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Ulla Matfolk reminded about an old Sciencedaily article (see this) telling about discovery of large parity breaking effects at RHIC studying collisions of relativistic heavy ions at energies at which QCD suggests the formation of quark gluon plasma. Somehing exotic is observed but it seems to be something different from quark gluon plasma in that long range correlations not characteristic for plasma phase are present and the particle production does not look like black body radiation. Similar findings are made also at LHC and also for proton-proton collisions. This suggests new physics and M89 hadron physics is the TGD inspired candidate for it. In any case, I took the article as a hype as I read it for four years ago.
Now I read the article again and started to wonder on what grounds authors claim large parity violation. What they claim to observed are magnetic fields in which u and d quarks with charges 2/3 and -1/3 move in opposite directions along the magnetic field lines (flux tubes in TGD). They assign these motions to the presence of strong parity breaking, much stronger than predicted by the standard model.
1. Instanton density as origin of parity breaking
What says TGD? In TGD magnetic fields would form flux tubes, even flux tubes carrying monopole flux are possible. The findings suggests that magnetic field was accompanied by electric field and that both were parallel to the flux tubes and each other in average sense. Helical magnetic and electric fields parallel in average sense could be associated with flux tubes in TGD.
The helical classical field patterns would break the parity of ground state. Instanton density for Kähler field, essentially E.B, measuring the non-orthogonality of E and B would serve as a measure for the strength of parity breaking occurring at the level of ground state and thus totally different from weak parity breaking. u and d quarks with opposite signs of em charges would move in opposite directions in the electric force.
2. The origin of instanton density in TGD Universe
What is the origin of these non-orthogonal magnetic and electric fields? Here I must dig down to a twenty years old archeological layer of TGD. Already at seventies an anomalous creation of anomalous e+e- pairs having axion-like properties in heavy ion collisions near Coulomb wall was observed. Effect was forgotten since it was not consistent with standard model. TGD explanation is in terms of pairs resulting from the decay of lepto-pion formed as bound states of color excited electron and positron and created in strong non-orthogonal electric and magnetic fields of colliding nuclei.
Objection: Color excited leptons do not conform with standard model view about color. In TGD this is not a problem since colored states correspond to partial waves in CP2 and both leptons and quarks can move in higher color partial waves but usually with much higher mass.
Non-vanishing instanton density would mean that the orthogonal E and B created by colliding protons appear at the *same* space-time sheet so that a coherent instanton density E.B is created and gives rise to the generation of pairs. Large value of E.B means large parity breaking at the level of ground state. One expects that in most collisions the fields of colliding nuclei stay at different space-time sheets and therefore do not interfere directly (only their effects on charged particles sum up) but that with some property the fields can enter to the same space-time sheet and generate the physics not allowed by standard model.
Objection: Standard model predicts extremely weak parity breaking effects: this is due to the massivation of weak bosons, for massless weak bosons the parity breaking would be large. Indeed, if the non-orthogonal E and B are at different space-time sheets, no instantons are generated.
Objection: The existence of new particle in MeV scale would change dramatically the decay widths of weak bosons. The TGD solution is that colored leptons are dark in TGD sense (heff=n×h,n>1). Large heff would make weak bosons effectively massless below scaled up Compton length of weak bosons proportional to heff and large parity breaking could be understood also the "conventional manner".
3. Strong parity breaking as signature of dark variant of M89 hadron physics
This picture would apply also now and also leads to an increased understanding of M89 hadron physics about which I have been talking for years and which is TGD prediction for LHC. Very strong non-orthogonal E and B fields would be most naturally associated with colliding protons rather than nuclei. The energy scale is of course much much higher than in the heavy ion experiment. Instanton-like space-time sheets, where the E and B of the colliding nuclei could be formed as magneto-electric flux tubes (a priori this of course need not occur since fields an remain at different space-time sheets).
The formation of axionlike states is expected to be possible as pairs color excited quarks. M89 hadron physics is a scaled up copy of the ordinary M107 hadron physics with mass scale which is by a factor 512 higher. The natural possibility is pions of M89 hadron physics but with large heff/h ≈ 512 so that the size of M89 pions could increase to a size scales of ordinary hadrons! This would explain why heavy ion collisions involve energies in TeV range appropriate for M89 hadrons and thus Compton scales of order weak scale whereas size scales are associated with QCD plasma of M107 hadron physics and is by a factor 1/512 smaller. Brings in mind a line from an biblical story: The hands are Esau's hands but the voice is Jacob's voice! Quite generally, the failure estimates based on Uncertainty Principle could serve as a signature for non-standard values of heff: two great energy scale for effect as compared to its length scale.
To sum up, the strange findings about heavy ion and proton proton collisions at LHC for which I suggested M89 physics as an explanation would indeed make sense and one also ends up to a concrete mechanism for the emergence of dark variants of weak physics. The magnetic flux tubes playing key role in TGD inspired quantum biology would carry also electric fields not-orthonal to magnetic fields and the two fields would be twisted. As a mattter of fact, the observed strong parity breaking would be very analogous to that observed in biology if one accepts TGD based explanation of chiral selection in living matter.
4. Could this relate to non-observed SUSY somehow?
Dark matter and spartners have something in common: it is very difficult to observe them! I cannot resist typing a fleeting crazy idea, which I have managed to forfend several times but is popping up again and again from the murky depths of subconscious to tease me. TGD predicts also SUSY albeit different from the standard one: for instance, separate conservation of lepton and baryon numbers is predicted and fermions are not Majorana fermions. Whether covariantly constant right-handed neutrino mode which carries no quantum numbers except spin could be seen as a Majorana lepton is an open question.
One can however assume that covariantly constant right-handed neutrino, call it νR, and its antineutrino span N=2 SUSY representation. Particles would appear as SUSY 4-plets: particle, particle+νR,particle + antiνR, particle+ νR+antiνR. Covariantly constant right-handed neutrinos and antineutrino would generate the least broken sub-SUSY. Sparticles should obey the same mass formula as particles but with possibly different p-adic mass scale.
But how the mass scales of particles and its spartners can be so different if right handed does not have any weak interactions? Could it be that sparticles have same p-adic mass scale as particles but are dark having heff=n×h so that the observation of sparticle would mean observation of dark matter!?;-). Particle cannot of course transform to its spartner directly: already angular momentum conservation prevents this. For N=2 SUSY one can however consider the transformation of particle to the state particle +X, where X is νR+antiνR representing a dark variant of particle and having same quantum numbers. It would have non-standard value heff =n×h of Planck constant. The resulting dark particles could interact and generate also states in dark SUSY 4-plet. Dark photons could be spartners of photons and decay to biophotons. SUSY would be essential for living matter!
Critical reader asks whether leptopions could be actually pairs of (possibly color excited) N=2 SUSY partners of selectron and spositron. The masses of (color) excitations making up electropion must be indeed identical with electron and positron masses. Should one give up the assumption that color octet excitations of leptons are in question? But if color force is not present, what would bind the spartners together for form electropion? Coulomb attraction so that dark susy analog of positronium would be in question? But why not positronium? If spartner of electron is color excited, one can argue that its mass need not be the same as that of electron and could be of order CP2! The answer comes out only by calculating and I am too old to start this business again;-). But what happens to leptohadron model if color excitation is not in question? Nothing dramatic, the mathematical structure of leptohadron model is not affected since the calculations involve only the assumption that electropion couples to electromagnetic "instanton" term fixed by anomaly considerations.
If this makes sense, the answers to four questions: What is behind chiral selection in biology?; What dark matter is? ; What spartners are and why they are not seemingly observed?; What is behind various forgotten axion/pion-like states? would have a lot in common!
For the new physics predicted by TGD see the chapter "New Particle Physics Predicted by TGD: Part I" of "TGD and p-Adic numbers".
In the earlier blog posting I told that the boundary condition for the Kähler-Dirac equation is massless Dirac equation with the analog of Higgs term added. The interpretation in terms of Higgs mechanism however fails since the term can be also tachyonic. Intriguingly, p-adic mass calculations require the ground state conformal weight to be negative half odd integer. This raises the question whether the the boundary condition for Kähler-Dirac equation could be equivalent for the mass formulation given by the condition that the scaling generator L0 annihilates the physical states for Super Virasoro representations. This equivalence is suggested by quantum classical correspondence.
If this is the case, the two mass shell conditions would be equivalent. This possibility is discussed more precisely below.
Many physicists are somewhat disappointed to the results from LHC: the expected discovery of Higgs has been seen as the main achievement of LHC hitherto. Much more was expected. To my opinion there is no reason for disappointment. The exclusion of the standard SUSY at expected energy scale is very far reaching negative result. Also the fact that Higgs mass is too small to be stable without fine tuning is of great theoretical importance. The negative results concerning heavy dark matter candidates are precious guidelines for theoreticians. The non-QCD like behavior in heavy ion collisions and proton-ion collisions is bypassed my mentioning something about AdS/CFT correspondence and non-perturbative QCD effects. I tend to see these effects as direct evidence for M89 hadron physics (see this).
In any case, something interesting has emerged quite recently. Resonaances tells that the recent analysis of X-ray spectrum of galactic clusters claims the presence of monochromatic 3.5 keV photon line. The proposed interpretation is as a decay product of sterile 7 keV neutrino transforming first to a left-handed neutrino and then decaying to photon and neutrino via a loop involving W boson and electron. This is of course only one of the many interpretations. Even the existence of line is highly questionable.
One of the poorly understood aspects of TGD is right-handed neutrino, which is obviously the TGD counterpart of the inert neutrino.
For background see the chapter SUSY in TGD Universe.