What's new inTGD Inspired Theory of ConsciousnessNote: Newest contributions are at the top! 
Year 2006 
What really distinguishes between future and past?Our knowledge about geometric future is very uncertain as compared to that about geometric past. Hence we usually use words like plan/hunch/hope/... in the case of geometric future and speak about memories in the case of geometric past. We also regard geometric past as something absolutely stable. Why we cannot remember geometric future as reliably as the geometric past? Is it that geometric future is highly unstable as compared to the geometric past? Why this should be the case? This provides a possible TGD based articulation for the basic puzzles relating to time experience. The latest progress in the understanding of quantum TGD allows a more detailed consideration of these questions. 1. Is padictoreal phase transition enough? The basic idea is that the flow of subjective time corresponds to a phase transition front representing a transformation of intentions to actions and propagating towards the geometric future quantum jump by quantum jump. All quantum states have vanishing total quantum numbers in zero energy ontology which now forms the basis of quantum TGD and this ontology allows to imagine models for what could happen in this process. This starting point is the interpretation of fermions as correlates for cognition bosons as correlates for intentions/actions (see this). Fermions correspond to pairs of real and padic spacetime sheets with opposite quantum numbers with padic spacetime sheet providing a cognitive representation of the real spacetime sheet. Bosonic spacetime sheets would be either padic or real and thus represent intentions or actions. Fermionic world and its cognitive representations would be common to future and geometric past and the asymmetry would relate only to the intentionaction dichotomy. Geometric future contains a lot of padic spacetime sheets representing intentions which transform to real spacetime sheets allowing interpretation as desires inducing eventually neuronal activities. Time mirror mechanism for intentional action assumes that the phase transition gives rise to negative energy spacetime sheets representing propagation of signals to geometric past where they induce neuronal activities. From Libet's experiments relating to neuronal correlates of volition the time scale involved is a fraction of second but an infinite hierarchy of time scales is implied by fractality. Conservation of quantum numbers poses strong conditions on padictoreal phase transition. Noether charges are in the real context given by integrals over partonic 2surfaces. The problem is that these integrals do not make sense padically. There are two options. a) Give up the notion of padic Noether charge so that it would not make sense to speak about fourmomentum and other conserved quantum numbers in case of padic spacetime sheet. This implies zero energy ontology in the real sector. All real spacetime sheets would have vanishing conserved quantum numbers and padicto real transition generates real spacetime sheet complex with vanishing total energy. Negative energy signal must be somehow compensated by a positive energy state. b) It might be however possible to assign charges to padic spacetime sheets. The equations characterizing padic spacetime sheet representing intention and corresponding real spacetime sheet representing action are assumed to be given in terms of same rational functions with coefficients which are algebraic numbers consistent with the extension of padic numbers used so that the points common to real and padic spacetime sheets are in this extension. If real charges belong to the algebraic extension used, one could identify the padic charges as real charges. Zero energy ontology requires the presence of positive energy real spacetime sheets whose charges compensate those of negative energy spacetime sheets. One possibility is that real and corresponding padic spacetime sheets appear in pairs with vanishing total quantum numbers just as fermionic spacetime sheets are assumed to occur (see this. In the case of fermions padictoreal phase transition is impossible by Exclusion Principle so that a stable cognitive representation results. The minimal option would be that padic spacetime sheets possess negative energy and are transformed to negative energy signals inducing neuronal activities. The flow of subjective time would involve a transformation of the universe to zero energy universe in the sense that total conserved quantum numbers vanish in the real sense in bosonic sector but in fermionic sector real and padic charges compensate each other. This picture is probably too simple. RobertsonWalker cosmology has vanishing density of inertial energy. Hence it would seem that real bosons and fermions should appear in both positive and negative energy states and the arrow of time defined by the direction of the propagation of the intentiontoaction wave front would be local.
The transition of the geometric past back to intentional phase would involve transformation of real bosons to padic ones and is in principle possible for this option. For the first option the transition could occur only for real states with vanishing total quantum numbers which would make this transition highly improbable and thus imply irreversibility. The basic criticism is that since intentions in the proposed sense do not involve any selection, one could argue that this picture is not enough to explain the instability of the geometric future unless the instability is due to the instability of padic spacetime sheets in quantum jumps. 2. Does intentional action transform quantum critical phase to nonquantum critical phase? It is far from clear whether the proposed model is not able to explain the uncertainty of the geometric future and relative stability of the geometric past related very intimately to the possibility to select between different options. TGD based view about dark matter as a hierarchy of phases characterized by M^{4} and CP_{2} Planck constants quantized in integer multiples of minimum value hbar_{0} of hbar (see this) suggests a more refined view about what happens in the quantum jump transforming intention to action.
Intentional action would induce a transition to either of these two phases. Subsystem would chose either the lower or higher level in the hierarchy of consciousness with level characterized by the values of Planck constants. This unavoidably brings in mind a moral choice. Intentional actions involve often a choice between good and bad and this choice could reduce to a choice between values of Planck constant. Good deed would lead to higher value of Planck constant and bad deed to a lower one. This interpretation conforms with the earlier view about quantum ethics stating that good deeds are those which support evolution. The earlier proposal was however based on the assumption that evolution means a gradual increase of a typical padic length scale and seems to be too restricted in the recent framework. For instance, in cell length scale the cells of the geometric future could be in quantum critical phase such that large hbar phase corresponds to high T_{c} superconductivity and low hbar phase to its absence. In quantum jump cell would transform to either of these phases. The natural interpretation for the transition to low hbar phase is as cell death since the communications of the cell to and quantum control by the magnetic body are lost. Ageing could be seen as a process in which the transitions to small hbar phase begin to dominate or even the quantum criticality is lost. A model for the quantum criticality based on zeros of Riemann zeta developed here,here, here, here, and here allows a more quantitative view about what could happen in the phase transition. For more details see the chapter Time, SpaceTime and Consciousness.

What really distinguishes between future and past?Our knowledge about geometric future is very uncertain as compared to that about geometric past. Hence we usually use words like plan/hunch/hope/... in the case of geometric future and speak about memories in the case of geometric past. We also regard geometric past as something absolutely stable. Why we cannot remember geometric future as reliably as the geometric past? Is it that geometric future is highly unstable as compared to the geometric past? Why this should be the case? This provides a possible TGD based articulation for the basic puzzles relating to time experience. These questions have been already discussed in this chapter but I want to close the chapter with considerations inspired by the latest progress in the understanding of quantum TGD. 1. Is padictoreal phase transition enough? The basic idea is that the flow of subjective time corresponds to a phase transition front representing a transformation of intentions to actions and propagating towards the geometric future quantum jump by quantum jump. All quantum states have vanishing total quantum numbers in zero energy ontology which now forms the basis of quantum TGD and this ontology allows to imagine models for what could happen in this process. This starting point is the interpretation of fermions as correlates for cognition bosons as correlates for intentions/actions (see this). Fermions correspond to pairs of real and padic spacetime sheets with opposite quantum numbers with padic spacetime sheet providing a cognitive representation of the real spacetime sheet. Bosonic spacetime sheets would be either padic or real and thus represent intentions or actions. Fermionic world and its cognitive representations would be common to future and geometric past and the asymmetry would relate only to the intentionaction dichotomy. Geometric future contains a lot of padic spacetime sheets representing intentions which transform to real spacetime sheets allowing interpretation as desires inducing eventually neuronal activities. Time mirror mechanism for intentional action assumes that the phase transition gives rise to negative energy spacetime sheets representing propagation of signals to geometric past where they induce neuronal activities. From Libet's experiments relating to neuronal correlates of volition the time scale involved is a fraction of second but an infinite hierarchy of time scales is implied by fractality. Conservation of quantum numbers poses strong conditions on padictoreal phase transition. Noether charges are in the real context given by integrals over partonic 2surfaces. The problem is that these integrals do not make sense padically. There are two options. a) Give up the notion of padic Noether charge so that it would not make sense to speak about fourmomentum and other conserved quantum numbers in case of padic spacetime sheet. This implies zero energy ontology in the real sector. All real spacetime sheets would have vanishing conserved quantum numbers and padicto real transition generates real spacetime sheet complex with vanishing total energy. Negative energy signal must be somehow compensated by a positive energy state. b) It might be however possible to assign charges to padic spacetime sheets. The equations characterizing padic spacetime sheet representing intention and corresponding real spacetime sheet representing action are assumed to be given in terms of same rational functions with coefficients which are algebraic numbers consistent with the extension of padic numbers used so that the points common to real and padic spacetime sheets are in this extension. If real charges belong to the algebraic extension used, one could identify the padic charges as real charges. Zero energy ontology requires the presence of positive energy real spacetime sheets whose charges compensate those of negative energy spacetime sheets. One possibility is that real and corresponding padic spacetime sheets appear in pairs with vanishing total quantum numbers just as fermionic spacetime sheets are assumed to occur (see this. In the case of fermions padictoreal phase transition is impossible by Exclusion Principle so that a stable cognitive representation results. The minimal option would be that padic spacetime sheets possess negative energy and are transformed to negative energy signals inducing neuronal activities. The flow of subjective time would involve a transformation of the universe to zero energy universe in the sense that total conserved quantum numbers vanish in the real sense in bosonic sector but in fermionic sector real and padic charges compensate each other. This picture is probably too simple. RobertsonWalker cosmology has vanishing density of inertial energy. Hence it would seem that real bosons and fermions should appear in both positive and negative energy states and the arrow of time defined by the direction of the propagation of the intentiontoaction wave front would be local.
The transition of the geometric past back to intentional phase would involve transformation of real bosons to padic ones and is in principle possible for this option. For the first option the transition could occur only for real states with vanishing total quantum numbers which would make this transition highly improbable and thus imply irreversibility. The basic criticism is that since intentions in the proposed sense do not involve any selection, one could argue that this picture is not enough to explain the instability of the geometric future unless the instability is due to the instability of padic spacetime sheets in quantum jumps. 2. Does intentional action transform quantum critical phase to nonquantum critical phase? It is far from clear whether the proposed model is not able to explain the uncertainty of the geometric future and relative stability of the geometric past related very intimately to the possibility to select between different options. TGD based view about dark matter as a hierarchy of phases characterized by M^{4} and CP_{2} Planck constants quantized in integer multiples of minimum value hbar_{0} of hbar (see this) suggests a more refined view about what happens in the quantum jump transforming intention to action.
Intentional action would induce a transition to either of these two phases. Subsystem would chose either the lower or higher level in the hierarchy of consciousness with level characterized by the values of Planck constants. This unavoidably brings in mind a moral choice. Intentional actions involve often a choice between good and bad and this choice could reduce to a choice between values of Planck constant. Good deed would lead to higher value of Planck constant and bad deed to a lower one. This interpretation conforms with the earlier view about quantum ethics stating that good deeds are those which support evolution. The earlier proposal was however based on the assumption that evolution means a gradual increase of a typical padic length scale and seems to be too restricted in the recent framework. For instance, in cell length scale the cells of the geometric future could be in quantum critical phase such that large hbar phase corresponds to high T_{c} superconductivity and low hbar phase to its absence. In quantum jump cell would transform to either of these phases. The natural interpretation for the transition to low hbar phase is as cell death since the communications of the cell to and quantum control by the magnetic body are lost. Ageing could be seen as a process in which the transitions to small hbar phase begin to dominate or even the quantum criticality is lost. A model for the quantum criticality based on zeros of Riemann zeta developed here,here, here, here, and here allows a more quantitative view about what could happen in the phase transition. For more details see either the chapter pAdic Phycics as Physics of Cognition and Intentionality or the chapter Quantum Model for Memory.

Zero energy ontology, cognition, and intentionalityIn TGD inspired theory of consciousness the spacetime correlates for intentions are provided by padic spacetime sheets whereas actions correspond to real spacetime sheets. The transformation of intention to action corresponds to a quantum jump in which padic spacetime sheet transforms to a real one: these two spacetime sheets have exactly the same analytic representation. The larger the number of rational (algebraic points) in the intersection of the spacetime sheets, the more probable the transition is expected to be. One could however argue that conservation laws forbid padicreal phase transitions in practice so that cognitions (intentions) realized as realtopadic (padictoreal) transitions is not be possible. The situation changes if one accepts what might be called zero energy ontology (see this and this). 1. Zero energy ontology classically In TGD inspired cosmology the imbeddings of RobertsonWalker cosmologies are vacuum extremals. Same applies to the imbeddings of ReissnerNordström solution and in practice to all solutions of Einstein's equations imbeddable as extremals of Kähler action. Since fourmomentum currents define a collection of vector fields rather than a tensor in TGD, both positive and negative signs for energy corresponding to two possible assignments of the arrow of the geometric time to a given spacetime surface are possible. This leads to the view that all physical states have vanishing net energy classically and that physically acceptable universes are creatable from vacuum. The result is highly desirable since one can avoid unpleasant questions such as "What are the net values of conserved quantities like rest mass, baryon number, lepton number, and electric charge for the entire universe?", "What were the initial conditions in the big bang?", "If only single solution of field equations is selected, isn't the notion of physical theory meaningless since in principle it is not possible to compare solutions of the theory?". This picture fits also nicely with the view that entire universe understood as quantum counterpart 4D spacetime is recreated in each quantum jump and allows to understand evolution as a process of continual recreation. 2. Zero energy ontology at quantum level Also the construction of Smatrix leads to the conclusion that all physical states possess vanishing conserved quantum numbers. Furthermore, the entanglement coefficients between positive and negative energy components of the state define a unitary Smatrix. Smatrix thus becomes a property of the zero energy state and physical states code by their structure what is usually identified as quantum dynamics. Also the transitions between zero energy states are possible but general arguments lead to the conclusion that the corresponding Smatrix is almost trivial. This finding, which actually forced the new view about Smatrix, is highly desirable since it explains why positive energy ontology works so well if one forgets effects related to intentional action. At spacetime level this would mean that positive energy component and negative energy component are at a temporal distance characterized by an appropriate padic time scale and the integer characterizing the value of Planck constant for the state in question. The scale in question would also characterize the geometric duration of quantum jump and the size scale of spacetime region contributing to the contents of conscious experience. The interpretation in terms of a mini bang followed by a mini crunch suggests itself also. 3. Hyperfinite factors of type II_{1} and new view about Smatrix The representation of Smatrix as unitary entanglement coefficients would not make sense in ordinary quantum theory but in TGD the von Neumann algebra in question is not a type I factor as for quantum mechanics or a type III factor as for quantum field theories, but what is called hyperfinite factor of type II_{1}. This algebra is an infinitedimensional algebra with the almost defining, and at the first look very strange, property that the infinitedimensional unit matrix has unit trace. The infinite dimensional Clifford algebra spanned by the configuration space gamma matrices (configuration space understood as the space of 3surfaces, the "world of classical worlds") is indeed very naturally algebra of this kind since infinitedimensional Clifford algebras provide a canonical representations for hyperfinite factors of type II_{1}. 4. The new view about quantum measurement theory This mathematical framework leads to a new kind of quantum measurement theory. The basic assumption is that only a finite number of degrees of freedom can be quantum measured in a given measurement and the rest remain untouched. What is known as Jones inclusions N in M} of von Neumann algebras allow to realize mathematically this idea (see this). N characterizes measurement resolution and quantum measurement reduces the entanglement in the noncommutative quantum space M/N. The outcome of the quantum measurement is still represented by a unitary Smatrix but in the space characterized by N. It is not possible to end up with a pure state with a finite sequence of quantum measurements. The obvious objection is that the replacement of a universal Smatrix coding entire physics with a state dependent unitary entanglement matrix is too heavy a price to be paid for the resolution of the above mentioned paradoxes. Situation could be saved if the Smatrices have fractal structure. The quantum criticality of TGD Universe indeed implies fractality. The possibility of an infinite sequence of Jones inclusions for hyperfinite type II_{1} factors isomorphic as von Neumann algebras expresses this fractal character algebraically. Thus one can hope that the Smatrix appearing as entanglement coefficients is more or less universal in the same manner as Mandelbrot fractal looks more or less the same in all length scales and for all resolutions. Whether this kind of universality must be posed as an additional condition on entanglement coefficients or is an automatic consequence of unitarity in type II_{1} sense is an open question. 5. The Smatrix for padicreal transitions makes sense In zero energy ontology conservation laws do not forbid padicreal transitions and one can develop a relatively concrete vision about what happens in these kind of transitions. The starting point is the generalization of the number concept obtained by gluing padic number fields and real numbers along common rationals (expressing it very roughly). At the level of the imbedding space this means that padic and real spacetime sheets intersect only along common rational points of the imbedding space and transcendental padic spacetime points are infinite as real numbers so that they can be said to be infinite distant points so that intentionality and cognition become cosmic phenomena. In this framework the long range correlations characterizing padic fractality can be interpreted as being due to a large number of common rational points of imbedding space for real spacetime sheet and padic spacetime sheet from which it resulted in the realization of intention in quantum jump. Thus real physics would carry direct signatures about the presence of intentionality. Intentional behavior is indeed characterized by short range randomness and long range correlations. One can even develop a general vision about how to construct the Smatrix elements characterizing the process (see this). The basic guideline is the vision that real and various padic physics as well as their hybrids are continuable from the rational physics. This means that these Smatrix elements must be characterizable using data at rational points of the imbedding space shared by padic and real spacetime sheets so that more or less same formulas describe all these Smatrix elements. Note that also p_{1}→ p_{2} padic transitions are possible. The interpretation of infinite primes leads to a detailed vision about spacetime correlates of quantum states and cognition and intentionality. Intentions correspond to padic spacetime sheets and actions to their real counterparts being related by a mere algebraic continuations of the exlicit analytic representsions as surfaces. Cognitions correspond to pairs of real spacetime sheet and correspond padic spacetime sheet obtained in the same manner providing also a representation for a state generated by appropriate generator of super algebra. The discreteness of the intersection of the real spacetime sheet and its padic variant obtained by algebraic continuation would be a completely universal phenomenon associated with all fermionic states. This suggests that also realtoreal Smatrix elements involve instead of an integral a sum with the arguments of an npoint function running over all possible combinations of the points in the intersection. Smatrix elements would have a universal form which does not depend on the number field at all and the algebraic continuation of the real Smatrix to its padic counterpart would trivialize. Note that also fermionic statistics favors strongly discretization unless one allows Dirac delta functions. The chapter pAdic Physics as Physics of Cognition and Intention contains a more detailed text about this topic. 
Infinite primes, cognition, and intentionalitySomehow it is obvious that infinite primes (see this) must have some very deep role to play in quantum TGD and TGD inspired theory of consciousness. What this role precisely is has remained an enigma although I have considered several detailed interpretations (see the link above). In the following an interpretation allowing to unify the views about fermionic Fock states as a representation of Boolean cognition and padic spacetime sheets as correlates of cognition is discussed. Very briefly, real and padic partonic 3surfaces serve as spacetime correlates for the bosonic super algebra generators, and pairs of real partonic 3surfaces and their algebraically continued padic variants as spacetime correlates for the fermionic super generators. Intentions/actions are represented by padic/real bosonic partons and cognitions by pairs of real partons and their padic variants and the geometric form of Fermi statistics guarantees the stability of cognitions against intentional action. 1. Infinite primes very briefly Infinite primes have a decomposition to infinite and finite parts allowing an interpretation as a manyparticle state of a supersymmetric arithmetic quantum field theory for which fermions and bosons are labelled by primes. There is actually an infinite hierarchy for which infinite primes of a given level define the building blocks of the infinite primes of the next level. One can map infinite primes to polynomials and these polynomials in turn could define spacetime surfaces or at least lightlike partonic 3surfaces appearing as solutions of ChernSimons action so that the classical dynamics would not pose too strong constraints. The simplest infinite primes at the lowest level are of form m_{B}X/s_{F} + n_{B}s_{F}, X=∏_{i} p_{i} (product of all finite primes). m_{B}, n_{B}, and s_{F} are defined as m_{B}= ∏_{i}p_{i}^{mi}, n_{B}= ∏_{i}q_{i}^{ni}, and s_{F}= ∏_{i}q_{i}, m_{B} and n_{B} have no common prime factors. The simplest interpretation is that X represents Dirac sea with all states filled and X/s_{F} + s_{F} represents a state obtained by creating holes in the Dirac sea. The integers m_{B} and n_{B} characterize the occupation numbers of bosons in modes labelled by p_{i} and q_{i} and s_{F}= ∏_{i}q_{i} characterizes the nonvanishing occupation numbers of fermions. The simplest infinite primes at all levels of the hierarchy have this form. The notion of infinite prime generalizes to hyperquaternionic and even hyperoctonionic context and one can consider the possibility that the quaternionic components represent some quantum numbers at least in the sense that one can map these quantum numbers to the quaternionic primes. The obvious question is whether configuration space degrees of freedom and configuration space spinor (Fock state) of the quantum state could somehow correspond to the bosonic and fermionic parts of the hyperquaternionic generalization of the infinite prime as proposed here. That hyperquaternionic (or possibly hyperoctonionic) primes would define as such the quantum numbers of fermionic super generators does not make sense. It is however possible to have a map from the quantum numbers labelling supergenerators to the finite primes. One must also remember that the infinite primes considered are only the simplest ones at the given level of the hierarchy and that the number of levels is infinite. 2. Precise spacetime correlates of cognition and intention The best manner to end up with the proposal about how padic cognitive representations relate bosonic representations of intentions and actions and to fermionic cognitive representations is through the following arguments.
The discreteness of the intersection of the real spacetime sheet and its padic variant obtained by algebraic continuation would be a completely universal phenomenon associated with all fermionic states. This suggests that also realtoreal Smatrix elements involve instead of an integral a sum with the arguments of an npoint function running over all possible combinations of the points in the intersection. Smatrix elements would have a universal form which does not depend on the number field at all and the algebraic continuation of the real Smatrix to its padic counterpart would trivialize. Note that also fermionic statistics favors strongly discretization unless one allows Dirac delta functions. For a more detailed view about intentionality and cognition as a basic element of TGD based physics even at elementary particle level and also about zero energy ontology as the prerequisite of the whole approach infinite see the chapter pAdic Physics as Physics of Cognition and Intention. 