons. This theory does not contain even quarks, only spartners of gluons, and conclusions are based on study of the limit in which one has infinite number of quark colors. The science historians of future will certainly identify the last thirty years as the weirdest period in theoretical physics. For the revised padic mass calculations hadron masses see the chapters pAdic mass calculations: hadron masses and pAdic mass calculations: New Physics of "pAdic Length Scale Hypothesis and Dark Matter Hierarchy". References [1] N. M. Queen, G. Violini (1974), {\em Dispersion Theory in High Energy Physics}, The Macmillan Press Limited. [2] M. Derrick et al(1993), Phys. Lett B 315, p. 481. [3] A. Brandt et al (1992), Phys. Lett. B 297, p. 417. [4] A. M. Smith et al(1985), Phys. Lett. B 163, p. 267.

Does the spin of hadron correlate with its supercanonical boson content?The revision of hadronic mass calculations is still producing pleasant surprises. The explicit comparison of the supercanonical conformal weights associated with spin 0 and spin 1 states on one hand and spin 1/2 and spin 3/2 states on the other hand (see this) demonstrates that the difference between these states could be understood in terms of supercanonical particle contents of the states by introducing only single additional negative conformal weight s_{c} describing color Coulombic binding . s_{c} is constant for baryons(s_{c}=4) and in the case of mesons nonvanishing only for pions (s_{c}=5) and kaons (s_{c}=12). This leads to an excellent prediction for the masses also in the meson sector since pseudoscalar mesons heavier than kaon are not Golstone boson like states in this model. Deviations of predicted and actual masses are typically below per cent and second order contributions can explain the discrepancy. There is also consistency with string bounds from top quark mass. The correlation of the spin of quarksystem with the particle content of the supercanonical sector increases dramatically the predictive power of the model if the allowed conformal weights of supercanonical bosons are assumed to be identical with U type quarks and thus given by (5,6,58) for the three generations. One can even consider the possibility that also exotic hadrons with different supercanonical particle content exist: this means a natural generalization of the notion of Regge trajectories. The next task would be to predict the correlation of hadron spin with supercanonical particle content in the case of longlived hadrons. For the revised padic mass calculations hadron masses see the revised chapter pAdic mass calculations: hadron masses.

Revised padic calculations of hadronic massesThe progress in the understanding Kähler coupling strength led to considerable increase in the understanding of hadronic masses. I list those points which are of special importance elements for the revised model. 1. Higgs contribution to fermion masses is negligible There are good reasons to believe that Higgs expectation for the fermionic spacetime sheets is vanishing although fermions couple to Higgs. Thus padic thermodynamics would explain fermion masses completely. This together with the fact that the prediction of the model for the top quark mass is consistent with the most recent limits on it, fixes the CP_{2} mass scale with a high accuracy to the maximal one obtained if second order contribution to electron's padic mass squared vanishes. This is very strong constraint on the model. 2. The padic length scale of quark is dynamical The assumption about the presence of scaled up variants of light quarks in light hadrons is not new. It leads to a surprisingly successful model for pseudo scalar meson masses using only quark masses and the assumption mass squared is additive for quarks with same padic length scale and mass for quarks labelled by different primes p. This conforms with the idea that pseudo scalar mesons are Goldstone bosons in the sense that color Coulombic and magnetic contributions to the mass cancel each other. Also the mass differences between hadrons containing different numbers of strange and heavy quarks can be understood if s, b and c quarks appear as several scaled up versions. This hypothesis yields surprisingly good fit for meson masses but for some mesons the predicted mass is slightly too high. The reduction of CP_{2} mass scale to cure the situation is not possible since top quark mass would become too low. In case of diagonal mesons for which quarks correspond to same padic prime, quark contribution to mass squared can be reduced by ordinary color interactions and in the case of nondiagonal mesons one can require that quark contribution is not larger than meson mass. 3. Supercanonical bosons at hadronic spacetime sheet can explain the constant contribution to baryonic masses Quarks explain only a small fraction of the baryon mass and that there is an additional contribution which in a good approximation does not depend on baryon. This contribution should correspond to the nonperturbative aspects of QCD. A possible identification of this contribution is in terms of supercanonical gluons predicted by TGD. Baryonic spacetime sheet with k=107 would contain a manyparticle state of supercanonical gluons with net conformal weight of 16 units. This leads to a model of baryons masses in which masses are predicted with an accuracy better than 1 per cent. Supercanonical gluons also provide a possible solution to the spin puzzle of proton. One ends up also to a prediction α_{s} =α_{K}=1/4 at hadronic spacetime sheet. Hadronic string model provides a phenomenological description of nonperturbative aspects of QCD and a connection with the hadronic string model indeed emerges. Hadronic string tension is predicted correctly from the additivity of mass squared for J= bound states of supercanonical quanta. If the topological mixing for supercanonical bosons is equal to that for U type quarks then a 3particle state formed by supercanonical quanta from the first generation and 1 quantum from the second generation would define baryonic ground state with 16 units of conformal weight. In the case of mesons pion could contain supercanonical boson of first generation preventing the large negative contribution of the color magnetic spinspin interaction to make pion a tachyon. For heavier bosons supercanonical boson need not to be assumed. The preferred role of pion would relate to the fact that its mass scale is below QCD Λ. 4. Description of color magnetic spinspin splitting in terms of conformal weight What remains to be understood are the contributions of color Coulombic and magnetic interactions to the mass squared. There are contributions coming from both ordinary gluons and supercanonical gluons and the latter is expected to dominate by the large value of color coupling strength. Conformal weight replaces energy as the basic variable but group theoretical structure of color magnetic contribution to the conformal weight associated with hadronic spacetime sheet ($k=107$) is same as in case of energy. The predictions for the masses of mesons are not so good than for baryons, and one might criticize the application of the format of perturbative QCD in an essentially nonperturbative situation. The comparison of the supercanonical conformal weights associated with spin 0 and spin 1 states and spin 1/2 and spin 3/2 states shows that the different masses of these states could be understood in terms of the supercanonical particle contents of the state correlating with the total quark spin. The resulting model allows excellent predictions also for the meson masses and implies that only pion and kaon can be regarded as Goldstone boson like states. The model based on spinspin splittings is consistent with model. To sum up, the model provides an excellent understanding of baryon and meson masses. This success is highly nontrivial since the fit involves only the integers characterizing the padic length scales of quarks and the integers characterizing color magnetic spinspin splitting plus padic thermodynamics and topological mixing for supercanonical gluons. The next challenge would be to predict the correlation of hadron spin with supercanonical particle content in the case of longlived hadrons. For the revised padic mass calculations hadron masses see the revised chapter pAdic mass calculations: hadron masses.

A connection with hadronic string modelIn the previous posting I described the realization that so called supercanonical degrees of freedom (super KacMoody algebra associated with symplectic (canonical) transformations of M^{4}_{+/}× CP_{2} (lightcone boundary in a loose terminology) is responsible for the nonperturbative aspects of hadron physics. One can say that the notion of hadronic spacetime sheet characterized by Mersenne prime M_{107} and responsible for the nonperturbative aspects of hadron physics finds a precise quantitative theoretical articulation in terms of supercanonical symmetry. Note that besides bosonic generators also the super counterparts of the bosonic generators carrying quantum numbers of right handed neutrino are present and could give rise to supercounterparts of hadrons. It might not be easy to distinguish them from ordinary hadrons.
1. Quantitative support for the role of supercanonical algebra Quantitative calculations for hadron masses (still under progress) support this picture and one can predict correctly the previously unidentified large contribution to the masses spin 1/2 baryons in terms of a bound state of g=1 (genus) supercanonical gluons with color binding conformal weight of 2 units reducing the net conformal weight of 2gluon state from 18 to 16. An alternative picture is that supercanonical gluons suffer same topological mixing as U type quarks so that the conformal weights are (5,6,58). In this case ground state could contain two supercanonical gluons of first generation and one of second generation (5+5+6=16). I thought first that in the case of mesons this contribution might not be present. There could be however single superscanonical meson present inside pion and rho meson with conformal weight 5 (!) and it would prevent color magnetic binding conformal weight to make pion a tachyon. The special role of πρ system would be due to the fact that pion mass is below QCD Λ. If no mixing occurs, g=0 gluons would define the analog of gluonic component of parton sea and bringing in additional color interaction besides the one mediated by ordinary gluons and having very strong color coupling strength α_{s}=α_{K}=1/4. This contribution is compensated by the color magnetic spinspin splitting and color Coulombic energy in the case of pseudoscalars in accordance with the idea that pseudoscalars are Golstone bosons apart from the contribution of quarks to the mass of the meson. Quite generally, one can say that supercanonical sector adds to the theory the nonperturbative aspects of hadron physics which become important at low energies. This contribution is something which QCD cannot yield in any circumstances since color group has geometric meaning in TGD being represented as color rotations of CP_{2}. 2. Hadronic strings and supercanonical algebra Hadronic string model provides a phenomenological description of the nonperturbative aspects of hadron physics, and TGD was born both as a resolution of energy problem of general relativity and as a generalization of the hadronic string model. Hence one can ask whether something resembling hadronic string model might emerge from the supercanonical sector. TGD allows string like objects but the fundamental string tension is gigantic, roughly a factor 10^{8} of that defined by Planck constant. An extremely rich spectrum of vacuum extremals is predicted and the expectation motivated by the padic length scale hypothesis is that vacuum extremals deformed to nonvacuum extremals give rise to a hierarchy of string like objects with string tension T propto 1/L_{p}^{2}, L_{p} the padic length scale. pAdic length scale hypothesis states that primes p≈2^{k} are preferred. Also a hierarchy of QCD like physics is predicted. The challenge has been the identification of quantum counterpart of this picture and padic physics leads naturally to it.
To sum up, combining these results with earlier ones one can say that besides elementary particle masses all basic parameters of hadronic physics are predicted correctly from padic length scale hypothesis plus simple number theoretical considerations involving only integer arithmetics. This is quite an impressive result. To my humble opinion, it would be high time for the string people and other colleagues to realize that they have already lost the boat badly and the situation worsens if they refuse to meet the reality described so elegantly by TGD. There is enormous amount of work to be carried out and the early bird gets the worm;). For the revised padic mass calculations hadron masses see the revised chapter pAdic mass calculations: hadron masses.

Progress in the understanding of baryon massesIn the previous posting I explained the progress made in understanding of mesonic masses basically due to the realization how the ChernSimons coupling k determines Kähler coupling strength and padic temperature discussed in still earlier posting. Today I took a more precise look at the baryonic masses. It the case of scalar mesons quarks give the dominating contribution to the meson mass. This is not true for spin 1/2 baryons and the dominating contribution must have some other origin. The identification of this contribution has remained a challenge for years. A realization of a simple numerical coincidence related to the padic mass squared unit led to an identification of this contribution in terms of states created by purely bosonic generators of supercanonical algebra and having as a spacetime correlate CP_{2} type vacuum extremals topologically condensed at k=107 spacetime sheet (or having this spacetime sheet as field body). Proton and neutron masses are predicted with .5 per cent accuracy and ΔN mass splitting with .2 per cent accuracy. A further outcome is a possible solution to the spin puzzle of proton. 1. Does k=107 hadronic spacetime sheet give the large contribution to baryon mass? In the sigma model for baryons the dominating contribution to the mass of baryon results as a vacuum expectation value of scalar field and mesons are analogous to Goldstone bosons whose masses are basically due to the masses of light quarks. This would suggest that k=107 gluonic/hadronic spacetime sheet gives a large contribution to the mass squared of baryon. pAdic thermodynamics allows to expect that the contribution to the mass squared is in good approximation of form Δm^{2}= nm^{2}(107), where m^{2}(107) is the minimum possible padic mass mass squared and n a positive integer. One has m(107)=2^{10}m(127)= 2^{10}m_{e}5^{1/2}=233.55 MeV for Y_{e}=0 favored by the top quark mass.
The observations made above do not leave much room for alternative models. The basic problem is the identification of the large contribution to the mass squared coming from the hadronic spacetime sheet with k=107. This contribution could have the energy of color fields as a spacetime correlate.
Glueballs (see this and this) define the first candidate for the exotic boson in question. There are however several objections against this idea.
4. Do exotic colored bosons give rise to the ground state mass of baryon? The objections listed above lead to an identification of bosons responsible for the ground state mass, which looks much more promising.
For more details about padic mass calculations of elementary particle masses see the chapter Massless p"../articles/ and particle massivation. The chapter pAdic mass calculations: hadron masses describes the model for hadronic masses. The chapter pAdic mass calculations: New Physics explains the new view about Kähler coupling strength.

The model for hadron masses revisitedThe blog of Tommaso Dorigo contains two postings which served as a partial stimulus to reconsider the model of hadron masses. The first posting is The top quark mass measured from its production rate and tells about new high precision determination of top quark mass reducing its value to the most probale value 169.1 GeV in allowed interval 164.7175.5 GeV. Second posting Rumsfeld hadrons tells about "crackpottish" finding that the mass of B_{c} meson is in an excellent approximation average of the mass of Ψ and Υ mesons. TGD based model for hadron masses allows to understand this finding. 1. Motivations There were several motivations for looking again the padic mass calculations for quarks and hadrons.
The basic assumptions in the model of hadron masses are following.
The mass formulas allow to understand why the "crackpottish" mass formula for B_{c} holds true. The mass of the B_{c} meson (bound state of b and c quark and antiquark) has been measured with a precision by CDF (see the blog posting by Tommaso Dorigo) and is found to be M(B_{c})=6276.5+/ 4.8 MeV. Dorigo notices that there is a strange "crackpottian" coincidence involved. Take the masses of the fundamental mesons made of c antic (Ψ) and b antib (Υ), add them, and divide by two. The value of mass turns out to be 6278.6 MeV, less than one part per mille away from the B_{c} mass! The general padic mass formulas and the dependence of k_{q}on hadron explain the coincidence. The mass of B_{c} is given as m(B_{c})= m(c,k_{c}(B_{c}))+ m(b,k_{b}(B_{c})), whereas the masses of Ψ and Υ are given by m( Ψ)= 2^{1/2}m(c,k_{Ψ}) and m(Υ)= 2^{1/2}m(b,k_{Υ}). Assuming k_{c}(B_{c})= k_{c}(Ψ) and k_{b}(B_{c})= k_{b}(Υ) would give m(B_{c})= 2^{1/2}[m( Ψ)+m( Υ)] which is by a factor 2^{1/2} higher than the prediction of the "crackpot" formula. k_{c}(B_{c})= k_{c}( Ψ)+1 and k_{b}(B_{c})= k_{b}( Υ)+1 however gives the correct result. As such the formula makes sense but the one part per mille accuracy must be an accident in TGD framework.

Does the quantization of Kähler coupling strength reduce to the quantization of ChernSimons coupling at partonic level?Kähler coupling strength associated with Kähler action (Maxwell action for the induced Kähler form) is the only coupling constant parameter in quantum TGD, and its value (or values) is in principle fixed by the condition of quantum criticality since Kähler coupling strength is completely analogous to critical temperature. The quantum TGD at parton level reduces to almost topological QFT for lightlike 3surfaces. This almost TQFT involves Abelian ChernSimons action for the induced Kähler form. This raises the question whether the integer valued quantization of the ChernSimons coupling k could predict the values of the Kähler coupling strength. I considered this kind of possibility already for more than 15 years ago but only the reading of the introduction of the recent paper by Witten about his new approach to 3D quantum gravity led to the discovery of a childishly simple argument that the inverse of Kähler coupling strength could indeed be proportional to the integer valued ChernSimons coupling k: 1/α_{K}=4k if all factors are correct. k=26 is forced by the comparison with some physical input. Also padic temperature could be identified as T_{p}=1/k. 1. Quantization of ChernSimons coupling strength For ChernSimons action the quantization of the coupling constant guaranteing so called holomorphic factorization is implied by the integer valuedness of the ChernSimons coupling strength k. As Witten explains, this follows from the quantization of the first ChernSimons class for closed 4manifolds plus the requirement that the phase defined by ChernSimons action equals to 1 for a boundaryless 4manifold obtained by gluing together two 4manifolds along their boundaries. As explained by Witten in his paper, one can consider also "anyonic" situation in which k has spectrum Z/n^{2} for nfold covering of the gauge group and in dark matter sector one can consider this kind of quantization. 2. Formula for Kähler coupling strength The quantization argument for k seems to generalize to the case of TGD. What is clear that this quantization should closely relate to the quantization of the Kähler coupling strength appearing in the 4D Kähler action defining Kähler function for the world of classical worlds and conjectured to result as a Dirac determinant. The conjecture has been that g_{K}^{2} has only single value. With some physical input one can make educated guesses about this value. The connection with the quantization of ChernSimons coupling would however suggest a spectrum of values. This spectrum is easy to guess.
It is not too difficult to believe to the formula 1/α_{K} =qk, q some rational. q=4 however requires a justification for the Wick rotation bringing the imaginary unit to ChernSimons action exponential lacking from Kähler function exponential. In this kind of situation one might hope that an additional symmetry might come in rescue. The guess is that number theoretic vision could justify this symmetry.
The action of CP_{2} type extremal is given as S=π/8α_{K}= kπ/2. Therefore the exponent of Kähler action appearing in the vacuum functional would be exp(kπ) known to be a transcendental number (Gelfond's constant). Also its powers are transcendental. If one wants to padicize also in 4D sense, this raises a problem. Before considering this problem, consider first the 4D padicization more generally.
Kähler coupling strength would have the same spectrum as padic temperature T_{p} apart from a multiplicative factor. The identification T_{p}=1/k is indeed very natural since also g_{K}^{2} is a temperature like parameter. The simplest guess is T_{p}= 1/k. Also gauge couplings strengths are expected to be proportional to g_{K}^{2} and thus to 1/k apart from a factor characterizing padic coupling constant evolution. That all basic parameters of theory would have simple expressions in terms of k would be very nice from the point of view quantum classical correspondence. If U(1) coupling constant strength at electron length scales equals α_{K}=1/104, this would give 1/T_{p}≈ 1/26. This means that photon, graviton, and gluons would be massless in an excellent approximation for say p=M_{89}, which characterizes electroweak gauge bosons receiving their masses from their coupling to Higgs boson. For fermions one has T_{p}=1 so that fermionic lightlike wormhole throats would correspond to the strongest possible coupling strength α_{K}=1/4 whereas gauge bosons identified as pairs of lightlike wormhole throats associated with wormhole contacts would correspond to α_{K}=1/104. Perhaps T_{p}=1/26 is the highest padic temperature at which gauge boson wormhole contacts are stable against splitting to fermionantifermion pair. Fermions and possible exotic bosons created by bosonic generators of supercanonical algebra would correspond to single wormhole throat and could also naturally correspond to the maximal value of padic temperature since there is nothing to which they can decay. A fascinating problem is whether k=26 defines internally consistent conformal field theory and is there something very special in it. Also the thermal stability argument for gauge bosons should be checked. What could go wrong with this picture? The different value for the fermionic and bosonic α_{K} makes sense only if the 4D spacetime sheets associated with fermions and bosons can be regarded as disjoint spacetime regions. Gauge bosons correspond to wormhole contacts connecting (deformed pieces of CP_{2} type extremal) positive and negative energy spacetime sheets whereas fermions would correspond to deformed CP_{2} type extremal glued to single spacetime sheet having either positive or negative energy. These spacetime sheets should make contact only in interaction vertices of the generalized Feynman diagrams, where partonic 3surfaces are glued together along their ends. If this gluing together occurs only in these vertices, fermionic and bosonic spacetime sheets are disjoint. For stringy diagrams this picture would fail. To sum up, the resulting overall vision seems to be internally consistent and is consistent with generalized Feynman graphics, predicts exactly the spectrum of α_{K}, allows to identify the inverse of padic temperature with k, allows to understand the differences between fermionic and bosonic massivation, and reduces Wick rotation to a number theoretic symmetry. One might hope that the additional objections (to be found sooner or later!) could allow to develop a more detailed picture. For more details see the chapter pAdic mass calculations: New Physics.

Dark matter hierarchy corresponds to a hierarchy of quantum critical systems in modular degrees of freedomDark matter hierarchy corresponds to a hierarchy of conformal symmetries Z_{n} of partonic 2surfaces with genus g≥ 1 such that factors of n define subgroups of conformal symmetries of Z_{n}. By the decomposition Z_{n}=∏_{pn} Z_{p}, where pn tells that p divides n, this hierarchy corresponds to an hierarchy of increasingly quantum critical systems in modular degrees of freedom. For a given prime p one has a subhierarchy Z_{p}, Z_{p2}=Z_{p}× Z_{p}, etc... such that the moduli at n+1:th level are contained by n:th level. In the similar manner the moduli of Z_{n} are submoduli for each prime factor of n. This mapping of integers to quantum critical systems conforms nicely with the general vision that biological evolution corresponds to the increase of quantum criticality as Planck constant increases. The group of conformal symmetries could be also noncommutative discrete group having Z_{n} as a subgroup. This inspires a very shortlived conjecture that only the discrete subgroups of SU(2) allowed by Jones inclusions are possible as conformal symmetries of Riemann surfaces having g≥ 1. Besides Z_{n} one could have tedrahedral and icosahedral groups plus cyclic group Z_{2n} with reflection added but not Z_{2n+1} nor the symmetry group of cube. The conjecture is wrong. Consider the orbit of the subgroup of rotational group on standard sphere of E^{3}, put a handle at one of the orbits such that it is invariant under rotations around the axis going through the point, and apply the elements of subgroup. You obtain Riemann surface having the subgroup as its isometries. Hence all subgroups of SU(2) can act as conformal symmetries. The number theoretically simple rulerandcompass integers having as factors only first powers of Fermat primes and power of 2 would define a physically preferred subhierarchy of quantum criticality for which subsequent levels would correspond to powers of 2: a connection with padic length scale hypothesis suggests itself. Spherical topology is exceptional since in this case the space of conformal moduli is trivial and conformal symmetries correspond to the entire SL(2,C). This would suggest that only the fermions of lowest generation corresponding to the spherical topology are maximally quantum critical. This brings in mind Jones inclusions for which the defining subgroup equals to SU(2) and Jones index equals to M/N =4. In this case all discrete subgroups of SU(2) label the inclusions. These inclusions would correspond to fiber space CP_{2}→ CP_{2}/U(2) consisting of geodesic spheres of CP_{2}. In this case the discrete subgroup might correspond to a selection of a subgroup of SU(2)subset SU(3) acting nontrivially on the geodesic sphere. Cosmic strings X^{2}× Y^{2} subset M^{4}×CP_{2} having geodesic spheres of CP_{2} as their ends could correspond to this phase dominating the very early cosmology.
For more details see the chapter Construction of Elementary Particle Vacuum Functionals.

Elementary particle vacuum functionals for dark matter and why fermions can have only three familiesOne of the open questions is how dark matter hierarchy reflects itself in the properties of the elementary p"../articles/. The basic questions are how the quantum phase q=ep(2iπ/n) makes itself visible in the solution spectrum of the modified Dirac operator D and how elementary particle vacuum functionals depend on q. Considerable understanding of these questions emerged recently. One can generalize modular invariance to fractional modular invariance for Riemann surfaces possessing Z_{n} symmetry and perform a similar generalization for theta functions and elementary particle vacuum functionals. In particular, without any further assumptions n=2 dark fermions have only three families. The existence of spacetime correlate for fermionic 2valuedness suggests that fermions quite generally correspond to even values of n, so that this result would hold quite generally. Elementary bosons (actually exotic p"../articles/) would correspond to n=1, and more generally odd values of n, and could have also higher families. For more details see the chapter Construction of Elementary Particle Vacuum Functionals . 
Cold fusion  in news againCold fusion, whose history begins from the announcement of Fleischman and Pons 1989, is gradually making its way through the thick walls of arrogant dogmatism and prejudices, and  expressing it less diplomatically  of collective academic stupidity. The name of Frank Gordon is associated with the breakthrough experiment. Congratulations to the pioneers. There are popular "../articles/ in Nature and New Scientist. Unfortunately these "../articles/ "../articles/ are not accessible to everyone, including me. The article Cold Fusion  Extraordinary Evidence, Cold fusion is real should be however available to any one. For few weeks ago I revised the earlier model of cold fusion. The model explains nicely the selection rules of cold fusion and also the observed transmutations in terms of exotic states of nuclei for which the color bonds connecting A≤4 nuclei to nuclear string can be also charged. This makes possible neutral variant of deuteron nucleus making possible to overcome the Coulomb wall. It seems that the emission of highly energetic charged p"../articles/ which cannot be due to chemical reactions and could emerge from cold fusion has been demonstrated beyond doubt by Frank Gordon's team using detectors known as CR39 plastics of size scale of coin used already earlier in hot fusion research. The method is both cheap and simple. The idea is that travelling charged p"../articles/ shatter the bonds of the plastic's polymers leaving pits or tracks in the plastic. Under the conditions claimed to make cold fusion possible (1 deuterium per 1 Pd nucleus making in TGD based model possible the phase transition of D to its neutral variant by the emission of exotic dark W boson with interaction range of order atomic radius) tracks and pits appear during short period of time to the detector. For details see the new chapter Nuclear String Hypothesis of "pAdic Length Scale Hypothesis and Dark Matter Hierarchy". The older model is discussed in the chapter TGD and Nuclear Physics.

Decoherence and the differential topology of nuclear reactionsI have already described the basic ideas of nuclear string model in the previous summaries. Nuclear string model allows a topological description of nuclear decays in terms of closed string diagrams and it is interesting to look what characteristic predictions follow without going to detailed quantitative modelling of stringy collisions possibly using some variant of string models. In the decoherence process explaining giant resonances eyeglass type singularities of the closed nuclear string appear and make possible nuclear decays as decays of closed string to closed strings.
Faraday's law, which is essentially a differential topological statement, requires the presence of a time dependent color electric field making possible the reduction of the color magnetic fluxes. The holonomy group of the classical color gauge field G^{A}_{αβ} is always Abelian in TGD framework being proportional to H^{A}J_{αβ}, where H^{A} are color Hamiltonians and J_{αβ} is the induced Kähler form. Hence it should be possible to treat the situation in terms of the induced Kähler field alone. Obviously, the change of the Kähler (color) electric flux in the reaction corresponds to the change of (color) Kähler (color) magnetic flux. The change of color electric flux occurs naturally in a collision situation involving changing induced gauge fields. For more details see the chapter Nuclear String Hypothesis . 
Strong force as scaled and dark electroweak force?The fiddling with the nuclear string model has led to following conclusions.
From foregoing plus TGD inspired model for quantum biology involving also dark and scaled variants of electroweak and color forces it is becoming more and more obvious that the scaled up variants of both QCD and electroweak physics appear in various spacetime sheets of TGD Universe. This raises the following questions.
For more details see the chapter TGD and Nuclear Physics and the new chapter Nuclear String Hypothesis of "pAdic Length Scale Hypothesis and Dark Matter Hierarchy".

MiniBooNE and LSND are consistent with each other in TGD UniverseMiniBooNE group has published its first findings concerning neutrino oscillations in the mass range studied in LSND experiments. For the results see the press release, the guest posting of Dr. Heather Ray in Cosmic Variance, and the more technical article A Search for Electron Neutrino in Δ m^{2}=1 eV^{2} scale by MiniBooNE group. 1. The motivation for MiniBooNE Neutrino oscillations are not wellunderstood. Three experiments LSND, atmospheric neutrinos, and solar neutrinos show oscillations but in widely different mass regions (1 eV^{2} , 3× 10^{3} eV^{2}, and 8× 10^{5} eV^{2}). This is the problem. In TGD framework the explanation would be that neutrinos can appear in several padically scaled up variants with different mass scales and therefore different scales for the differences Δ m^{2} for neutrino masses so that one should not try to try to explain the results of these experiments using single neutrino mass scale. TGD is however not main stream physics so that colleagues stubbornly try to put all feet in the same shoe (Dear feet, I am sorry for this: I can assure that I have done my best to tell the colleagues but they do not want to listen;)). One can of course understand the stubbornness of colleagues. In singlesheeted spacetime where colleagues still prefer to live it is very difficult to imagine that neutrino mass scale would depend on neutrino energy (spacetime sheet at which topological condensation occurs using TGD language) since neutrinos interact so extremely weakly with matter. The best known attempt to assign single mass to all neutrinos has been based on the use of so called sterile neutrinos which do not have electroweak couplings. This approach is an ad hoc trick and rather ugly mathematically. 2. The result of MiniBooNE experiment The purpose of the MiniBooNE experiment was to check whether LSND result Δ m^{2}=1 eV^{2} is genuine. The group used muon neutrino beam and looked whether the transformations of muonic neutrinos to electron neutrinos occur in the mass squared region considered. No such transitions were found but there was evidence for transformations at low neutrino energies. What looks first as an overdiplomatic formulation of the result was MiniBooNE researchers showed conclusively that the LSND results could not be due to simple neutrino oscillation, a phenomenon in which one type of neutrino transforms into another type and back again. rather than direct refutation of LSND results. 3. LSND and MiniBooNE are consistent in TGD Universe The habitant of the manysheeted spacetime would not regard the previous statement as a mere diplomatic use of language. It is quite possible that neutrinos studied in MiniBooNE have suffered topological condensation at different spacetime sheet than those in LSND if they are in different energy range. To see whether this is the case let us look more carefully the experimental arrangements.

About the phase transition transforming ordinary deuterium to exotic deuterium in cold fusionI have already told about a model of cold fusion based on the nuclear string model predicting ordinary nuclei to have exotic charge states. In particular, deuterium nucleus possesses a neutral exotic state which would make possible to overcome Coulomb wall and make cold fusion possible. 1. The phase transition The exotic deuterium at the surface of Pd target seems to form patches (for a detailed summary see TGD and Nuclear Physics). This suggests that a condensed matter phase transition involving also nuclei is involved. A possible mechanism giving rise to this kind of phase would be a local phase transition in the Pd target involving both D and Pd. In the above reference it was suggested that deuterium nuclei transform in this phase transition to "ordinary" dineutrons connected by a charged color bond to Pd nuclei. In the recent case dineutron could be replaced by neutral D. The phase transition transforming neutral color bond to a negatively charged one would certainly involve the emission of W^{+} boson, which must be exotic in the sense that its Compton length is of order atomic size so that it could be treated as a massless particle and the rate for the process would be of the same order of magnitude as for electromagnetic processes. One can imagine two options.
The proposed phase transition cannot proceed via the exchange of the ordinary W bosons. Rather, W bosons having Compton length of order atomic size are needed. These W bosons could correspond to a scaled up variant of ordinary W bosons having smaller mass, perhaps even of the order of electron mass. They could be also dark in the sense that Planck constant for them would have the value h= nh_{0} implying scaling up of their Compton size by n. For n≈ 2^{48} the Compton length of ordinary W boson would be of the order of atomic size so that for interactions below this length scale weak bosons would be effectively massless. pAdically scaled up copy of weak physics with a large value of Planck constant could be in question. For instance, W bosons could correspond to the nuclear padic length scale L(k=113) and n=2^{11}. For more details see the chapter TGD and Nuclear Physics and the new chapter Nuclear String Hypothesis.

Nuclear strings and cold fusionThe option assuming that strong isospin dependent force acts on the nuclear spacetime sheet and binds pn pairs to singlets such that the strong binding energy is very nearly zero in singlet state by the cancellation of scalar and vector contributions, is the most promising variant of nuclear string model. It predicts the existence of exotic di,tri, and tetraneutron like p"../articles/ and even negatively charged exotics obtained from ^{2}H, ^{3}H,^{3}He, and ^{4}He by adding negatively charged color bond. For instance, ^{3}H extends to a multiplet with em charges 4,3,2,1,0,1,2. Heavy nuclei with proton neutron excess could actually be such nuclei. The exotic states are stable under beta decay for m(π)<m_{e}. The simplest neutral exotic nucleus corresponds to exotic deuteron with single negatively charged color bond. Using this as target it would be possible to achieve cold fusion since Coulomb wall would be absent. The empirical evidence for cold fusion thus supports the prediction of exotic charged states. 1. Signatures of cold fusion In the following the consideration is restricted to cold fusion in which two deuterium nuclei react strongly since this is the basic reaction type studied. In hot fusion there are three reaction types:
The most obvious objection against cold fusion is that the Coulomb wall between the nuclei makes the mentioned processes extremely improbable at room temperature. Of course, this alone implies that one should not apply the rules of hot fusion to cold fusion. Cold fusion indeed differs from hot fusion in several other aspects.
Cold fusion has also other features, which serve as valuable constraints for the model building.
One model of cold fusion has been already discussed in TGD framework. The basic idea is that only the neutrons of incoming and target nuclei can interact strongly, that is their spacetime sheets can fuse. One might hope that neutral deuterium having single negatively charged color bond could allow to realize this mechanism.

As previous postings (see this and this) should make clear, nuclear string model works amazingly well. There is however an objection against the model. This is the experimental absence of stable nn bound state analogous to deuteron favored by lacking Coulomb repulsion and attractive electromagnetic spinspin interaction in spin 1 state. Same applies to trineutron states and possibly also tetraneutron state. There has been however speculation about the existence of dineutron and polyneutron states.
One can consider a simple explanation for the absence of genuine polyneutrons.
Still about nuclear string hypothesisThe nuclear string model has evolved dramatically during last week or two and allows now to understand both nuclear binding energies of both A>4 nuclei and A≤4 nuclei in terms of three fractal variants of QCD. The model also explains giant resonances and so called pygmy resonances in terms of decoherence of BoseEinstein condensates of exotic pion like color bosons to subcondensates. In its simplicity the model is comparable to Bohr model of atom, and I cannot avoid the impression that the tragedy of theoretical nuclear physics was that it was born much before anyone new about the notion of fractality. For these reasons a second posting about these ideas involving some repetition is in order. 1. Background Nuclear string hypothesis is one of the most dramatic almostpredictions of TGD. The hypothesis in its original form assumes that nucleons inside nucleus organize to closed nuclear strings with neighboring nuclei of the string connected by exotic meson bonds consisting of color magnetic flux tube with quark and antiquark at its ends. The lengths of flux tubes correspond to the padic length scale of electron and therefore the mass scale of the exotic mesons is around 1 MeV in accordance with the general scale of nuclear binding energies. The long lengths of em flux tubes increase the distance between nucleons and reduce Coulomb repulsion. A fractally scaled up variant of ordinary QCD with respect to padic length scale would be in question and the usual wisdom about ordinary pions and other mesons as the origin of nuclear force would be simply wrong in TGD framework as the large mass scale of ordinary pion indeed suggests. The presence of exotic light mesons in nuclei has been proposed also by Chris Illert based on evidence for charge fractionization effects in nuclear decays.
2. A>4 nuclei as nuclear strings consisting of A< 4 nuclei During last weeks a more refined version of nuclear string hypothesis has evolved.
3. BoseEinstein condensation of color bonds as a mechanism of nuclear binding The attempt to understand the variation of the nuclear binding energy and its maximum for Fe leads to a quantitative model of nuclei lighter than Fe as color bound BoseEinstein condensates of ^{4}He nuclei or rather, of pion like colored states associated with color flux tubes connecting ^{4}He nuclei.
Giant (dipole) resonances and so called pygmy resonances interpreted in terms of decoherence of the BoseEinstein condensates associated with A≤ 4 nuclei and with the nuclear string formed from A≤ 4 nuclei provide a unique test for the model. The key observation is that the splitting of the BoseEinstein condensate to pieces costs a precisely defined energy due to the n^{2} dependence of the total binding energy.

Experimental evidence for colored muonsOne of the basic deviations of TGD from standard model is the prediction of colored excitations of quarks and leptons. The reason is that color is not spin like quantum number but partial wave in CP_{2} degrees of freedom and thus angular momentum like. Accordingly new scaled variants of QCD are predicted. As a matter fact, dark matter hierarchy and padic length scale hierarchy populate manysheeted Universe with fractal variants of standard model physics. In the blog of Lubos there were comments about a new particle. The finding has been published (Phys. Rev. D74) and (Phys. Rev. Lett. 98). The mass of the new particle, which is either scalar or pseudoscalar, is 214.4 MeV whereas muon mass is 105.6 MeV. The mass is about 1.5 per cent higher than two times muon mass. The proposed interpretation is as light Higgs. I do not immediately resonate with this interpretation although padically scaled up variants of also Higgs bosons live happily in the fractal Universe of TGD. For decades ago anomalous production of electronpositron pairs in heavy ion nuclear collisions just above the Coulomb wall was discovered with the mass of the pseudocalar resonance slightly above 2m_{e}. All this have been of course forgotten since it is just boring low energy phenomenology to which brave brane theorists do not waste their precious time;). This should however put bells ringing. TGD explanation is in terms of exotic pions consisting of colored variants of ordinary electrons predicted by TGD. I of course predicted that also muon and tau would give rise to a scaled variant of QCD type theory. Karmen anomaly gave indications that muonic variant of this QCD is there. Just now I am working with nuclear string model where scaled variant of QCD for exotic quarks in padic length scale of electron is responsible for the binding of ^{4}He nuclei to nuclear strings. One cannot exclude the possibility that the fermion and antifermion at the ends of color flux tubes connecting nucleons are actually colored leptons although the working hypothesis is that they are exotic quark and antiquark. One can of course also turn around the argument: could it be that leptopions are "leptonuclei", that is bound states of ordinary leptons bound by color flux tubes for a QCD in length scale considerably shorter than the padic length scale of lepton. This QCD binds ^{4}He nuclei to tangled nuclear strings. Two other scaled variants of QCD bind nucleons to ^{4}He and lighter nuclei. The model is extremely simple and quantitatively amazingly successful. For instance, the last discovery is that the energies of giant dipole resonances can be predicted and first inspection shows that they come out correctly. For more details about the leptohadron hypothesis see the chapter The Recent Status of LeptoHadron Hypothesis. For the recent state of nuclear string model see the new chapter Further progress in Nuclear String Hypothesis.

Further progress related to nuclear string hypothesisNuclear string hypothesis is one of the most dramatic almostpredictions of TGD. The hypothesis assumes that nucleons inside nucleus organize to closed nuclear strings with neighboring nuclei of the string connected by exotic meson bonds consisting of color magnetic flux tube with quark and antiquark at its ends. The lengths of flux tubes correspond to the padic length scale of electron and therefore the mass scale of the exotic mesons is around 1 MeV in accordance with the general scale of nuclear binding energies. The long lengths of em flux tubes increase the distance between nucleons and reduce Coulomb repulsion. A fractally scaled up variant of ordinary QCD with respect to padic length scale would be in question and the usual wisdom about ordinary pions and other mesons as the origin of nuclear force would be simply wrong in TGD framework as the large mass scale of ordinary pion indeed suggests. The presence of exotic light mesons in nuclei has been proposed also by Chris Illert based on evidence for charge fractionization effects in nuclear decays. Nuclear string hypothesis leads to rather detailed predictions and allows to understand the behavior of nuclear binding energies surprisingly well from the assumptions that total strong binding energy is additive for nuclear strings and that the addition of neutrons tends to reduce Coulombic energy per string length by increasing the length of the nuclear string implying increase binding energy and stabilization of the nucleus. Perhaps even also weak decay characteristics could be understood in a simple manner by assuming that the stable nuclei lighter than Ca contain maximum number of alpha p"../articles/ plus minimum number of lighter isotopes. Large number of stable lightest isotopes of form A=4n supports this hypothesis. In TGD framework tetraneutron is interpreted as a variant of alpha particle obtained by replacing two mesonlike stringy bonds connecting neighboring nucleons of the nuclear string with their negatively charged variants (see this). For heavier nuclei tetraneutron is needed as an additional building brick and the local maxima of binding energy E_B per nucleon as function of neutron number are consistent with the presence of tetraneutrons. The additivity of magic numbers 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126 predicted by nuclear string hypothesis is also consistent with experimental facts and new magic numbers are predicted and there is evidence for them. The attempt to understand the variation of the nuclear binding energy and its maximum for Fe leads to a quantitative model of nuclei lighter than Fe as color bound BoseEinstein condensates of ^{4}He nuclei or rather, of color flux tubes defining mesonlike structures connecting them. Fermi statistics explains the reduction of E_{B} for the nuclei heavier than Fe. Detailed estimate favors harmonic oscillator model over free nucleon model with oscillator strength having interpretation in terms of string tension. Fractal scaling argument allows to understand ^{4}He and lighter nuclei analogous states formed from nucleons and binding energies are predicted quite satisfactorily. Giant dipole resonance interpreted as a decoherence of the BoseEinstein condensate to pieces provides a unique test for the model and precise predictions for binding energies follow. I am grateful for Elio Conte for discussions which stimulated a more detailed consideration of nuclear string model. For more details see the chapter TGD and Nuclear Physics and the new chapter Further Progress in Nuclear String Hypothesis.

Could also gauge bosons correspond to wormhole contacts?The developments in the formulation of quantum TGD which have taken place during the period 20052007 (see this, this, and this) suggest dramatic simplifications of the general picture about elementary particle spectrum. pAdic mass calculations (see this, this, and this) leave a lot of freedom concerning the detailed identification of elementary p"../articles/. The basic open question is whether the theory is free at parton level as suggested by the recent view about the construction of Smatrix and by the almost topological QFT property of quantum TGD at parton level (see this and this). Or more concretely: do partonic 2surfaces carry only free manyfermion states or can they carry also bound states of fermions and antifermions identifiable as bosons? What is known that Higgs boson corresponds naturally to a wormhole contact (see this). The wormhole contact connects two spacetime sheets with induced metric having Minkowski signature. Wormhole contact itself has an Euclidian metric signature so that there are two wormhole throats which are lightlike 3surfaces and would carry fermion and antifermion number in the case of Higgs. Irrespective of the identification of the remaining elementary p"../articles/ MEs (massless extremals, topological light rays) would serve as spacetime correlates for elementary bosons. Higgs type wormhole contacts would connect MEs to the larger spacetime sheet and the coherent state of neutral Higgs would generate gauge boson mass and could contribute also to fermion mass. The basic question is whether this identification applies also to gauge bosons (certainly not to graviton). This identification would imply quite a dramatic simplification since the theory would be free at single parton level and the only stable parton states would be fermions and antifermions. As will be found this identification allows to understand the dramatic difference between graviton and other gauge bosons and the weakness of gravitational coupling, gives a connection with the string picture of gravitons, and predicts that stringy states are directly relevant for nuclear and condensed matter physics as has been proposed already earlier (see this, this, and this). 1. Option I: Only Higgs as a wormhole contact The only possibility considered hitherto has been that elementary bosons correspond to partonic 2surfaces carrying fermionantifermion pair such that either fermion or antifermion has a nonphysical polarization. For this option CP_{2} type extremals condensed on MEs and travelling with light velocity would serve as a model for both fermions and bosons. MEs are not absolutely necessary for this option. The couplings of fermions and gauge bosons to Higgs would be very similar topologically. Consider now the counter arguments.
2. Option II: All elementary bosons as wormhole contacts The hypothesis that quantum TGD reduces to a free field theory at parton level is consistent with the almost topological QFT character of the theory at this level. Hence there are good motivations for studying explicitly the consequences of this hypothesis. 2.1 Elementary bosons must correspond to wormhole contacts if the theory is free at parton level Also gauge bosons could correspond to wormhole contacts connecting MEs (see this) to larger spacetime sheet and propagating with light velocity. For this option there would be no need to assume the presence of nonphysical fermion or antifermion polarization since fermion and antifermion would reside at different wormhole throats. Only the definition of what it is to be nonphysical would be different on the lightlike 3surfaces defining the throats. The difference would naturally relate to the different time orientations of wormhole throats and make itself manifest via the definition of lightlike operator o=x^{k}γ_{k} appearing in the generalized eigenvalue equation for the modified Dirac operator (see this and this). For the first throat o^{k} would correspond to a lightlike tangent vector t^{k}of the partonic 3surface and for the second throat to its M^{4} dual t_{d}^{k} in a preferred rest system in M^{4} (implied by the basic construction of quantum TGD). What is nice that this picture nonasks the question whether t^{k}or t_{d}^{k}should appear in the modified Dirac operator. Rather satisfactorily, MEs (massless extremals, topological light rays) would be necessary for the propagation of wormhole contacts so that they would naturally emerge as classical correlates of bosons. The simplest model for fermions would be as CP_{2} type extremals topologically condensed on MEs and for bosons as pieces of CP_{2} type extremals connecting ME to the larger spacetime sheet. For fermions topological condensation is possible to either spacetime sheet. 2.2 Phase conjugate states and matterantimatter asymmetry By fermion number conservation fermionboson and bosonboson couplings must involve the fusion of partonic 3surfaces along their ends identified as wormhole throats. Bosonic couplings would differ from fermionic couplings only in that the process would be 2→ 4 rather than 1→ 3 at the level of throats. The decay of boson to an ordinary fermion pair with fermion and antifermion at the same spacetime sheet would take place via the basic vertex at which the 2dimensional ends of lightlike 3surfaces are identified. The sign of the boson energy would tell whether boson is ordinary boson or its phase conjugate (say phase conjugate photon of laser light) and also dictate the sign of the time orientation of fermion and antifermion resulting in the decay. Also a candidate for a new kind interaction vertex emerges. The splitting of bosonic wormhole contact would generate fermion and timereversed antifermion having interpretation as a phase conjugate fermion. This process cannot correspond to a decay of boson to ordinary fermion pair. The splitting process could generate matterantimatter asymmetry in the sense that fermionic antimatter would consist dominantly of negative energy antifermions at spacetime sheets having negative time orientation (see this and this). This vertex would define the fundamental interaction between matter and phase conjugate matter. Phase conjugate photons are in a key role in TGD based quantum model of living matter. This involves a model for memory as communications in time reversed direction, mechanism of intentional action involving signalling to geometric past, and mechanism of remote metabolism involving sending of negative energy photons to the energy reservoir (see this). The splitting of wormhole contacts has been considered as a candidate for a mechanism realizing Boolean cognition in terms of "cognitive neutrino pairs" resulting in the splitting of wormhole contacts with net quantum numbers of Z^{0} boson (see this). 3. Graviton and other stringy states Fermion and antifermion can give rise to only single unit of spin since it is impossible to assign angular momentum with the relative motion of wormhole throats. Hence the identification of graviton as single wormhole contact is not possible. The only conclusion is that graviton must be a superposition of fermionantifermion pairs and bosonantiboson pairs with coefficients determined by the coupling of the parton to graviton. Gravitongraviton pairs might emerge in higher orders. Fermion and antifermion would reside at the same spacetime sheet and would have a nonvanishing relative angular momentum. Also bosons could have nonvanishing relative angular momentum and Higgs bosons must indeed possess it. Gravitons are stable if the throats of wormhole contacts carry nonvanishing gauge fluxes so that the throats of wormhole contacts are connected by flux tubes carrying the gauge flux. The mechanism producing gravitons would the splitting of partonic 2surfaces via the basic vertex. A connection with string picture emerges with the counterpart of string identified as the flux tube connecting the wormhole throats. Gravitational constant would relate directly to the value of the string tension. The TGD view about coupling constant evolution (see this) predicts G propto L_{p}^{2}, where L_{p} is padic length scale, and that physical graviton corresponds to p=M_{127}=2^{127}1. Thus graviton would have geometric size of order Compton length of electron which is something totally new from the point of view of usual Planck length scale dogmatism. In principle an entire padic hierarchy of gravitational forces is possible with increasing value of G. The explanation for the small value of the gravitational coupling strength serves as a test for the proposed picture. The exchange of ordinary gauge boson involves the exchange of single CP_{2} type extremal giving the exponent of Kähler action compensated by state normalization. In the case of graviton exchange two wormhole contacts are exchanged and this gives second power for the exponent of Kähler action which is not compensated. It would be this additional exponent that would give rise to the huge reduction of gravitational coupling strength from the naive estimate G ≈ L_{p}^{2}. Gravitons are obviously not the only stringy states. For instance, one obtains spin 1 states when the ends of string correspond to gauge boson and Higgs. Also nonvanishing electroweak and color quantum numbers are possible and stringy states couple to elementary partons via standard couplings in this case. TGD based model for nuclei as nuclear strings having length of order L(127) (see this) suggests that the strings with light M_{127}quark and antiquark at their ends identifiable as companions of the ordinary graviton are responsible for the strong nuclear force instead of exchanges of ordinary mesons or color van der Waals forces. Also the TGD based model of high T_{c} superconductivity involves stringy states connecting the spacetime sheets associated with the electrons of the exotic Cooper pair (see this and this). Thus stringy states would play a key role in nuclear and condensed matter physics, which means a profound departure from stringy wisdom, and breakdown of the standard reductionistic picture. 4. Spectrum of nonstringy states The 1throat character of fermions is consistent with the generationgenus correspondence. The 2throat character of bosons predicts that bosons are characterized by the genera (g_{1},g_{2}) of the wormhole throats. Note that the interpretation of fundamental fermions as wormhole contacts with second throat identified as a Fock vacuum is excluded. The general bosonic wavefunction would be expressible as a matrix M_{g1,g2} and ordinary gauge bosons would correspond to a diagonal matrix M_{g1,g2}=δ_{g1,g2} as required by the absence of neutral flavor changing currents (say gluons transforming quark genera to each other). 8 new gauge bosons are predicted if one allows all 3× 3 matrices with complex entries orthonormalized with respect to trace meaning additional dynamical SU(3) symmetry. Ordinary gauge bosons would be SU(3) singlets in this sense. The existing bounds on flavor changing neutral currents give bounds on the masses of the boson octet. The 2throat character of bosons should relate to the low value T=1/n<< 1 for the padic temperature of gauge bosons as contrasted to T=1 for fermions. If one forgets the complications due to the stringy states (including graviton), the spectrum of elementary fermions and bosons is amazingly simple and almost reduces to the spectrum of standard model. In the fermionic sector one would have fermions of standard model. By simple counting leptonic wormhole throat could carry 2^{3}=8 states corresponding to 2 polarization states, 2 charge states, and sign of lepton number giving 8+8=16 states altogether. Taking into account phase conjugates gives 16+16=32 states. In the nonstringy boson sector one would have bound states of fermions and phase conjugate fermions. Since only two polarization states are allowed for massless states, one obtains (2+1)× (3+1)=12 states plus phase conjugates giving 12+12=24 states. The addition of color singlet states for quarks gives 48 gauge bosons with vanishing fermion number and color quantum numbers. Besides 12 electroweak bosons and their 12 phase conjugates there are 12 exotic bosons and their 12 phase conjugates. For the exotic bosons the couplings to quarks and leptons are determined by the orthogonality of the coupling matrices of ordinary and boson states. For exotic counterparts of Wbosons and Higgs the sign of the coupling to quarks is opposite. For photon and Z^{0} also the relative magnitudes of the couplings to quarks must change. Altogether this makes 48+16+16=80 states. Gluons would result as color octet states. Family replication would extend each elementary boson state into SU(3)octet and singlet and elementary fermion states into SU(3)triplets. 5. Higgs mechanism Consider next the generation of mass as a vacuum expectation value of Higgs when also gauge bosons correspond to wormhole contacts. The presence of Higgs condensate should make the simple rectilinear ME curved so that the average propagation of fields would occur with a velocity less than light velocity. Field equations allow MEs of this kind as solutions (see this). The finite range of interaction characterized by the gauge boson mass should correlate with the finite range for the free propagation of wormhole contacts representing bosons along corresponding ME. The finite range would result from the emission of Higgs like wormhole contacts from gauge boson like wormhole contact leading to the generation of coherent states of neutral Higgs p"../articles/. The emission would also induce nonrectilinearity of ME as a correlate for the recoil in the emission of Higgs. For more details see either the chapter Construction of Elementary Particle Vacuum Functionals or the chapter Massless states and Particle Massivation.

Can one deduce the Yukawa couplings of Higgs from the anomalous ratio H/Z^{0}(b pair):H/Z^{0}(tau pair)?
As I told in previous posting, there have been cautious claims (see New Scientist article, the postings in the blog of Tommaso Dorigo, and the postings of John Conway in Cosmic Variance) about the possible detection of first Higgs events. According to simple argument of John Conway based on branching ratios of Z^{0} and standard model Higgs to ττbar and bbbar, Z^{0}→ ττbar excess predicts that the ratio of Higgs events to Z^{0} events for Z^{0}→ bbbar is related by a scaling factor [B(H→ bbbar)/B(H→ ττbar)]:[B(Z^{0}→ bbbar)/B(Z^{0}→ ττbar)] ≈ 10/5.6=1.8 to that in Z^{0}→ ττbar case. The prediction seems to be too high which raises doubts against the identification of the excecss in terms of Higgs. In a shamelessly optimistic mood and forgetting that mere statistical fluctuations might be in question, one might ask whether the inconsistency of ττbar and bbbar excesses could be understood in TGD framework.
For more details see the chapter Massless p"../articles/ and particle massivation. 
Indications for Higgs with mass of 160 GeV
There have been cautious claims (see New Scientist article, the postings in the blog of Tommaso Dorigo, and the postings of John Conway in Cosmic Variance) about the possible detection of first Higgs events. This inspires more precise considerations of the experimental signatures of TGD counterpart of Higgs. This kind of theorizing is of course speculative and remains on general qualitative level only since no calculational formalism exists and one must assume that gauge field theory provides an approximate description of the situation. Has Higgs been detected? The indications for Higgs comes from two sources. In both cases Higgs would have been produced as gluons decay to two bbbar pairs and virtual bbbar pair fuses to Higgs, which then decays either to taulepton pair or bquark pair. John Conway, the leader of CDF team analyzing data from Tevatron, has reported about a slight indication for Higgs with mass m_{H}=160 GeV as a small excess of events in the large bump produced by the decays of Z^{0} bosons with mass of m_{Z}≈ 94 GeV to tautaubar pairs in the blog Cosmic Variance. These events have 2σ significance level meaning that the probability that they are statistical fluctuations is about 2 per cent. The interpretation suggested by Conway is as Higgs of minimal supersymmetric extension of standard model (MSSM). In MSSM there are two complex Higgs doublets and this predicts three neutral Higgs p"../articles/ denoted by h, H, and A. If A is light then the rate for the production of Higgs bosons is proportional to the parameter tan(β) define as the ratio of vacuum expectation values of the two doublets. The rate for Higgs production is by a factor tan(β)^{2} higher than in standard model and this has been taken as a justification for the identification as MSSM Higgs (the proposed value is tan(β)≈ 50). If the identification is correct, about recorded 100 Higgs candidates should already exist so that this interpretation can be checked. Also Tommaso Dorigo, the blogging member of second team analyzing CDF results, has reported at his blog site a slight evidence for an excess of bbbar pairs in Z^{0}→ bbbar decays at the same mass m_{H}=160 GeV. The confidence level is around 2 sigma. The excess could result from the decays of Higgs to bbbar pair associated with bbbar production. What forces to take these reports with some seriousness is that the value of m_{H} is same in both cases. John Conway has however noticed that if both signals correspond to Higgs then it is possible to deduce estimate for the number of excess events in Z^{0}→ bbbar peak from the excess in tautaubar peak. The predicted excess is considerably larger than the real excess. Therefore a statistical fluke could be in question, or staying in an optimistic mood, there is some new particle there but it is not Higgs. m_{H}=160 GeV is not consistent with the standard model estimate by D0 collaboration for the mass of standard model Higgs boson mass based on high precision measurement of electroweak parameters sin(θ_{W}), α, α_{s} , m_{t} and m_{Z} depending on log(m_{H}) via the radiative corrections. The best fit is in the range 96117 GeV. The upper bound from the same analysis for Higgs mass is 251 GeV with 95 per cent confidence level. The estimate m_{t}=178.0+/ 4.3 GeV for the mass of top quark is used. The range for the best estimate is not consistent with the lower bound of 114 GeV on m_{H} coming from the consistency conditions on the renormalization group evolution of the effective potential V(H) for Higgs (see the illustration here). Here one must of course remember that the estimates vary considerably. TGD picture about Higgs briefly Since TGD cannot yet be coded to precise Feynman rules, the comparison of TGD to standard model is not possible without some additional assumptions. It is assumed that padic coupling constant evolution reduces in a reasonable approximation to the coupling constant evolution predicted by a gauge theory so that one can apply at qualitative level the basic wisdom about the effects of various couplings of Higgs to the coupling constant evolution of the self coupling λ of Higgs giving upper and lower bounds for the Higgs mass. This makes also possible to judge the determinations of Higgs mass from high precision measurements of electroweak parameters in TGD framework. In TGD framework the Yukawa coupling of Higgs to fermions can be much weaker than in standard model. This has several implications.
