What's new in
TGD Inspired Theory of Consciousness
Note: Newest contributions are at the top!
Negentropic entanglement for which number theoretic entropy characterized by p-adic prime is negative so that entanglement carries information, is in key role in TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology.
One can consider various restrictions on E.
For details and background see the section "Updates since 2012" of chapter "Negentropy Maximization Principle" and the article ""Negentropic entanglement, NMP, braiding and topological quantum computation".
Alexander Wissner-Gross, a physicist at Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Cameron Freer, a mathematician at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, have developed a theory that they say describes many intelligent or cognitive behaviors, such as upright walking and tool use (see this and this ). The basic idea of the theory is that intelligent system collects information about large number of histories and preserves it. Thermodynamically this means large entropy so that the evolution of intelligence would be rather paradoxically evolution of highly entropic systems. According to standard view about Shannon entropy transformation of entropy to information (or the reduction of entropy to zero) requires a process selecting one of instances of thermal ensemble with a large number of degenerate states and one can wonder what is this selection process. This sounds almost like a paradox unless one accepts the existence of this process. I have considered the core of this almost paradox in TGD framework already earlier.
According to the popular article (see this) the model does not require explicit specification of intelligent behavior and the intelligent behavior relies on "causal entropic forces" (here one can counter argue that the selection process is necessary if one wants information gain). The theory requires that the system is able to collect information and predict future histories very quickly.
The prediction of future histories is one of the basic characters of life in TGD Universe made possible by zero energy ontology (ZEO) predicting that the thermodynamical arrow of geometric time is opposite for the quantum jumps reducing the zero energy state at upper and lower boundaries of causal diamond (CD) respectively. This prediction means quite a dramatic deviation from standard thermodynamics but is consistent with the notion of syntropy introduced by Italian theoretical physicist Fantappie already for more than half a century ago as well as with the reversed time arrow of dissipation appearing often in living matter.
The hierarchy of Planck constants makes possible negentropic entanglement and genuine information represented as negentropic entanglement in which superposed state pairs have interpretation as incidences ai↔ bi of a rule A↔ B: apart from possible phase the entanglement coefficients have same value 1/n1/2, where n=heff/h define the value of effective Planck constant and dimension for the effective covering of imbedding space. This picture generalizes also to the case of multipartite entanglement but predicts similar entanglement for all divisions of the system to two parts. There are however still some questions which are not completely settled and leave some room for imagination.
Negentropic entanglement corresponds therefore always to n× n density matrix proportional to unit matrix: this means maximal entanglement and maximal number theoretic entanglement negentropy for two entangled systems with number n of entangled states. n corresponds to Planck constant heff= n×h so that a connection with hierarchy of Planck constants is also obtained. Power of p-adic prime defines the largest prime power divisor of n. Individually negentropically entangled systems would be very entropic since there would be n energy-degenerate states with the same Boltzmann weight. Negentropic entanglement changes the situation: thermodynamics of course does not apply anymore. Hence TGD produces same prediction as thermodynamical model but avoids the almost paradox.
For details and background see the section "Updates since 2012" of chapter "Negentropy Maximization Principle".
Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) is assumed to be the variational principle telling what can happen in quantum jump and says that the information content of conscious experience for the entire system is maximized. In zero energy ontology (ZEO) the definition of NMP is far from trivial and the recent progress - as I believe - in the understanding of structure of quantum jump forces to check carefully the details related to NMP. A very intimate connection between quantum criticality, life as something in the intersection of realities and p-adicities, hierarchy of effective vales of Planck constant, negentropic entanglement, and p-adic view about cognition emerges. One ends up also with an argument why p-adic sector is necessary if one wants to speak about conscious information.
The anatomy of quantum jump in zero energy ontology (ZEO)
Zero energy ontology emerged around 2005 and has had profound consequences for the understanding of quantum TGD. The basic implication is that state function reductions occur at the opposite light-like boundaries of causal diamonds (CDs) forming a hierarchy, and produce zero energy states with opposite arrows of imbedding space time. Also concerning the identification of quantum jump as moment of consciousness ZEO encourages rather far reaching conclusions. In ZEO the only difference between motor action and sensory representations on one hand, and intention and cognitive representation on the other hand , is that the arrows of imbedding space time are opposite for them. Furthermore, sensory perception followed by motor action corresponds to a basic structure in the sequence of state function reductions and it seems that these processes occur fractally for CDs of various size scales.
What happens in single state function reduction?
State function reduction is a measurement of density matrix. The condition that a measurement of density matrix takes place implies standard measurement theory on both real and p-adic sectors: system ends to an eigen-space of density matrix. This is true in both real and p-adic sectors. NMP is stronger principle at the real side and implies state function reduction to 1-D subspace - its eigenstate.
The resulting N-dimensional space has however rational entanglement probabilities p=1/N so that one can say that it is the intersection of realities and p-adicities. If the number theoretic variant of entanglement entropy is used as a measure for the amount of entropy carried by entanglement rather than either entangled system, the state carries genuine information and is stable with respect to NMP if the p-adic prime p divides N. NMP allows only single p-adic prime for real → p-adic transition: the power of this prime appears is the largest power of prime appearing in the prime decomposition of N. Degeneracy means also criticality so that that ordinary quantum measurement theory for the density matrix favors criticality and NMP fixes the p-adic prime uniquely.
If one - contrary to the above conclusion - assumes that NMP holds true in the entire p-adic sector, NMP gives in p-adic sector rise to a reduction of the negentropy in state function reduction if the original situation is negentropic and the eigen-spaces of the density matrix are 1-dimensional. This situation is avoided if one assumes that state function reduction cascade in real or genuinely p-adic sector occurs first (without NMP) and gives therefore rise to N-dimensional eigen spaces. The state is negentropic and stable if the p-adic prime p divides N. Negentropy is generated.
The real state can be transformed to a p-adic one in quantum jump (defining cognitive map) if the entanglement coefficients are rational or belong to an algebraic extension of p-adic numbers in the case that algebraic extension of p-adic numbers is allowed (number theoretic evolution gradually generates them). The density matrix can be expressed as sum of projection operators multiplied by probabilities for the projection to the corresponding sub-spaces. After state function reduction cascade the probabilities are rational numbers of form p=1/N.
Number theoretic entanglement entropy also allows to avoid some objections related to fermionic and bosonic statistics. Fermionic and bosonic statistics require complete anti-symmetrization/symmetrization. This implies entanglement which cannot be reduced away. By looking for symmetrized or antisymmetrized 2-particle state consisting of spin 1/2 fermions as the simplest example one finds that the density matrix for either particle is the simply unit 2× 2 matrix. This is stable under NMP based on number theoretic negentropy. One expects that the same result holds true in the general case. The interpretation would be that particle symmetrization/antisymmetrization carries negentropy.
The degeneracy of the density matrix is of course not a generic phenomenon and one can argue that it corresponds to some very special kind of physics. The identification of space-time correlates for the hierarchy for the effective values hbareff=n×hbar of Planck constant as n-furcations of space-time sheet suggests strongly the identification of this physics in terms of this hierarchy. Hence quantum criticality, the essence of life as something in the rational intersection of realities and p-adicities, the hierarchy of effective values of hbar, negentropic quantum entanglement, and the possibility to make real-p-adic transitions and thus cognition and intentionality would be very intimately related. This is a highly satisfactory outcome, since these ideas have been rather loosely related hitherto.
What happens in quantum jump?
Suppose that everything can be reduced to what happens for a given CD characterized by a scale. There are at least two questions to be answered.
For details and background see the section "Updates since 2012" of chapter "Negentropy Maximization Principle" of "TGD Inspired Theory of consciousness".