ABSTRACTS OF
PHYSICS IN MANY-SHEETED SPACE-TIME



PART I: THE NOTION OF MANY-SHEETED SPACE-TIME



Basic Extremals of the Kähler Action

In this chapter the classical field equations associated with the Kähler action are studied. The study of the extremals of the Kähler action has turned out to be extremely useful for the development of TGD. Towards the end of year 2003 quite dramatic progress occurred in the understanding of field equations and it seems that field equations might be in well-defined sense exactly solvable. The progress made during next five years led to a detailed understanding of quantum TGD at the fundamental parton level and this provides considerable additional insights concerning the interpretation of field equations.

1. General considerations

The vanishing of Lorentz 4-force for the induced Kähler field means that the vacuum 4-currents are in a mechanical equilibrium. Lorentz 4-force vanishes for all known solutions of field equations which inspires the hypothesis that preferred extremals satisfy the condition. The vanishing of the Lorentz 4-force in turn implies a local conservation of the ordinary energy momentum tensor. The corresponding condition is implied by Einstein's equations in General Relativity. The hypothesis would mean that the solutions of field equations are what might be called generalized Beltrami fields. The condition implies that vacuum currents can be non-vanishing only provided the dimension DCP2 of the CP2 projection of the space-time surface is less than four so that in the regions with DCP2=4, Maxwell's vacuum equations are satisfied.

The hypothesis that Kähler current is proportional to a product of an arbitrary function y of CP2 coordinates and of the instanton current generalizes Beltrami condition and reduces to it when electric field vanishes. Kähler current has vanishing divergence for DCP2 < 4, and Lorentz 4-force indeed vanishes. The remaining task would be the explicit construction of the imbeddings of these fields and the demonstration that field equations can be satisfied.

Under additional conditions magnetic field reduces to what is known as Beltrami field. Beltrami fields are known to be extremely complex but highly organized structures. The natural conjecture is that topologically quantized many-sheeted magnetic and Z0 magnetic Beltrami fields and their generalizations serve as templates for the helical molecules populating living matter, and explain both chirality selection, the complex linking and knotting of DNA and protein molecules, and even the extremely complex and self-organized dynamics of biological systems at the molecular level.

Field equations can be reduced to algebraic conditions stating that energy momentum tensor and second fundamental form have no common components (this occurs also for minimal surfaces in string models) and only the conditions stating that Kähler current vanishes, is light-like, or proportional to instanton current, remain and define the remaining field equations. The conditions guaranteing topologization to instanton current can be solved explicitly. Solutions can be found also in the more general case when Kähler current is not proportional to instanton current. On basis of these findings there are strong reasons to believe that classical TGD is exactly solvable.

An important outcome is the notion of Hamilton-Jacobi structure meaning dual slicings of M4 projection of preferred extremals to string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces. The necessity of this slicing was discovered years later from number theoretic compactification and is now a key element of quantum TGD allowing to deduce Equivalence Principle in its stringy form from quantum TGD and formulate and understand quantum TGD in terms of modified Dirac action assignable to Kähler action. The conservation of Noether charges associated with modified Dirac action requires the vanishing of the second second variation of Kähler action for preferred extremals - at least for the deformations generating dynamical symmetries. Preferred extremals would thus define space-time representation for quantum criticality. Infinite-dimensional variant for the hierarchy of criticalities analogous to the hierarchy assigned to the extrema of potential function with levels labeled by the rank of the matrix defined by the second derivatives of the potential function in catastrophe theory would suggest itself.

2. In what sense field equations mimic dissipative dynamics?

By quantum classical correspondence the non-deterministic space-time dynamics should mimic the dissipative dynamics of the quantum jump sequence. The nontrivial question is what this means in TGD framework.

  1. Beltrami fields appear in physical applications as asymptotic self organization patterns for which Lorentz force and dissipation vanish. This suggests that absolute minima of Kähler action correspond to space-time sheets which asymptotically satisfy generalized Beltrami conditions so that one can indeed assign to the final (rather than initial!) 3-surface a unique 4-surface apart from effects related to non-determinism. Absolute minimization of Kähler action abstracted to purely algebraic generalized Beltrami conditions would make sense also in the p-adic context. Also the equivalence of absolute minimization with the second law strongly suggests itself. Of course, one must keep mind open for the possibility that it is the second law of thermodynamics which replaces absolute minimization as the fundamental principle.

  2. A more radical view inspired by zero energy ontology is that the light-like 3-surfaces and corresponding space-time regions with Euclidian signature defining generalized Feynman diagrams provide a space-time representation of dissipative dynamics just as they provide this representation in quantum field theory. Minkowskian regions would represent empty space so that the vanishing of Lorentz 4-force and absence of dissipation would be natural. This would mean very precise particle field duality and the topological pattern associated with the generalized Feynman diagram would represent dissipation.

3. The dimension of CP2 projection as classifier for the fundamental phases of matter

The dimension DCP2 of CP2 projection of the space-time sheet encountered already in p-adic mass calculations classifies the fundamental phases of matter. For DCP2=4 empty space Maxwell equations hold true. This phase is chaotic and analogous to de-magnetized phase. DCP2=2 phase is analogous to ferromagnetic phase: highly ordered and relatively simple. It seems however that preferred extremals can correspond only to small perturbations of these extremals resulting by topological condensation of CP2 type vacuum extremals and through topological condensation to larger space-time sheets. DCP2=3 is the analog of spin glass and liquid crystal phases, extremely complex but highly organized by the properties of the generalized Beltrami fields. This phase is the boundary between chaos and order and corresponds to life emerging in the interaction of magnetic bodies with bio-matter. It is possible only in a finite temperature interval (note however the p-adic hierarchy of critical temperatures) and characterized by chirality just like life.

4. Specific extremals of Kähler action

The study of extremals of Kähler action represents more than decade old layer in the development of TGD.

  1. The huge vacuum degeneracy is the most characteristic feature of Kähler action (any 4-surface having CP2 projection which is Legendre sub-manifold is vacuum extremal, Legendre sub-manifolds of CP2 are in general 2-dimensional). This vacuum degeneracy is behind the spin glass analogy and leads to the p-adic TGD. As found in the second part of the book, various particle like vacuum extremals also play an important role in the understanding of the quantum TGD.

  2. The so called CP2 type vacuum extremals have finite, negative action and are therefore an excellent candidate for real particles whereas vacuum extremals with vanishing Kähler action are candidates for the virtual particles. These extremals have one dimensional M4 projection, which is light like curve but not necessarily geodesic and locally the metric of the extremal is that of CP2: the quantization of this motion leads to Virasoro algebra. Space-times with topology CP2#CP2#...CP2 are identified as the generalized Feynmann diagrams with lines thickened to 4-manifolds of "thickness" of the order of CP2 radius. The quantization of the random motion with light velocity associated with the CP2 type extremals in fact led to the discovery of Super Virasoro invariance, which through the construction of the configuration space geometry, becomes a basic symmetry of quantum TGD.

  3. There are also various non-vacuum extremals.
    1. String like objects, with string tension of same order of magnitude as possessed by the cosmic strings of GUTs, have a crucial role in TGD inspired model for the galaxy formation and in the TGD based cosmology.

    2. The so called massless extremals describe non-linear plane waves propagating with the velocity of light such that the polarization is fixed in given point of the space-time surface. The purely TGD:eish feature is the light like Kähler current: in the ordinary Maxwell theory vacuum gauge currents are not possible. This current serves as a source of coherent photons, which might play an important role in the quantum model of bio-system as a macroscopic quantum system.

    3. In the so called Maxwell's phase, ordinary Maxwell equations for the induced Kähler field are satisfied in an excellent approximation. A special case is provided by a radially symmetric extremal having an interpretation as the space-time exterior to a topologically condensed particle. The sign of the gravitational mass correlates with that of the Kähler charge and one can understand the generation of the matter antimatter asymmetry from the basic properties of this extremal. The possibility to understand the generation of the matter antimatter asymmetry directly from the basic equations of the theory gives strong support in favor of TGD in comparison to the ordinary EYM theories, where the generation of the matter antimatter asymmetry is still poorly understood.

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About Identification of the Preferred extremals of Kähler Action

Preferred extremal of Kähler action have remained one of the basic poorly defined notions of TGD. There are pressing motivations for understanding what the attribute "preferred" really means. Symmetries give a clue to the problem. The conformal invariance of string models naturally generalizes to 4-D invariance defined by quantum Yangian of quantum affine algebra (Kac-Moody type algebra) characterized by two complex coordinates and therefore explaining naturally the effective 2-dimensionality. Preferred extremal property should rely on this symmetry.

In Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO) preferred extremals are space-time surfaces connecting two space-like 3-surfaces at the ends of space-time surfaces at boundaries of causal diamond (CD). A natural looking condition is that the symplectic Noether charges associated with a sub-algebra of symplectic algebra with conformal weights n-multiples of the weights of the entire algebra vanish for preferred extremals. These conditions would be classical counterparts the the condition that super-symplectic sub-algebra annihilates the physical states. This would give a hierarchy of super-symplectic symmetry breakings and quantum criticalities having interpretation in terms of hierarchy of Planck constants heff=n× h identified as a hierarchy of dark matter. n could be interpreted as the number of space-time conformal gauge equivalence classes for space-time sheets connecting the 3-surfaces at the ends of space-time surface.

There are also many other proposals for what preferred extremal property could mean or imply. The weak form of electric-magnetic duality combined with the assumption that the contraction of the Kähler current with Kähler gauge potential vanishes for preferred extremals implies that Kähler action in Minkowskian space-time regions reduces to Chern-Simons terms at the light-like orbits of wormhole throats at which the signature of the induced metric changes its signature from Minkowskian to Euclidian. In regions with 4-D CP2 projection (wormhole contacts) also a 3-D contribution not assignable to the boundary of the region might be possible. These conditions pose strong physically feasible conditions on extremals and might be true for preferred extremals too.

Number theoretic vision leads to a proposal that either the tangent space or normal space of given point of space-time surface is associative and thus quaternionic. Also the formulation in terms of quaternion holomorphy and quaternion-Kähler property is an attractive possibility. So called M8-H duality is a variant of this vision and would mean that one can map associative/co-associative space-time surfaces from M8 to H and also iterate this mapping from H to H to generate entire category of preferred extremals. The signature of M4 is a general technical problem. For instance, the holomorphy in 2 complex variables could correspond to what I have called Hamilton-Jacobi property. Associativity/co-associativity of the tangent space makes sense also in Minkowskian signature.

In this chapter various views about preferred extremal property are discussed.

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About Hydrodynamical and Thermodynamical Interpretations of TGD

This chapter is collected from the material related to the relationship between TGD and hydrodynamics one one hand and TGD and thermodynamics on the one hand. What I have called hydrodynamics ansatz is a proposal for what the preferred extremals of Kähler action might be. The basic vision behind the ansatz is the reduction of quantum TGD to almost topological QFT. The basic condition is the vanishing of the contraction of the conserved Kähler current j with the induced Kähler gauge potential A implying the reduction of the Kähler action to 3-D contributions coming from the boundaries between space-time regions of Minkowskian and Euclidian signature.

Hydrodynamical interpretation demands that the flow parameters associated with the flow lines of isometry currents and Kähler current extend to global coordinates. Otherwise the flow line would resemble those for a gas of particles moving randomly. This leads to integrability conditions implying generalized Beltrami flow and Kähler action for the preferred extremals reduces to Chern-Simons action when the weak electro-weak duality is applied as boundary conditions. This allows also a definition of non-constant quantal order parameters depending on the spatial coordinates transversal to the flow lines.

Kiehn and others have studied Beltrami flows as integrable flows for which the flow lines define coordinate lines. In D=3 this requires that the rotor of the flow vector is parallel to the flow vector stating that Lorentz force vanishes. In D=4 the condition states that Lorentz 4-force vanishes so that also dissipation is absent. This kind of extremals are of special interest as asymptotic self-organization patterns: in fact all preferred extremals might satisfy these conditions. 3-D Beltrami flows are highly interesting topologically since the flow lines can get knotted. Their 4-D counterparts would have flow lines replaced with world sheets which can develop 2-knots. String world sheets carrying induced spinor fields are fundamental objects in TGD framework and they could indeed get knotted.

Kiehn has worked with both Betrami flows developed what he calls topological thermodynamics (TTD). This work is rather interesting from TGD point of view and the relationship between TTD and TGD is discussed in this chapter.

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General View About Physics in Many-Sheeted Space-Time

This chapter, which is second part of a summary about the recent view about many-sheeted space-time, provides a summary of the developments in TGD that have occurred during last few years (the year I am writing this is 2007). The most important steps of progress are following ones.

1. Parton level formulation of quantum TGD

The formulation of quantum TGD at partonic level identifying fundamental objects as light-like 3-surfaces having also interpretation as random light-like orbits of 2-D partons having arbitrarily large size. This picture reduces quantum TGD to an almost-topological quantum field theory and leads to a dramatic understanding of S-matrix. A generalization of Feynman diagrams emerges obtained by replacing lines of Feynman diagram with light-like 3-surfaces meeting along their ends at vertices. This picture is different from that of string models and means also a generalization of the view about space-time and 3-surface since these surfaces cannot be assumed to be a smooth manifold anymore.

2. Zero energy ontology

In zero energy ontology physical states are creatable from vacuum and have vanishing net quantum numbers, in particular energy. Zero energy states can be decomposed to positive and negative energy parts with definite geometro-temporal separation, call it T, and having interpretation in terms of initial and final states of particle reactions. Zero energy ontology is consistent with ordinary positive energy ontology at the limit when the time scale of the perception of observer is much shorter than T.

Zero energy ontology leads to the view about S-matrix as a characterizer of time-like entanglement associated with the zero energy state and a generalization of S-matrix to what might be called M-matrix emerges. M-matrix is complex square root of density matrix expressible as a product of real valued "modulus" and unitary matrix representing phase and can be seen as a matrix valued generalization of Schrödinger amplitude. Also thermodynamics becomes an inherent element of quantum theory in this approach.

3. Fusion of real and p-adic physics to single one

The fusion of p-adic physics and real physics to single coherent whole requires generalization of the number concept obtained by gluing reals and various p-adic number fields along common algebraic numbers. This leads to a new vision about how cognition and intentionality make themselves visible in real physics via long range correlations realized via the effective p-adicity of real physics. The success of the p-adic length scale hypothesis and p-adic mass calculations suggest that cognition and intentionality are present already at elementary particle level. This picture leads naturally to an effective discretization of the real physics at the level of S-matrix and relying on the notion of umber theoretic braid.

4. Dark matter hierarchy and hierarchy of Planck constants

Dark matter revolution with levels of the hierarchy labeled by values of Planck constant forces a further generalization of the notion of imbedding space and thus of space-time. One can say, that imbedding space is a book like structure obtained by gluing together infinite number of copies of the imbedding space like pages of a book: two copies characterized by singular discrete bundle structure are glued together along 4-dimensional set of common points. These points have physical interpretation in terms of quantum criticality. Particle states belonging to different sectors (pages of the book) can interact via field bodies representing space-time sheets which have parts belonging to two pages of this book.

5. Equivalence Principle and evolution of gravitational constant

Before saying anything about evolution of gravitational constant one must understand whether it is a fundamental constant or prediction of quantum TGD. Also one should understand whether Equivalence Principle holds true and if so, in what sense. Also the identification of gravitational and inertial masses seems to be necessary.

  1. The coset construction for super-symplectic and super Kac-Moody algebras implies Equivalence Principle in the sense that four-momenta assignable to the Super Virasoro generators of the two algebras are identical. The challenge is to understand this result in more concrete terms.

  2. The progress made in the understanding of number theoretical compactification led to a dramatic progress in the construction of configuration space geometry and spinor structure in terms of the modified Dirac operator associated with light-like 3-surfaces appearing in the slicing of the preferred extremal X4(X3l) of Kähler action to light-like 3-surfaces Y3l "parallel" to X3l. Even more the M4 projection is predicted to have a slicing into 2-dimensional stringy worldsheets having M2(x) subset M4 as a tangent space at point x.

  3. By dimensional reduction one can assign to any stringy slice Y2 a stringy action obtained by integrating Kähler action over the transversal degrees of freedom labeling the copies of Y2. One can assign length scale evolution to the string tension T(x), which in principle can depend on the point of the string world sheet and thus evolves. T(x) is not identifiable as inverse of gravitational constant but by general arguments proportional to 1/Lp2, where Lp is p-adic length scale.

  4. Gravitational constant can be understood as a product of Lp2 with the exponential of the Kähler action for the two pieces of CP2 type vacuum extremals representing wormhole contacts assignable to graviton connected by the string world sheets. The volume of the typical CP2 type extremal associated with the graviton increases with Lp so that the exponential factor decreases reducing the growth due to the increase of Lp. Hence G could be RG invariant in p-adic coupling constant evolution. It does not make sense to formulate evolution of gravitational constant at space-time level and gravitational constant characterizes given CD.

  5. Gravitational mass is assigned to the stringy world sheet and should be identical with the inertial mass identified as Noether charge assignable to the preferred extremal. By construction there are good hopes that for a proper choice of G gravitational and inertial masses are identical.

6. Renormalization group equations for gauge couplings at space-time level

Renormalization group evolution equations for gauge couplings at given space-time sheet are discussed using quantum classical correspondence. For known extremals of Kähler action gauge couplings are RG invariants inside single space-time sheet, which supports the view that discrete p-adic coupling constant evolution replaces the ordinary coupling constant evolution.

7. Quantitative predictions for the values of coupling constants

The latest progress in the understanding of p-adic coupling constant evolution comes from a formula for Kähler coupling strength aK in terms of Dirac determinant of the modified Dirac operator associated with Kähler action.

The formula for aK fixes its number theoretic anatomy and also that of other coupling strengths. The assumption that simple rationals (p-adicization) are involved can be combined with the input from p-adic mass calculations and with an old conjecture for the formula of gravitational constant allowing to express it in terms of CP2 length scale and Kähler action of topologically condensed CP2 type vacuum extremal. The prediction is that aK is renormalization group invariant and equals to the value of fine structure constant at electron length scale characterized by M127. Although Newton's constant is proportional to p-adic length scale squared it can be RG invariant thanks to exponential reduction due to the presence of the exponent of Kähler action associated with the two CP2 type vacuum extremals representing the wormhole contacts associated with graviton. The number theoretic anatomy of R2/G allows to consider two options. For the first one only M127 gravitons are possible number theoretically. For the second option gravitons corresponding to p ≈ 2k are possible.

A relationship between electromagnetic and color coupling constant evolutions based on the formula 1/aem+1/as = 1/aK is suggested by the induced gauge field concept, and would mean that the otherwise hard-to-calculate evolution of color coupling strength is fixed completely. The predicted value of as at intermediate boson length scale is correct.

In this chapter the above topics are discussed in detail. Also the possible role of so called super-symplectic gauge bosons in the understanding of non-perturbative phase of QCD and black-hole physics is discussed.

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Can one apply Occam's razor as a general purpose debunking argument to TGD?

Occarm's razor have been used to debunk TGD. The following arguments provide the information needed by the reader to decide himself. Considerations at three levels.

The level of "world of classical worlds" (WCW) defined by the space of 3-surfaces endowed with Kähler structure and spinor structure and with the identification of WCW space spinor fields as quantum states of the Universe: this is nothing but Einstein's geometrization program applied to quantum theory. Second level is space-time level.

Space-time surfaces correspond to preferred extremals of Käction in M4× CP2. The number of field like variables is 4 corresponding to 4 dynamically independent imbedding space coordinates. Classical gauge fields and gravitational field emerge from the dynamics of 4-surfaces. Strong form of holography reduces this dynamics to the data given at string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces and preferred extremals are minimal surface extremals of Kähler action so that the classical dynamics in space-time interior does not depend on coupling constants at all which are visible via boundary conditions only. Continuous coupling constant evolution is replaced with a sequence of phase transitions between phases labelled by critical values of coupling constants: loop corrections vanish in given phase. Induced spinor fields are localized at string world sheets to guarantee well-definedness of em charge.

At imbedding space level the modes of imbedding space spinor fields define ground states of super-symplectic representations and appear in QFT-GRT limit. GRT involves post-Newtonian approximation involving the notion of gravitational force. In TGD framework the Newtonian force correspond to a genuine force at imbedding space level.

I was also asked for a summary about what TGD is and what it predicts. I decided to add this summary to this chapter although it is goes slightly outside of its title.

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PART II: MANY-SHEETED COSMOLOGY AND ASTROPHYSICS



The Relationship Between TGD and GRT

In this chapter the recent view about TGD as Poincare invariant theory of gravitation is discussed. Radically new views about ontology were necessary before it was possible to see what had been there all the time. Zero energy ontology states that all physical states have vanishing net quantum numbers. The hierarchy of dark matter identified as macroscopic quantum phases labeled by arbitrarily large values of Planck constant is second aspect of the new ontology.

1. Is Equivalence Principle satisfied in TGD?

Whether or not Equivalence Principle holds true in TGD Universe has been a long standing issue. The source of problems was the attempt to deduce the formulation of Equivalence Principle in the framework provided by General Relativity framework rather than in string model like context. There were several steps in the enlightment process.

  1. First came the conviction that coset representation for super-symplectic and super Kac-Moody algebras provides extremely general formulation of Equivalence Principle in which inertial and gravitational four-momenta are replaced with Super Virasoro generators of two algebras whose differences annihilate physical states. This idea came for years before becoming aware of its importance and I simply forgot it.

  2. Next came the realization of the fundamental role of number theoretical compactification providing a number theoretical interpretation of M4×CP2 and thus also of standard model quantum numbers. This lead to the identification of the preferred extremals of Kähler action and to the formulation of quantum TGD in terms of second quantized induced spinors fields. One of conclusion was that dimensional reduction for preferred extremals of Kähler action- if they have the properties required by theoretic compactification- leads to string model with string tension which is however not proportional to the inverse of Newton's constant but to Lp2, p-adic length scale squared and thus gigantic. The connection between gravitational constant and Lp2 comes from an old argument that I discovered about two decades ago and which allowed to predict the value of Kähler coupling strength by using as input electron mass and p-adic mass calculations. In this framework the role of Planck length as a fundamental length scale is taken by CP2 size so that Planck length scale loses its magic role as a length scale in which usual views about space-time geometry cease to hold true.

  3. The next step was the realization that zero energy ontology allows to avoid the paradox implied in positive energy ontology by the fact that gravitational energy is not conserved but inertial energy identified as Noether charge is. Energy conservation is always in some length scale in zero energy ontology.

  4. As a matter fact, there was still one step. I had to become fully aware that the identification of gravitational four-momentum in terms of Einstein tensor makes sense only in long length scales. This is of course trivial but for some reason I did not realize that this fact resolves the paradoxes associated with objects like cosmic strings.

To sum up, the understanding of Equivalence Principle in TGD context required quite many discoveries of mostly mathematical character: the understanding of the super-conformal symmetries of quantum TGD, the discovery of zero energy ontology, the identification of preferred extremals of Kähler action by requiring number theoretical compactification, and the discovery that dimensional reduction allows to formulate quantum in terms of slicing of space-time surface by stringy word sheets.

2. The problem of cosmological constant

A further implication of dark matter hierarchy is that astrophysical systems correspond to stationary states analogous to atoms and do not participate to cosmic expansion in a continuous manner but via discrete quantum phase transitions in which gravitational Planck constant increases. By quantum criticality of these phase transitions critical cosmologies are excellent candidates for the modeling of these transitions. Imbeddable critical (and also over-critical) cosmologies are unique apart from a parameter determining their duration and represent accelerating cosmic expansion so that there is no need to introduce cosmological constant.

It indeed turns out possible to understand these critical phases in terms of quantum phase transition increasing the size of large modeled in terms of cosmic strings. A possible mechanism driving the strings to the boundaries of large voids could be repulsive interaction due to net charges of strings. Also repulsive gravitational acceleration could do this. In this framework cosmological constant like parameter does not characterize the density of dark energy but that of dark matter identifiable as quantum phases with large Planck constant.

A further problem is that the naive estimate for the cosmological constant is predicted to be by a factor 10120 larger than its value deduced from the accelerated expansion of the Universe. In TGD framework the resolution of the problem comes naturally from the fact that large voids are quantum systems which follow the cosmic expansion only during the quantum critical phases.

p-Adic fractality predicting that cosmological constant is reduced by a power of 2 in phase transitions occurring at times T(k) ≈ 2k/2, which correspond to p-adic time scales. These phase transitions would naturally correspond to quantum phase transitions increasing the size of the large voids during which critical cosmology predicting accelerated expansion naturally applies. On the average L (k) behaves as 1/a2, where a is the light-cone proper time. This predicts correctly the order of magnitude for observed value of L.

3. Topics of the chapter

The topics discussed in the chapter are following.

  1. The basic principles of GRT (General Coordinate Invariance, Equivalence Principle, and Machian Principle) are discussed from TGD point of view.

  2. The theory is applied to the vacuum extremal embeddings of Reissner-Nordström and Schwartschild metric.

  3. A model for the final state of a star, which indicates that Z0 force, presumably created by dark matter, might have an important role in the dynamics of the compact objects. During year 2003, more than decade after the formulation of the model, the discovery of the connection between supernovas and gamma ray bursts provided strong support for the predicted axial magnetic and Z0 magnetic flux tube structures predicted by the model for the final state of a rotating star. Two years later the interpretation of the predicted long range weak forces as being caused by dark matter emerged.

    The progress in understanding of hadronic mass calculations has led to the identification of so called super-symplectic bosons and their super-counterparts as basic building blocks of hadrons. This notion leads also to a microscopic description of neutron stars and black-holes in terms of highly entangled string like objects in Hagedorn temperature and in very precise sense analogous to gigantic hadrons.

  4. A brief summary about cosmic strings, which form a corner stone of TGD inspired cosmology, is given.

  5. Allais effect is interpreted as interference effect made possible by gigantic value of gravitational Planck constant assignable to space-time sheets mediating gravitational interaction. There is experimental evidence for gravimagnetic fields in rotating superconductors which are by 20 orders of magnitudes stronger than predicted by general relativity. A TGD based explanation of these observations is proposed. Also the predicted anomalous time dilation due to warping of space-time sheet and possible even for gravitational vacua is discussed.

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TGD and Potential Anomalies of GRT

In this chapter the applications of TGD to various real or potential anomalies of GRT approach are discussed.

  1. In the first section Allais effect as a possible evidence for large hbar dark gravitons is discussed.
  2. TGD inspired model of gravimagnetism is studied. There are claims about strong gravimagnetism and these claims are considered in termslarge hbar hypothesis.
  3. The dependence of operationally defined light velocity on space-time sheet distinguishes between the sub-manifold gravity of TGD and the abstract manifold gravity GRT. Possible evidence for the effect is discussed. These effects are discussed in several sections. Also the time dilation effect caused by the warping of space-time sheet in absence of matter is considered.
  4. There are also some considerations not strictly related to anomalies such as possible interpretations of Machian Principle in TGD framework.

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Cosmic Strings

Cosmic strings belong to the basic extremals of the Kähler action. The upper bound for string tension of the cosmic strings is T ≈ .5×10-6/G and in the same range as the string tension of GUT strings and this makes them very interesting cosmologically although TGD cosmic strings have otherwise practically nothing to do with their GUT counterparts.

1. Basic ideas

The understanding of cosmic strings has developed only slowly and has required dramatic modifications of existing views.

  1. Zero energy ontology implies that the inertial energy and all quantum numbers of the Universe vanishes and physical states are zero energy states decomposing into pairs of positive and negative energy states localizable to the light-like boundaries of causal diamonds defined as intersections of future and past directed light-cones. Positive energy ontology is a good approximation under certain assumptions.

  2. Dark matter hierarchy whose levels are labeled by gigantic values of gravitational Planck constant associated with dark matter is second essential piece of the picture.

  3. The second variation of Kähler action vanishes for preferred extremals -at least the second variations associated with dynamical symmetries. This guarantees that Noether currents assignable to the modified Dirac action are conserved. The properties of the preferred extremals allow a dimensional reduction providing formulations of quantum TGD in terms of dual slicings of space-time surface by string word sheets and partonic 2-surfaces. Stringy picture allows a formulation Equivalence Principle at space-time level. The realization that general relativistic formulation of Equivalence Principle holds true only in long length scales resolves various paradoxes, which have plagued quantum TGD from the beginning.

  4. The basic question whether one can model the exterior region of the topologically condensed cosmic string using General Relativity. The exterior metric of the cosmic string corresponds to a small deformation of a vacuum extremal. The angular defect and surplus associated with the exterior metrics extremizing curvature scalar can be much smaller than assuming vacuum Einstein's equations. The conjecture is that the exterior metric of galactic string conforms with the Newtonian intuitions and thus explains the constant velocity spectrum of distant stars if one assumes that galaxies are organized to linear structures along long strings like pearls in a necklace.

2. Critical and over-critical cosmologies involve accelerated cosmic expansion

In TGD framework critical and over-critical cosmologies are unique apart from single parameter telling their duration and predict the recently discovered accelerated cosmic expansion. Critical cosmologies are naturally associated with quantum critical phase transitions involving the change of gravitational Planck constant. A natural candidate for such a transition is the increase of the size of a large void as galactic strings have been driven to its boundary. During the phase transitions connecting two stationary cosmologies (extremals of curvature scalar) also determined apart from single parameter, accelerated expansion is predicted to occur. These transitions are completely analogous to quantum transitions at atomic level.

The proposed microscopic model predicts that the TGD counterpart of the quantity r+3p for cosmic strings is negative during the phase transition which implies accelerated expansion. Dark energy is replaced in TGD framework with dark matter indeed predicted by TGD and its fraction is.74 as in standard scenario. Cosmological constant thus characterizes phenomenologically the density of dark matter rather than energy in TGD Universe.

The sizes of large voids stay constant during stationary periods which means that also cosmological constant is piecewise constant. p-Adic length fractality predicts that L scales as 1/L2(k) as a function of the p-adic scale characterizing the space-time sheet of void. The order of magnitude for the recent value of the cosmological constant comes out correctly. The gravitational energy density described by the cosmological constant is identifiable as that associated with topologically condensed cosmic strings and of magnetic flux tubes to which they are gradually transformed during cosmological evolution.

3. Cosmic strings and generation of structures

  1. In zero energy ontology cosmic strings must be created from vacuum as zero energy states consisting of pairs of strings with opposite time orientation and inertial energy.

  2. The counterpart of Hawking radiation provides a mechanism by which cosmic strings can generate ordinary matter. The splitting of cosmic strings followed by a "burning" of the string ends provides a second manner to generate visible matter. Matter-antimatter symmetry would result if antimatter is inside cosmic strings and matter in the exterior region. A justification for CP asymmetry comes from basic quantum TGD. One can add to Kähler function of the configuration space an imaginary part defined by instanton term JJ. This term does not affect Kähler metric but implies CP breaking.

  3. Zero energy ontology has deep implications for the cosmic and ultimately also for biological evolution (magnetic flux tubes paly a fundamental role in TGD inspired biology and cosmic strings are limiting cases of them). The arrows of geometric time are opposite for the strings and also for positive energy matter and negative energy antimatter. This implies a competition between two dissipative time developments proceeding in different directions of geometric time and looking self-organization and even self-assembly from the point of view of each other. This resolves paradoxes created by gravitational self-organization contra second law of thermodynamics. So called super-symplectic matter at cosmic strings implies large p-adic entropy resolves the well-known entropy paradox.

  4. p-Adic fractality and simple quantitative observations lead to the hypothesis that cosmic strings are responsible for the evolution of astrophysical structures in a very wide length scale range. Large voids with size of order 108 light years can be seen as structures cosmic strings wound around the boundaries of the void. Galaxies correspond to same structure with smaller size and linked around the supra-galactic strings. This conforms with the finding that galaxies tend to be grouped along linear structures. Simple quantitative estimates show that even stars and planets could be seen as structures formed around cosmic strings of appropriate size. Thus Universe could be seen as fractal cosmic necklace consisting of cosmic strings linked like pearls around longer cosmic strings linked like...

4. Cosmic strings, gamma ray bursts, and supernovae

During year 2003 two important findings related to cosmic strings were made.

  1. A correlation between supernovae and gamma ray bursts was observed.

  2. Evidence that some unknown particles of mass m ≈ 2me and decaying to gamma rays and/or electron positron pairs annihilating immediately serve as signatures of dark matter. These findings challenge the identification of cosmic strings and/or their decay products as dark matter, and also the idea that gamma ray bursts correspond to cosmic fire crackers formed by the decaying ends of cosmic strings.

This forces the updating of the more than decade old rough vision about topologically condensed cosmic strings and about gamma ray bursts described in this chapter. According to the updated model, cosmic strings transform in topological condensation to magnetic flux tubes about which they represent a limiting case. Primordial magnetic flux tubes forming ferro-magnet like structures become seeds for gravitational condensation leading to the formation of stars and galaxies. The TGD based model for the asymptotic state of a rotating star as dynamo leads to the identification of the predicted magnetic flux tube at the rotation axis of the star as Z0 magnetic flux tube of primordial origin. Besides Z0 magnetic flux tube structure also magnetic flux tube structure exists at different space-time sheet but is in general not parallel to the Z0 magnetic structure. This structure cannot have primordial origin (the magnetic field of star can even flip its polarity).

The flow of matter along Z0 magnetic (rotation) axis generates synchrotron radiation, which escapes as a precisely targeted beam along magnetic axis and leaves the star. The identification is as the rotating light beam associated with ordinary neutron stars. During the core collapse leading to the supernova this beam becomes gamma ray burst. The mechanism is very much analogous to the squeezing of the tooth paste from the tube. The fact that all nuclei are fully ionized Z0 ions, the Z0 charge unbalance caused by the ejection of neutrinos, and the radial compression make the effect extremely strong so that there are hopes to understand the observed incredibly high polarization of 8020 per cent.

TGD suggests the identification of particles of mass m ≈ 2me accompanying dark matter as lepto-pions formed by color excited leptons, and topologically condensed at magnetic flux tubes having thickness of about lepto-pion Compton length. Lepto-pions would serve as signatures of dark matter whereas dark matter itself would correspond to the magnetic energy of topologically condensed cosmic strings transformed to magnetic flux tubes.

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TGD and Cosmology

A proposal for what might be called TGD inspired cosmology is made. The basic ingredient of this cosmology is the TGD counter part of the cosmic string. It is found that many-sheeted space-time concept, the new view about the relationship between inertial and gravitational four-momenta, the basic properties of the cosmic strings, zero energy ontology, the hierarchy of dark matter with levels labeled by arbitrarily large values of Planck constant: the existence of the limiting temperature (as in string model, too), the assumption about the existence of the vapor phase dominated by cosmic strings, and quantum criticality imply a rather detailed picture of the cosmic evolution, which differs from that provided by the standard cosmology in several respects but has also strong resemblances with inflationary scenario.

TGD inspired cosmology in its recent form relies on an ontology differing dramatically from that of GRT based cosmologies. Zero energy ontology states that all physical states have vanishing net quantum numbers so that all matter is creatable from vacuum. The hierarchy of dark matter identified as macroscopic quantum phases labeled by arbitrarily large values of Planck constant is second aspect of the new ontology. The values of the gravitational Planck constant assignable to space-time sheets mediating gravitational interaction are gigantic. This implies that TGD inspired late cosmology might decompose into stationary phases corresponding to stationary quantum states in cosmological scales and critical cosmologies corresponding to quantum transitions changing the value of the gravitational Planck constant and inducing an accelerated cosmic expansion.

1. Zero energy ontology

The construction of quantum theory leads naturally to zero energy ontology stating that everything is creatable from vacuum. Zero energy states decompose into positive and negative energy parts having identification as initial and final states of particle reaction in time scales of perception longer than the geometro-temporal separation T of positive and negative energy parts of the state. If the time scale of perception is smaller than T, the usual positive energy ontology applies.

In zero energy ontology inertial four-momentum is a quantity depending on the temporal time scale T used and in time scales longer than T the contribution of zero energy states with parameter T1 < T to four-momentum vanishes. This scale dependence alone implies that it does not make sense to speak about conservation of inertial four-momentum in cosmological scales. Hence it would be in principle possible to identify inertial and gravitational four-momenta and achieve strong form of Equivalence Principle. It however seems that this is not the correct approach to follow.

2. Dark matter hierarchy and hierarchy of Planck constants

Dark matter revolution with levels of the hierarchy labeled by values of Planck constant forces a further generalization of the notion of imbedding space and thus of space-time. One can say, that imbedding space is a book like structure obtained by gluing together infinite number of copies of the imbedding space like pages of a book: two copies characterized by singular discrete bundle structure are glued together along 4-dimensional set of common points. These points have physical interpretation in terms of quantum criticality. Particle states belonging to different sectors (pages of the book) can interact via field bodies representing space-time sheets which have parts belonging to two pages of this book.

3. Quantum criticality

TGD Universe is quantum counterpart of a statistical system at critical temperature. As a consequence, topological condensate is expected to possess hierarchical, fractal like structure containing topologically condensed 3-surfaces with all possible sizes. Both Kähler magnetized and Kähler electric 3-surfaces ought to be important and string like objects indeed provide a good example of Kähler magnetic structures important in TGD inspired cosmology. In particular space-time is expected to be many-sheeted even at cosmological scales and ordinary cosmology must be replaced with many-sheeted cosmology. The presence of vapor phase consisting of free cosmic strings containing topologically condensed fermions is second crucial aspect of TGD inspired cosmology.

Quantum criticality of TGD Universe, which corresponds to the vanishing of second variation of Kähler action for preferred extremals - at least of the variations related to dynamical symmetries- supports the view that many-sheeted cosmology is in some sense critical. Criticality in turn suggests fractality. Phase transitions, in particular the topological phase transitions giving rise to new space-time sheets, are (quantum) critical phenomena involving no scales. If the curvature of the 3-space does not vanish, it defines scale: hence the flatness of the cosmic time=constant section of the cosmology implied by the criticality is consistent with the scale invariance of the critical phenomena. This motivates the assumption that the new space-time sheets created in topological phase transitions are in good approximation modelable as critical Robertson-Walker cosmologies for some period of time at least.

These phase transitions are between stationary quantum states having stationary cosmologies as space-time correlates: also these cosmologies are determined uniquely apart from single parameter.

4. Only sub-critical cosmologies are globally imbeddable

TGD allows global imbedding of subcritical cosmologies. A partial imbedding of one-parameter families of critical and overcritical cosmologies is possible. The infinite size of the horizon for the imbeddable critical cosmologies is in accordance with the presence of arbitrarily long range fluctuations at criticality and guarantees the average isotropy of the cosmology. Imbedding is possible for some critical duration of time. The parameter labeling these cosmologies is scale factor characterizing the duration of the critical period. These cosmologies have the same optical properties as inflationary cosmologies. Critical cosmology can be regarded as a 'Silent Whisper amplified to Bang' rather than 'Big Bang' and transformed to hyperbolic cosmology before its imbedding fails. Split strings decay to elementary particles in this transition and give rise to seeds of galaxies. In some later stage the hyperbolic cosmology can decompose to disjoint 3-surfaces. Thus each sub-cosmology is analogous to biological growth process leading eventually to death.

5. Fractal many-sheeted cosmology

The critical cosmologies can be used as a building blocks of a fractal cosmology containing cosmologies containing ... cosmologies. p-Adic length scale hypothesis allows a quantitative formulation of the fractality. Fractal cosmology predicts cosmos to have essentially same optic properties as inflationary scenario but avoids the prediction of unknown vacuum energy density. Fractal cosmology explains the paradoxical result that the observed density of the matter is much lower than the critical density associated with the largest space-time sheet of the fractal cosmology. Also the observation that some astrophysical objects seem to be older than the Universe, finds a nice explanation.

6. Cosmic strings as basic building blocks of TGD inspired cosmology

Cosmic strings are the basic building blocks of TGD inspired cosmology and all structures including large voids, galaxies, stars, and even planets can be seen as pearls in a cosmic fractal necklaces consisting of cosmic strings containing smaller cosmic strings linked around them containing... During cosmological evolution the cosmic strings are transformed to magnetic flux tubes with smaller Kähler string tension and these structures are also key players in TGD inspired quantum biology.

The observed large voids would contain galactic cosmic strings at their boundaries. These voids would participate cosmic expansion only in average sense. During stationary periods the quantum states would be modelable using stationary cosmologies and during phase transitions increasing gravitational Planck constant and thus size of the large void they critical cosmologies would be the appropriate description. The acceleration of cosmic expansion predicted by critical cosmologies can be naturally assigned with these periods. Classically the quantum phase transition would be induced when galactic strings are driven to the boundary of the large void. The mechanism forcing the phase transition could be repulsive Coulomb energy associated with dark matter at strings if cosmic strings generate net em charge as a consequence of CP breaking (antimatter could reside inside cosmic strings) or a repulsive gravitational acceleration. The large values of Planck constant are crucial for understanding of living matter so that gravitation would play fundamental role also in the evolution of life and intelligence.

Many-sheeted fractal cosmology containing both hyperbolic and critical space-time sheets based on cosmic strings suggests an explanation for several puzzles of GRT based cosmology such as dark matter problem, origin of matter antimatter asymmetry, the problem of cosmological constant and mechanism of accelerated expansion, the problem of several Hubble constants, and the existence of stars apparently older than the Universe. Under natural assumptions TGD predicts same optical properties of the large scale Universe as inflationary scenario does. The recent balloon experiments however favor TGD inspired cosmology. Some sections are devoted to the TGD counterpart of inflationary cosmology. From the beginning it has been clear that quantum criticality implying flatness of 3-space and thus criticality is the TGD counterpart for inflationary cosmology. Only after the recent findings about evidence for the polarization of CMB I realized that critical cosmology contains a period of very fast accelerating expansion and that both inflation and accelerating expansion much later are special cases of criticality. This leads to a rather detailed view about how the temperature fluctuations could emerged in TGD framework. The predecessor of inflationary cosmology would be cosmic string gas in the light-cone of Minkowski space and critical period would mean the emergence of space-time as we know it.

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More ab out TGD and Cosmology

This chapter can be regarded as second part of the previous chapter and is develoted to various applications and problems of cosmology. Much of the text is written decade or two ago.

  1. The anomalies of CMB are discussed as a natural continuation of discussion of the counterpart of inflationary cosmology in TGD framework.
  2. Simulating Big Bang in laboratory is the title of the next section. The motivation comes from the observation that critical cosmology could serve as a universal model for phase transitions.
  3. Some problems of existing cosmology are considered in TGD framework. Discussin includes certain problems of the cosmology such as the questions why some stars seem to be older than the Universe, the claimed time dependence of the fine structure constant, the generation of matter antimatter asymmetry, the problem of the fermion families, and the redshift anomaly of quasars. A mechanism for accelerated expansion of Universe is also considered. In the recent framework this reduces to the critical cosmology and cosmological constant can be assigned to the effective space-time defining GRT limit of TGD.
  4. There is a section about matter-antimatter asymmetry, baryogenesis, leptogenesis and TGD discussing whether right-handed neutrino suggested to generate SUSY in TGD framework could be the key entity in fermiogenesis.
  5. The remaining sections are devoted to Hogan's theory abot quantum fluctuations as new kind of noise and the question whether hyperbolic 3-manifolds emerging naturally in Zero Energy Ontology might be useful in TGD inspired cosmology and explain some redshift anomalies.

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TGD and Astrophysics

Astrophysics in TGD Universe is the basic topics of this chapter. The topics discussed are following.
  1. p-Adic length scale hypothesis can be applied in astrophysical length scales, too and some examples of possible applications are discussed. One of the most interesting implications of p-adicity is the possibility of series of phase transitions changing the value of cosmological constant behaving as Λ∝ 1/L2(k) as a function of p-adic length scale characterizing the size of the space-time sheet.
  2. A model for the solar magnetic field as a bundle of topological magnetic flux tubes is constructed and a model of Sunspot cycle is proposed. This model is also shown to explain the mysteriously high temperature of solar corona and also some other mysterious phenomena related to the solar atmosphere. A direct connection with the TGD based explanation of the dark energy as magnetic and Z0 magnetic energy of the magnetic flux tubes containing dark matter as ordinary matter, emerges. The matter in the solar corona is simply dark matter leaked from the highly curved portions of the magnetic flux tubes to the space-time sheets where it becomes visible. The generation of anomalous Z0 charge caused by the runoff of dark neutrinos in Super Nova could provide a first principle explanation for the avoidance of collapse to black-hole in Super Nova explosion.
  3. One section is devoted to some astrophysical and cosmological anomalies such as the apparent shrinking of solar system observed by Masreliez, Pioneer anomaly and Flyby anomaly.
  4. The astrophysics of solar system involves also an anomaly related to the precession of equinoxes suggesting that Sun might have a companion. TGD suggests a model for anomalies as being due to interaction magnetic flux tube connecting Sun to its companion.
  5. The TGD variant of the model of Nottale involved gravitational Planck constant hgr is discussed in detail. Also further indications for large values of Planck constant are discussed.

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Quantum Astrophysics

In this chapter the topics relates to what might be called quantum astrophysics. Motivation comes from the model for Nottale's findings suggesting Bohr quantization of planetary orbits. The model leads to the introduction of gravitational Planck constant hgr =GMm/v0, where v0 corresponds to a typical rotational velocity in two particle system. hgr characterizes the interaction of masses M and m and assigned to the magnetic flux tube connecting them and carrying the massless extremals mediating gravitational interaction. The topics discuss in this chapter are following.
  1. An updated view about hierarchy of Planck constants is discussed and the connection heff=hgr is shown to be consistent with TGD inspired quantum biology. Quantum gravity would be in key role in biology as intuited also by Penrose.
  2. Vision about formation of structures and quantum chaos is astrophysical scales is discussed. Also a speculative view about gravitational radiation based on hgr is considered.
  3. TGD suggests that cosmological evolution involves a series of phase transitions changing the value of hgr occurring via periods of quantum criticality. The critical cosmology is fixed apart from its duration. This suggests a piecewise accelerated expansion. Also inflationary period would be example of this phenomenon as also accelerating expansion much later.
  4. Expanding Earth model has been proposed for long time ago to explain why the continents seem to fit nicely to form a complete covering of the Earth's surface. The model however makes sense if the radius of Earth is one half of its recent value. TGD based interpretation for the expansion is is in terms of a phase transition increasing hgr by factor 2.
  5. Blackholes in TGD is the topic of the last two sections.

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What are the counterparts of Einstein's equations in TGD?

This chapter contains topics which do not fit naturally under any umbrella, but which I feel might be of some relevance. Basically TGD inspired comments to the work of the people not terribly relevant to quantum TGD itself are in question.

For few years ago Witten's approach to 3-D quantum gravitation raised a considerable interest and this inspired the comparison of this approach with quantum TGD in which light-like 3-surfaces are in a key role. Few years later the entropic gravity of Verlinde stimulated a lot of fuss in blogs and it is interesting to point out how the formal thermodynamical structure (or actually its "square root") emerges in the fundamental formulation of TGD.

Few years later the entropic gravity of Verlinde stimulated a lot of fuss in blogs and it is interesting to point out how the formal thermodynamical structure (or actually its "square root") emerges in the fundamental formulation of TGD.

Is TGD consistent with Einstein's equations and in what sense, has been the key question for decades. Now the situation is settled and one can understand how the GRT space-time emerges from TGD space-time as an approximate notion replacing many-sheeted space-time as 4-surface with Minkowski metric replaced with an effective metric, which sums up the contributions of various space-time sheets to the deformation from $M^4$ metric. This approximation fails in very early cosmology where string like objects dominate. This interpretation does not exclude the possibility that also preferred extremals might in some sense satisfy Einstein's equations although this is by no means necessary. One of the attempts based on what now seems to be wrong view about GRT-TGD relationship led to the idea that sub-manifold geometry allow to generalized the notion of cosmological constants so that there would be several of them. Although the idea looks now obsolete, I decided to keep it as a kind of curiosity.

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PART III: Topological Field Quantization



Hydrodynamics and CP2 Geometry

The chapter begins with a brief summary of the basic notions related to many-sheeted space-time. A generalization of hydrodynamics to a p-adic hierarchy of hydrodynamics is performed and a mechanism of energy transfer between condensate levels is identified. Mary Selvam has found a fascinating connection between the distribution of primes and the distribution of vortex radii in turbulent flow in atmosphere. These observations provide new insights into p-adic length scale hypothesis and suggest that TGD based generalization of Hawking-Bekenstein law holds even in macroscopic length scales and that hydrodynamical vortices behave in some aspects like elementary particles. TGD leads to a formulation of a general theory of phase transitions: the new element is the presence of several condensate levels.

A topological model for the generation of the hydrodynamical turbulence is proposed. The basic idea is that hydrodynamical turbulence can be regarded as a spontaneous Kähler magnetization leading to the increase the value of Kähler function and therefore of the probability of the configuration. Kähler magnetization is achieved through the formation of a vortex cascade via the decay of the mother vortex by the emission of smaller daughter vortices. Vortices with various values of the fractal quantum number and with sizes related by a discrete scaling transformation appear in the cascade. The decay of the vortices takes place via the so called phase slippage process.

An encouraging result is the prediction for the size distribution of the vortices: the prediction is practically identical with that obtained from the model of Heisenberg but on rather different physical grounds. The model is rather insensitive to the p-adic scaling of vortices in the transition as long as it is smaller than λ= 2-5. The model is also consistent with the assumption that the decay of a vortex to smaller vortices corresponds to a phase transition from a given level of dark matter hierarchy to a lower level so that the value of hbar is reduced by a factor λ= v0/n≈ 2-11/n, n=1,2,... so that Compton length scales as well as sizes of vortices are reduced by this factor.

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Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena and CP2 Geometry

Topological field quantization is applied to a unified description of three macroscopic quantum phases: super conductors, super fluids and quantum Hall phase. The basic observation is that the formation of the join along boundaries bonds makes possible the formation of macroscopic quantum system from topological field quanta having size of the order of the coherence length ξ for ordinary phase. The presence of the bridges (join along boundaries bonds) makes possible supra flow and the presence of two levels of the topological condensate explains the two-fluid picture of super fluids. In standard physics, the order parameter is constant in the ground state. In TGD context, the non-simply connected topology of the 3-surface makes possible ground states with a covariantly constant order parameter characterized by the integers telling the change of the order parameter along closed homotopically nontrivial loops.

The role of the ordinary magnetic field in super conductivity is taken by the Z0 magnetic field in super fluidity and the mathematical descriptions of super conductors and super fluids become practically identical. The generalization of the quantization condition for the magnetic flux to a condition involving also a velocity circulation, plays a central role in the description of both phases and suggests a new description of the rotating super fluid and some new effects. A classical explanation for the fractional Quantum Hall effect in terms of the topological field quanta is proposed. Quantum Hall phase is very similar to the supra phases: an essential role is played by the generalized quantization condition and the hydrodynamic description of the Hall electrons.

The results obtained support the view that in condensed matter systems topological field quanta with size of the order of ξ≈ 10-8 -10-7 meters are of special importance. This new length scale is expected to have also applications to less exotic phenomena of the condensed matter physics (the description of the conductors and di-electrics and ferromagnetism) and in hydrodynamics (the failure of the hydrodynamic approximation takes place at this length scale). These field quanta of course, correspond to only one condensate level and many length scales are expected to be present.

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