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TGD and EEG

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Year 2016



How the transition to superconductive state could be induced by classical radiation?

Blog and Facebook discussions have turned out to be extremely useful and quite often new details to the existing picture emerge from them. We have had interesting exchanges with Christoffer Heck in the comment section to the posting Are microtubules macroscopic quantum systems? and this pleasant surprise occurred also now thanks to a question by Christoffer.

Recall that Bandyopadhyay's team claims to have detected the analog of superconductivity, when microtubules are subjected to AC voltage (see this). The transition to superconductivity would occur at certain critical frequencies. For references and the TGD inspired model see the article.

The TGD proposal for bio-superconductivity - in particular that appearing in microtubules - is same as that for high Tc superconductivity. Quantum criticality,large heff/h=n phases of of Cooper pairs of electrons and parallel magnetic flux tube pairs carrying the members of Cooper pairs for the essential parts of the mechanism. S=0 (S=1) Cooper pairs appear when the magnetic fields at parallel flux tubes have opposite (same) direction.

Cooper pairs would be present already below the gap temperature but possible super-currents could flow in short loops formed by magnetic flux tubes in ferromagnetic system. AC voltage at critical frequency would somehow induce transition to superconductivity in long length scales by inducing a phase transition of microtubules without helical symmetry to those with helical symmetry and fusing the conduction pathways with length of 13 tubulins to much longer ones by reconnection of magnetic flux tubes parallel to the conduction pathways.

The phonon mechanism for the formation of Cooper pair in ordinary superconductivity cannot be however involved with high Tc superconductivity nor bio-superconductivity. There is upper bound of about 30 K for the critical temperature of BCS superconductors. Few days ago I learned about high Tc superconductivity around 500 K for n-alkanes (see the blog posting) so that the mechanism for high Tc is certainly different .

The question of Christoffer was following. Could microwave radiation for which photon energies are around 10-5 eV for ordinary value of Planck constant and correspond to the gap energy of BCS superconductivity induce phase transition to BCS super-conductivity and maybe to micro-tubular superconductivity (if it exists at all)?

This inspires the question about how precisely the AC voltage at critical frequencies could induce the transition to high Tc- and bio-super-conductivity. Consider first what could happen in the transition to high Tc super-conductivity.

  1. In high Tc super conductors such as copper-oxides the anti-ferromagnetism is known to be essential as also 2-D sub-lattice structures. Anti-ferromagnetism suggests that closed flux tubes form of squares with opposite directions of magnetic field at the opposite sides of square. The opposite sides of the square would carry the members of Cooper pair.
  2. At quantum criticality these squares would reconnect to very long flattened squares by reconnection. The members of Cooper pairs would reside at parallel flux tubes forming the sides of the flattened square. Gap energy would consists interaction energies with the magnetic fields and the mutual interaction energy of magnetic moments.

    This mechanism does not work in standard QM since the energies involved are quite too low as compared to thermal energy. Large heff/h=n would however scale up the magnetic energies by n. Note that the notion of gap energy should be perhaps replaced with collective binding energy per Cooper pair obtained from the difference of total energies for gap phase formed at higher temperature and for superconducting phase formed at Tc by dividing with the number of Cooper pairs.

    Another important distinction to BCS is that Cooper pairs would be present already below gap temperature. At quantum criticality the conduction pathways would become much longer by reconnection. This would be represent an example about "topological" condensed matter physics. Now hover space-time topology would be in question.

  3. The analogs of phonons could be present as transversal oscillations of magnetic flux tubes: at quantum criticality long wave length "magneto-phonons" would be present. The transverse oscillations of flux tube squares would give rise to reconnection and formation of
If the irradiation or its generalization to high Tc works the energy of photon should be around gap energy or more precisely around energy difference per Cooper pair for the phases with long flux tubes pairs and short square like flux tubes.
  1. To induce superconductivity one should induce formation of Cooper pairs in BCS superconductivity. In high Tc super-conductivity it should induce a phase transition in which small square shaped flux tube reconnect to long flux tubes forming the conducting pathways. The system should radiate away the energy difference for these phases: the counterpart of binding energy could be defined as the radiated energy per Cooper pair.
  2. One could think the analog of stimulated emission. Assume that Cooper pairs have two states: the genuine Cooper pair and the non-superconducting Cooper pair. This is the case in high Tc superconductivity but not in BCS superconductivity, where the emergence of superconductivity creates the Cooper pairs. One can of course ask whether one could speak about the analog of stimulated emission also in this case.
  3. Above Tc but below gap temperature one has the analog of inverted population: all pairs are in higher energy state. The irradiation with photon beam with energy corresponding to energy difference gives rise to stimulated emission and the system goes to superconducting state with a lower energy state with a lower energy.
This mechanism could explain the finding of Bandyopadhyay's team that AC perturbation at certain critical frequencies gave rise to a ballistic state (no dependence of the resistance on the length of the wire so that the resistance must be located at its ends). The team used photons with frequency scales of MHz, GHz, and THz. The corresponding photon energy scales are about 10-8 eV, 10-5, 10-2 eV for the ordinary value of Planck constant and are below thermal energies.

In TGD classical radiation should have also large heff/h=n photonic counterparts with much larger energies E=heff×f to explain the quantal effects of ELF radiation at EEG frequency range on brain (see this). The general proposal is that heff equals to what I have called gravitational Planck constant hbargr=GMm/v0 (see this or this). This implies that dark cyclotron photons have universal energy range having no dependence on the mass of the charged particle. Bio-photons have energies in visible and UV range much above thermal energy and would result in the transition transforming dark photons with large heff = hgr to ordinary photons.

One could argue that AC field does not correspond to radiation. In TGD framework this kind of electric fields can be interpreted as analogs of standing waves generated when charged particle has contacts to parallel "massless extremals" representing classical radiation with same frequency propagating in opposite directions. The net force experienced by the particle corresponds to a standing wave.

Irradiation using classical fields would be a general mechanism for inducing bio-superconductivity. Superconductivity would be generated when it is needed. The findings of Blackman and other pioneers of bio-electromagnetism about quantal effects of ELF em fields on vertebrate brain stimulated the idea about dark matter as phases with non-standard value of Planck constant. Also these finding could be interpreted as a generation of superconducting phase by this phase transition.

For background see the chapter Quantum Model for Bio-Superconductivity: II .



Taos hum as remote metabolism?

I have been considering an explanation of taos hum. Hints come from the observations that it begins after sunset as microwave presumably "static" generated by living organisms, and also from the phenomenon of microwave hearing: microwaves modulated with sound frequencies can be heard. Taos hum is claimed to correlate also with the acoustics of the building which suggests that it is a real phenomenon. Taos hum can be an (extremely) unpleasant experience. It sounds like an idling diesel engine. I know this from personal experience since I suffered from taos hum when I was younger (as I realized while developing a model for it!).

Could the microwaves transformed inbody to sounds or directly to nerve pulse patterns generating sensation of hearing be the reason for taos hum.

Why taos hum? Could animals use microwaves for "seeing" in absence of sunlight? But for what purpose plants would use microwaves? Could organisms send negative energy heff=n×h microwaves to environment and suck metabolic energy quanta with energy around .5 eV in this manner? Remote metabolism! Or maybe time reversed photosynthesis in dark! Biophotons indeed have energy spectrum in visible and UV as also sunlight does. This would require non-standard value of Planck constant.

This hypothesis would explain why the microwaves causing taos hum not hum are not observed directly. And if something is sucking metabolic energy from you, it is would be rather natural to experience very unpleasant feelings and try to find a place to hide as many sufferers of taos hum try to do!

For background see the chapter Magnetic Sensory Canvas Hypothesis .



Room temperature superconductivity for alkanes

Super conductivity with critical temperature of 231 C for n-alkanes containing n=16 or more carbon atoms in presence of graphite has been reported (see this).

Alkanes (see this) can be linear (CnH2n+2) with carbon backbone forming a snake like structure, branched (CnH2n+2, n > 2) in which carbon backbone splits in one, or more directions or cyclic (CnH2n) with carbon backbone forming a loop. Methane CH4 is the simplest alkane.

What makes the finding so remarkable is that alkanes serve as basic building bricks of organic molecules. For instance, cyclic alkanes modified by replacing some carbon and hydrogen atoms by other atoms or groups form aromatic 5-cycles and 6-cycles as basic building bricks of DNA. I have proposed that aromatic cycles are superconducting and define fundamental and kind of basic units of molecular consciousness and in case of DNA combine to a larger linear structure.

Organic high Tc superconductivity is one of the basic predictions of quantum TGD. The mechanism of super-conductivity would be based on Cooper pairs of dark electrons with non-standard value of Planck constant heff=n×h implying quantum coherence is length scales scaled up by n (also bosonic ions and Cooper pairs of fermionic ions can be considered).

The members of dark Cooper pair would reside at parallel magnetic flux tubes carrying magnetic fields with same or opposite direction: for opposite directions one would have S=0 and for the same direction S=1. The cyclotron energy of electrons proportional to heff would be scaled up and this would scale up the binding energy of the Cooper pair and make super-conductivity possible at temperatures even higher than room temperature (see this).

This mechanism would explain the basic qualitative features of high Tc superconductivity in terms of quantum criticality. Between gap temperature and Tc one one would have superconductivity in short scales and below Tc superconductivity in long length scales. These temperatures would correspond to quantum criticality at which large heff phases would emerge.

What could be the role of graphite? The 2-D hexagonal structure of graphite is expected to be important as it is also in the ordinary super-conductivity: perhaps graphite provides long flux tubes and n-alkanes provide the Cooper pairs at them. Either graphite, n-alkane as organic compound, or both together could induce quantum criticality. In living matter quantum criticality would be induced by different mechanism. For instance, in microtubules it would be induced by AC current at critical frequencies.

For background see the chapter Quantum Model for Bio-Superconductivity: II and the article New findings about high-temperature super-conductors.



Bio-catalysis, morphogenesis by generalized Chladni mechanism, and bio-harmonies

In the article Catalysis, morphogenesis by generalized Chladni mechanism, and bio-harmonies to appear at my homepage I try to relate 3 different ideas inspired by TGD.

  1. The first idea is that bio-catalysis relies on the notion of magnetic body (MB) carrying dark matter: reconnections of U-shaped flux tubes giving rise to super-conducting flux tube pairs connecting two systems, and the reduction of their lengths as the value of heff/h=n is reduced play a key role. The reduction of heff/h=n for dark atom liberates also energy associated with hydrogen atom like states at flux tubes with energy scaling as 1/heff2. This energy could allow the reactants to overcome the potential wall making the otherwise very slow reaction fast (see this).

    This idea emerged from a model for hydrino atoms proposed by Randell Mills having scaled up binding energy spectrum manifesting itself as a radiation band in EUV range having no chemical origin. The simplest explanation TGD explanation is that the value of heff/h=n is n=6 for visible matter and that for hydrino like states it is m=1,2,3. This would predict the scaling of the energy spectrum by (n/m)2 and its occurrence would liberate the excess binding energy to be used by reacting molecules.

  2. Second idea is that generalized Chladni mechanism (see this) is behind morphogenesis and therefore also involved with catalysis. Charged particles and even charged flux tubes would end up to the nodal surface of electric field to form biological structures. One could speak about dynamics of avoidance and the particles ending up to potential minima provide one example of this dynamics.

    In fact, there are strong mathematical and physical reasons to argue that the dynamics of space-time surface is dynamics of avoidance (see this). The preferred extremals for the sum of Kähler action and volume term are extremals of both so that one can say that force density defined by Kähler action vanishes and the motion corresponds to a generalization of geodesic line to 4-D minimal surface.

  3. The third idea is that genetic code is realized as 3-chords of what I call bio-harmony and represented as dark photon triplets and "massless extremals" (MEs) or "topological light rays"(see this). This gives also rise to realization as sounds since living matter consists of electrets transforming light to sound and vice versa. The question is whether the sequence of 3-chords representing gene could provide a basic realization of Chladni mechanism so that morphogenesis could be regarded as "music of blood" (Greg Bear has written a fascinating scifi book with this title).
For details see the article Catalysis, morphogenesis by generalized Chladni mechanism, and bio-harmonies (article will appear at to my homepage as soon as I get the connection back) or the chapter Quantum model for hearing.



Induction coils in many-sheeted space-time

I have been trying to concretize many-sheeted space-time by thinking what simple systems involving electric and magnetic fields would look like in many-sheeted space-time. The challenge is highly non-trivial since the basic difference between Maxwell's theory and TGD is that allows extremely limited repertoire of preferred extremals and there is no linear superposition.

  1. By general coordinate invariance only 4 field like variables (say CP2 coordinates) are possible meaning that all classical fields identified as induced fields are expressible in terms of only four field like variables at at given sheet. This has several implications.

    The classical field equations determining the space-time surface theory is extremely non-linear although they have simple interpretation as expression for local conservation laws of Poincare charges and color charges. Linear superposition of Maxwell's equations is lost.

    Only for so called topological light rays ("massless extremals"), MEs) the linear superposition holds true but in extremely limited sense: for the analogous of plane waves travelling in either direction along ME. One has pulses of arbitrary shape preserving their shape and propagating in single direction only with maximal signal velocity.

  2. Strong form of holography (SH) implies that 2-dimensional data at string world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces fix the space-time surfaces. 2-D data include also the tangent spaces of partonic 2-surfaces so that the situation is only effectively 2-D and TGD does not reduce to any kind of string model.

    It is possible that the light-like 3-surfaces defining parton orbits as the boundaries of Minkowskian and Euclidian space-time regions possess dynamical degrees of freedom as conformal equivalence classes. Kac-Moody type transformations trivial at the ends of partonic orbit at boundaries of causal diamond (CD) would generate physically equivalent partonic orbits. There would be n conformal equivalence classes, where n would correspond to the value of Planck constant heff=n× h. At the ends of orbit all these n sheets of the singular covering would co-incide. Possible additional degrees of freedom making partonic 2-surfaces somewhat 3-D would be therefore discrete and make possible dark matter in TGD sense.

What is clear that single space-time sheet is very simple entity, and one can assign to it only extremely limited set of say solutions of Maxwell's equations. More complex solutions must correspond to many-sheeted space-time surfaces approximated as slightly curved pieces of Minkowski space at the GRT-QFT limit of TGD.

This limit is discovered by noticing that a test particle touches all sheets of the space-time surface in a given region of Minkowski space - they are extremely near to each other. Test particle experiences sums for the induced gauge potentials and gravitational fields defined is deviations of the induced metric from flat Minkowski metric. These sums corresponds naturally to the gauge potentials and gravitational fields assignable to the GRT-QFT limit. One obtains GRT plus standard model.

The challenge is to look whether one can indeed construct typical Maxwellian field configurations as sums of electromagnetic gauge potentials represented as induced gauge potentials at various sheets. The simplest configurations would be realizable using only two sheets.

I have already considered the realization of standing waves not possible as single sheeted structures as ≥ 2-sheeted structures carrying the analogs of sinusoidal waves (see this).

  1. The proposal is that magnetic bodies (MBs) use this kind of standing wave patters to generate biological structures: charged biomolecules would end up the nodal surfaces of the standing wave and become stationary structures. Of course, also time varying nodes are possible.
  2. MB could use the MEs parallel to flux tubes connected to a given node of tensor network to generate biological structures at the node. Note that the interference patter would be completely analogous to that of a hologram but allowing more than two waves. As a matter of fact, I considered a vision about living systems as conscious holograms for decades ago (see this) but was not able to invent a concrete model at that time. This Chladni mechanism - as one might call it - could be a general mechanism of morphogenesis and morphostasis.
Second challenge - raised by discussions with my friend Samppa - is provided by the field patterns of an inductance coil with AC current flowing around the boundary of cylinder.
  1. The current is typically AC current. Oscillating magnetic field has direction parallel or opposite to the cylinder and electric field field lines rotate around the cylinder. That the geometry of field pattern is this is easy to understand by looking just the general form of the solutions of the Maxwell's equations in question.
  2. What is essential is that one has standing wave type field pattern meaning that the fields at all points of the cylinder oscillates in the same phase. The temporal and spatial dependences of the magnetic field separate into product of sinusoidal function and spatial function, which in the simplest situation is constant. One might even regard the standing wave property as a signal of quantum coherence.
Could one use MEs as building bricks to construct the field pattern associated with the coil?
  1. MEs define an extremely general set of (hopefully preferred) extremals of Kähler action. Basic type of ME corresponds to cylindrical regions inside which pulses propagate in the same direction along the cylinder. It is also possible to have waves propagating radially: either inwards or outwards. The ansatz for ME is following. Restrict the consideration to a geodecic sphere S2 of CP2, assume that S2 coordinates (Θ,Φ) have dependence [sin(Θ)=sin(ω (t+/- ρ),Φ=nφ ], where [ρ,φ] are cylindrical radial and angle coordinates. The resulting magnetic field is in z-direction and the lines of the electric field rotate around the cylinder. The sum of these fields is a standing wave in radial direction representing just right kind of magnetic and electric fields.
  2. What is amusing that the field experienced by the test particle would be expressible as sum of the two modes of TGD counterpart of radiation field. If the AC frequency is 50 Hz, the period of radial cylindrical wave characterized by wave vector k=ω (c=1) is of order wave length λ=2π/k, which is of order 107 meters, order of magnitude of Earth radius! Hence the longitudinal magnetic field is essentially constant for the coils encountered in practical situation.
  3. The boundary of the cylinder carries the AC current. The description of this current is a further challenge to TGD and will not be considered here.
One can of course have more general currents generating much more general waves, not necessary standing waves.
  1. The general recipe would be simple. These fields can be expressed as a Fourier decomposition of simple sinusoidal field patters. Assign to each sinusoidal field pattern a space-time sheet in the proposed manner so that superposition for modes is replaced with union of space-time surfaces.
  2. The more terms in the Fourier expansion, the larger the number of sheets for the many-sheeted space-time is. The number of space-time sheets gives a measure for the complexity of the system. For instance, a current with form of square pulse is an interesting challenge. Should one approximate the square pulse as a superposition of space-time sheets of its Fourier components?
See the chapter TGD Based View about Classical Fields in Relation to Consciousness Theory and Quantum Biology.



Are lithium, phosphate, and Posner molecule fundamental for quantum biology?

I encountered a very interesting Facebook link to the work of Mathew Fisher related to quantum biology.

I attach below the abstract of the article of Fisher.

The possibility that quantum processing with nuclear spins might be operative in the brain is proposed and then explored. Phosphorus is identified as the unique biological element with a nuclear spin that can serve as a qubit for such putative quantum processing - a neural qubit - while the phosphate ion is the only possible qubit-transporter. We identify the "Posner molecule", Ca9(PO4)6, as the unique molecule that can protect the neural qubits on very long times and thereby serve as a (working) quantum-memory.

A central requirement for quantum-processing is quantum entanglement. It is argued that the enzyme catalyzed chemical reaction which breaks a pyrophosphate ion into two phosphate ions can quantum entangle pairs of qubits. Posner molecules, formed by binding such phosphate pairs with extracellular calcium ions, will inherit the nuclear spin entanglement. A mechanism for transporting Posner molecules into presynaptic neurons during a "kiss and run" exocytosis, which releases neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft, is proposed. Quantum measurements can occur when a pair of Posner molecules chemically bind and subsequently melt, releasing a shower of intra-cellular calcium ions that can trigger further neurotransmitter release and enhance the probability of post-synaptic neuron firing. Multiple entangled Posner molecules, triggering non-local quantum correlations of neuron firing rates, would provide the key mechanism for neural quantum processing. Implications, both in vitro and in vivo, are briefly mentioned.

Lithium mystery

The starting point of Fisher was a very interesting finding challenging the hypothesis about life as mere bio-chemistry. Already in 1986, scientists at Cornell University examined the effects of the two isotopes of Lithium on the behavior of rats. Pregnant rats were separated into three groups. One group was given Li7, one group was given the isotope Li6, and the third served as the control group. Once the pups were born, the mother rats that received Li6 showed much stronger maternal behaviors, such as grooming, nursing and nest-building, than the rats in either the Li7 or control groups.

Li6 therefore as has a positive effect on maternal behaviour unlike Li7. The chemistry is exactly the same. According to the popular article, Fisher believes that the higher nuclear spin of Li6 could give it special role. As a matter fact, Li7 has higher nuclear spin of J=3/2 units whereas Li6 has nuclear spin J=1 so that the claim is not correct. Could the bosonic character of Li6 nucleus provide an alternative explanation? In any case, the finding strongly suggests that magnetic fields are involved.

Lithium - presumably Li6 - has also other positive effects. If the positive effects are indeed due to Li6 isotope, the dose of Lithium could be reduced by using only Li6 isotope. I attach here the abstract of the article that I wrote as a reaction to the discussions with my friend Samppa who told me about Lithium.

Lithium has been used for more than 50 years as a mood stabilizer in manic depression. During last years Lithium has been studied intensively and found that it can be used also in treatment of schizophrenia and many other brain disorders. The effectiveness of Lithium is however difficult to understand in the standard framework of biology. In TGD framework organism-environment pair of standard biology is replaced with the triplet magnetic body - organism -environment. Magnetic body uses biological body as sensory receptor and motor instrument. This suggests that the re-establishment of communications of brain with some level of the magnetic body is how lithium causes its positive effects. Magnetic body does not receive information about brain and cannot control it since dark Lithium ions and correspond- ing cyclotron radiation are not present. The disorders caused by the lack Lithium and other biologically important ions would therefore be something totally new from the perspective of standard neuroscience.

The TGD explanation for the effects of Lithium relies on the notions of magnetic body and dark large heff=n× h photons, electrons, and ions and relies on cyclotron frequencies as frequencies assignable to the dark photons responsible for the communications between magnetic body and biological body. In this picture the charge of the ion and its total magnetic moment would be relevant rather than only nuclear magnetic moment characterizing also neutral atoms (which could also contribute to the magnetic moment of ion). Cyclotron frequencies would replace Larmor frequencies.

  1. For Li6 the cyclotron frequency is about 50.0 Hz in the endogenous magnetic field Bend=.2 Gauss explaining the quantal effects of em fields at ELF frequencies on vertebrate brain reported by the pioneers of bio-electromagnetism such as Blackman to occur at multiples of cyclotron frequency in this magnetic field for Calcium ion and also for other biologically important ions. For Ca+2 ion the cyclotron frequency is 15 Hz. Thanks to the large value of heff=n× h dark photons would have energies above thermal threshold. An attractive hypothesis is that the energies are in the range of bio-photon energies (visible and UV).
  2. In the case of Li6 the dark photons would make possible communication to and control by the magnetic body relevant for maternal behaviors. Magnetic fields oscillating at 50 Hz frequency are known to have biological effects. The size of the corresponding magnetic body part would be obtained from the wavelength λ= 2π R (R denotes the radius of Earth) of the lowest Schumann frequency 7.8 Hz as L= (7.8/50)× R=.98× R. This suggests that dark magnetic flux tubes assignable with Earth are involved: not however that the field strength is 2BE/5.
  3. For Li7 the dark photons would have cyclotron frequency about 42.9 Hz, which brings in mind the thalamocortical resonance with frequency around 40 Hz assigned to consciousness at the time when the use of the word "consciousness ceased to be pseudo-science. The more abundant Li7 (92.5 per cent) should be also important but could be associated with other kinds of biological functions.
Phosphate, Posner molecule, and cognition

Fisher as also other quantum biologists tries to understand quantum biology as an improvement of biochemistry. One assumes that standard quantum theory brings in small effects allowing to optimize biological functions. In the case of the avian navigation and also in many other situations the problem is that Earth's magnetic field is only 2 per cent of the minimum magnetic field at which the proposed radical-pair mechanism is found to work (see this). To my opinion much more radical approach challenging the basics of quantum theory itself is necessary.

Fisher wants to identify the quantum mechanism behind neural activity assumed to rely on nuclear spins. This is quite a demanding challenge. One should understand long coherence time for nuclear spins representing the qubits, discover a mechanism transporting the qubit through the brain to neurons, identify a molecular scale quantum mechanism entangling qubits, identify a chemical reaction inducing quantum measurement of the qubits dictating the subsequent neuron firing, and understand what happens in nerve pulse transmission from pre- to post-synaptic neuron at quantum level.

  1. Fisher assigns fundamental qubit and the ability to develop lon lasting quantum entanglement with phosphate ion (see this). Phosphate ion would be qubit transporter. The transfer of phosphate ion from APT to a molecule is fundamental part of metabolism and the TGD proposal is that a transfer of negentropic entanglement (purely TGD based notion involving p-adic physics as correlate for cognition) is in question.
  2. Enzyme catalyzed qubit entanglement would emerge in the reaction ATP→ AMP+PPi. PPi is diphosphate ion with entangled phosptate and the reaction PPi→ Pi+Pi would create two entanglement phosphates. The reaction rate is proposed to depend on whether the 2Pi state is spin single or spin triplet.
  3. Quantum memory is assigned with so called Posner molecule [(PO4)-3)]6Ca+29 made of 6 phosphate ions and 9 calcium ions would be the key player. Posner molecule is neutral since the charges of 9 Ca ions and 6 phosphate ions cancel each other. Posner molecule belongs to a family of calcium phosphates having as building bricks PO4-3 and Ca+2 ions (see this). Calcium phosphate is the principal form of calcium found in bovine milk and blood. 70 percent of bone consists of hydroxyapatite, a calcium phosphate mineral known as bone mineral. Tooth enamel is composed of almost ninety percent hydroxyapatite.

    Posner molecule is neutral since the charges of 9 Ca ions and 6 phosphate ions cancel each other: 9× 2-6× 3=0. Geometrically Posner molecule can be described as a cube with Calcium ions at corners and center and phosphate ions at the centers of faces. The nuclear spin of the Posner molecule assignable to phosphates is 0, 1, 2, or 3. Posner molecule has also reduced rotational degrees of freedom characterized by group Z3 giving rise to pseudospin. Posner molecule would be a carrier of phosphate qubits giving rise to (working) quantum-memory realized in terms of entangled Posner molecules.

  4. Fisher proposes the notion of quantum entangled chemical reactions. This notion does not make sense if one identifies chemical reactions as processes involving state function reduction as is assumed in chemical kinetics. The notion could make sense if chemical reactions are identified as unitary time evolutions for entangled systems such as Posner molecules. In TGD framework the notion of entangled time evolutions could make sense in zero energy ontology (ZEO).
  5. Nerve pulse tranmission from pre- to postsynaptic membrane would entangle neurons by entangling Posner molecules. Biochemistry is complex but to my opinion the proposed model is too complex to be feasible. My view is that the enormous complexity of the description based on biochemical reaction pathways reflects the failure to realize the presence of control level - magnetic body. Situation would be like trying to understand the functioning of computer program regarding it as mere physical phenomenon without any idea about its purpose.
TGD view

In TGD framework both nuclear spins and angular moment of dark nuclei in the magnetic fields assignable to dark magnetic flux tubes would be important: Larmor frequencies would be replaced with the sums of Larmor - and cyclotron frequencies assignable to (usually) charged particles. It is interesting to look whether the cyclotron frequencies of phosphate and Posner molecule could teach something about their possible role.

  1. Phosphate PO4-3 with mass number 31+4× 16=95 has cyclotron frequency 9.5 Hz in the endogenous magnetic field Bend=.2 Gauss assumed in TGD model: this is the nominal value of alpha resonance frequency 10 Hz in the accuracy with which Bend is known. For smaller charges -2 and -1 one has frequencies 6.26 Hz and 3.13 Hz. In TGD framework the transfer of phosphate from ATP to the acceptor bio-molecule could be at the fundamental level transfer of negentropic entanglement from metabolites. This could reduce to the transfer the ends of the associated flux tubes between the molecules.
  2. Posner molecule is neutral since the charges of 9 Ca ions and 6 phosphate ions cancel each other: 9× 2-6× 3=0. Therefore Posner molecule as a whole does not couple to the magnetic field except through its total magnetic moment. TGD proposal that ions form Bose-Einstein condensates encourages however to consider the possibility that the building bricks of Posner molecule form separate Bose-Einstein condensates.

    The simplest possibility is that 3 Cooper pairs of fermionic PO4-3 molecules (as is easy to check by noticing that phosphorus and oxygen atoms are bosons and there are surplus 3 electrons: note that phosphorus nucleus is fermion and oxygen nucleus a boson) form a Bose-Einstein condensate a their own circular portion of flux tube. 9 bosonic Ca+2 ions would form similar Bose Einstein condensate at their own flux tube portion. The value of heff proportional to the mass of the ion by heff =hgr hypothesis. The formation of Cooper pairs of phosphate ions would conform with the conjecture of Fisher that two phosphate ions can entangle.

    The cyclotron frequencies of these Bose-Einstein condensates would be 9.5 Hz resp. 15 Hz in Bend=.2 Gauss. This model could allow to improve the understanding about why the radiation at harmonics of 15 Hz has effects on vertebrate brain and also about the realization of alpha rhythm as a control signal from magnetic body. Fisher proposes that in nerve pulse transition two Posner molecules fuse temporarily and produce a spray of Ca+2 ions. This could make sense also in TGD framework.

These observations put the bells ringing - with frequencies of 10 Hz and 15 Hz, one might say. Unfortunately this frequency is not directly audible, so that I cannot hope that colleagues would hear the ringing! There are however some hopes: also 10 and 15 Hz can be made audible as difference of frequencies fed to right and left ear! Maybe some experimentalist could get interested!

See the chapter Quantum model for nervepulse. See also the article Are lithium, phosphate, and Posner molecule fundamental for quantum biology?.



Could Chladni mechanism allow to realize morphogenesis?

Morphogenesis represents one of the basic unsolved problems of biology. Molecular biology and gene hypothesis have not allowed to understand what is involved. The probable reason is that biochemistry is local approach whereas morphogenesis is a non-local phenomenon. There have been attempts to understand morphogenesis using the catastrophe theory of Thom . Sheldrake has done highly interesting work with morphogenesis too. Robert Merrick's article harmonic theory of evolution (see this) suggests a connection between the notion of harmony as expressed by 12-note scale and morphogenesis.

The basic building bricks of TGD vision about morphogenesis would be following.

  1. Macroscopic quantum coherence is to my view a necessary ingredient of morphogenesis and hierarchy of Planck constants allows to realize it. The notion of magnetic body (MB) is also necessary. MB would guide the morphogenesis. For instance, the replication of living system would be induced by that for MB. The fundamental dynamics takes place at the level of MB and biochemical level is only a shadow of this dynamics. "Topological light rays" ("massless extremals", MEs) is second key element. MB would use MEs to control visible living matter, in particular to guide morphogenesis. The challenge is to understand how MB achieves this.
  2. The notion of harmony assignable to various musical scales realized as Hamiltonian cycles at Platonic solids is central. The TGD based model for harmony was actually inspired by the book of Merrick's theory of music. The model for harmonies assignable to 12-note scale led to a model for genetic code in terms of so called Hamiltonian cycles on icosahedron and tetra-hedron predicting correctly the numbers of DNA codons coding for given amino-acid and also predicted two additional amino-acids Pyl and Sec appearing in Nature.
  3. The fusion of real physics for sensory experience and various p-adic physics for cognition gives rise to adelic physics. In particular, one can speak about adelic variants of space-time surfaces and he notion of monadic geometry emerges. Geometric objects have discrete "spine" for which points have coordinate values in an algebraic extension of rationals for some preferred coordinate system dictated by the symmetries of the imbedding space M4× CP2. Space-time surfaces are also locally continuous and smooth so that classical partial differential equations defining space-time surfaces as preferred extremals of Kähler action or its twistor lift make sense.

    Platonic solids represents unique monadic geometries since they correspond to finite discrete subgroups of the 3-D rotation group giving rise to 3-dimensional structures as their geometric representations. Also planar polygons represent this kind of realizations and can be assigned to the inclusion hierarchy of von Neuman algebras knowns hyper-finite factors of type II1 and very probably also to the analogous fractal hierarchy of sub-algebras of super-symplectic algebra isomorphic to the full algebra.

  4. The discrete points realizing monadic geometries could be accompanied by tensor networks having partonic 2-surfaces as notes connected by magnetic flux tubes serving as correlates for negentropic entanglement between the nodes at their ends would serve give rise to the emergence of proprioception - the experience about 3-space. The flux tubes would be analogous to strings of the music instruments with transverse oscillations defining the fundamental frequencies defining the notes of the scale. Tensor network could be regarded as music instrument having flux tubes as strings.

    12-note scale could be by its special mathematical features and by preferred extremal condition fundamental from the point of view of morphogenesis. The lengths of flux tubes are quantized. One can imagine two options. The effective length of given flux tube can be varied as done in guitar or the tensor network would be like piano or harp: the lengths of flux tubes assignable to the tensor network would have quantized lengths coming as rational multiples of fundamental length in such a manner that a representation of the 12-note system would be obtained.

    The model of music harmony and 12-note scale would be assignable to icosahedron which would aslo define a very natural monadic geometry. This harmony would also related to genetic done. Monadic geometry could in turn emerge naturally in morphogenesis so that genetic code could after all lurk behind morphogonesis but being realized in terms of 3-chords rather than triplets of DNA nucleotides. Morphogenesis could be a realization of genetic code in terms of interfering fields.

How morphogenesis could then be realized in this picture?
  1. Chladni mechanism is a clever trick to make the nodal curves associated with standing waves visible. This mechanism could transcend to a basic mechanism of morphogenesis. The idea is very simple. Biomolecules could end up to the nodal surfaces for a standing waves of say electric field since the force on them would vanish at the nodal surfaces. This would give stationary structures. MB could control morphogenesis by using this kind of standing waves forcing the formation of various structures at their nodal surfaces.
  2. The objection is that TGD does not allow single-sheeted realizations of standing waves. This objection is not lethal. In many-sheeted space-time one can realize effective sinusoidal standing waves as 2-sheeted structures from two MEs propagating to opposite spatial directions and carrying plane waves with a fixed frequency. These two-sheeted structures would serve as basic building bricks. The test particle having necessarily wormhole contacts to both MEs would experience the force caused by the sum of the induced gauge fields assigned to the two MEs. The force would be same as that caused by a standing wave with separable temporal and spatial dependence not realizable as preferred extremal: that is a product of trigometric functions - say sin(ω t) sin(k x). The force would vanish at nodal surfaces, which would thus define naturally the shape of a stationary structure defined by molecules.

    One can take several primitive MEs and allow them to have different directions but common frequency. One would obtain effective standing wave with common factorized time dependence and spatial dependence given by the sum of spatial parts of the sinusoidal waves. The nodal surface for this wave would correspond to the nodal surface for the sum of the spatial waves and one would obtain arbitrarily complex nodal surfaces.

    The nodal surfaces for these waves would naturally associated with the nodes of the tensor network, where the flux tubes of MB indeed meet. Fractal structure with tensor networks with nodes of tensor networks can be assumed in TGD framework.

  3. There is a connection with holography in which reference wave and the wave of same frequency reflected from the target interfere. Now all waves can be regarded as standing reference waves coming from different directions and generated by magnetic body and propagating along flux tubes of magnetic body. Bio-structures would be formed to the nodal surfaces of this hologram.
See the chapter Quantum model for hearing. See also the article What could be the physical origin of Pythagorean scale? .



What could be the physical origin of Pythagorean scale?

I was contacted for a couple years ago by Hans Geesink and we had long discussions about consciousness and quantum biology. The discussion stimulated new ideas and this inspired me to write a chapter and article comparing our approaches. Now Hans sent me two prepublications by him and D. K. F. Meijer.

The first preprint "Bio-Soliton Model that predicts Non-Thermal Electromagnetic Radiation Frequency Bands, that either Stabilize or Destabilize Life Conditions" is in arXiv ). The abstract reads as:

Solitons, as self-reinforcing solitary waves, interact with complex biological phenomena such as cellular self-organisation. Soliton models are able to describe a spectrum of electromagnetism modalities that can be applied to understand the physical principles of biological effects in living cells, as caused by electromagnetic radiation. A bio-soliton model is proposed, that enables to predict which eigen-frequencies of non-thermal electromagnetic waves are life-sustaining and which are, in contrast, detrimental for living cells. The particular effects are exerted by a range of electromagnetic wave frequencies of one-tenth of a Hertz till Peta Hertz, that show a pattern of twelve bands, if positioned on an acoustic frequency scale. The model was substantiated by a meta-analysis of 240 published papers of biological radiation experiments, in which a spectrum of non-thermal electromagnetic waves were exposed to living cells and intact organisms. These data support the concept of coherent quantized electromagnetic states in living organisms and the theories of Davydov, Fröhlich and Pang. A spin-off strategy from our study is discussed in order to design bio-compatibility promoting semi-conducting materials and to counteract potential detrimental effects due to specific types of electromagnetic radiation produced by man-made electromagnetic technologies.

Second preprint "Phonon Guided Biology: Architecture of Life and Conscious Perception are mediated by Toroidal Coupling of Phonon, Photon and Electron Information Fluxes at Eigen-frequencies" is in Research Gate. The abstract is following.

Recently a novel biological principle, revealing discrete life sustaining electromagnetic (EM) frequencies, was presented and shown to match with a range of frequencies emitted by clay-minerals as a candidate to catalyze RNA synthesis. The spectrum of frequency bands indicate that nature employs discrete eigen-frequencies that match with an acoustic reference scale, with frequency ratios of 1:2, and closely approximated by 2:3, 3:4, 3:5, 4:5 and higher partials. The present study shows that these patterns strikingly resemble eigen-frequencies of sound induced geometric patterns of the membrane vibration experiments of E. Chladni (1787), and matches with the mathematical calculations of W. Ritz (1909). We postulate that the spectrum of EM frequencies detected, exert a phonon guided ordering effect on life cells, on the basis of induction of geometric wave patterns. In our brain a toroidal integration of phonon, photon and electron fluxes may guide information messengers such as Ca2+-ions to induce coherent oscillations in cellular macromolecules. The integration of such multiple informational processes is proposed to be organized in a fractal 4-D toroidal geometry, that is proposed to be instrumental in conscious perception. Our finding of an "acoustic life principle" may reflect an aspect of the implicate order, as postulated by David Bohm.

A very concice and very partial summary about the articles would be following.

  1. 12-note scale seems to be realized in good approximation as frequency bands (rather than single frequencies) for a membrane like system with the geometry of square obeying four-order partical differential equation studied numerically by Ritz. Since the boundary conditions are periodic this system has effective torus topology. This is rather remarkable experimental fact and extremely interesting from TGD point of view.
  2. The papers also argue that also the octave hierarchy is realized. p-Adic length scale hierarchy indeed predicts that subset of powers of 2, and more generally of 21/2 defines a hierarchy of fundamental p-adic scales with p-adic prime p near to power of two.
In the following I will discuss first the condensed matter realization of 12-note scale and after that considder the significance and realization of 12-note scale from TGD point of view.

Condensed matter realization of 12-note scale in terms of oscillations of square plate

The article discusses a condensed matter physics based realization of 12-note. Acoustic waves are seen as fundamental. Certainly the sound waves are important since they couple to electromagnetic waves. My feeling is however that they provide a secondary realization.

  1. The realization of 12-note system as 12 bands discussed in the articles is as eigen frequencies of deformations of square plate. Periodic boundary conditions imply that one can regard the system also as a torus. One has bands, not eigenfrequencies. I do not know whether one can pick up from bands frequencies, whose ratio to the fundamental would be rational and same as for Pythagorean scale. Since the system can be treated only numerically, it is difficult to answer this question.
  2. So called Chladni patterns (see An Amazing Resonance Experiment) are associated with vibrating thin square plate and correspond to the node lines of the deformation of the plate in direction orthogonal to the plate. As one adds very small particles at the plate and if the vibrational acceleration is smaller than the gravitational acceleration the particles get to the node lines and form Chladni pattern. Hence the presence of gravitation seems to be essential for the Chladni patters to occur. These patterns make visible the structure of standing wave eigenmodes of the plate. It is also possible to have patterns assignable to the antinodes at which the deformation is maximum but vibrational acceleration vanishes as in the harmonic oscillator at the maximum value of the amplitude.
  3. The vibrations of square plate obey fourth order partial diff equation for the Chladni pattern having the general form

    t2 u= K (∇2)2 u .

    Here u is the small deformation in direction orthonormal to the plate. The equation can be deduced from the theory of elasticity about which I do not know much. For standing wave solutions the time dependence is separable to trigonometric factor sin(ω t) or cos(ω t), and one obtains eigenvalue equation

    K(∇2)2 u =-ω2 u .

  4. The natural basis for the modes is as products of 1-D modes um(x) for string satisfying ∂x2 um=0 at the ends of the string (x={-1,1}): this in both x and y directions. This must express the fact that energy and momentum do not flow out at boundaries.

    The modes satisfy

    d4um/dx4= kn4 um .

    Boundary conditions allow modes with both even and odd parity:

    um= [cos(km)cosh(kmx) + cosh(km) cos(knx)] /[cosh2km+cos2(km)] ,

    tan(km)+tanh(km)=0 , m even .

    um= [sin(km)sinh(kmx) + sinh(km)sin(knx) )]/[sinh2km+sin2(km)]

    tan(km)-tanh(km)=0 , m odd .

  5. The 2-D modes are not products of 1-D modes but sums of products

    wεmn= um(x)un(y) + ε um(y)un(x) , ε=+/- 1 .

    Modern physicist would notice classical entanglement between x and y degrees of freedom. The first ε=1 mode is analogous symmetric two-boson state and second ε=-1 mode to antisymmetric two-fermion state.

  6. The variational ansatz of Ritz was superposition of these modes (this variational method was actually discovered by Ritz). Ritz minimized the expectation value of the Hermitian operator (∇2)2 in the ground state and obtained an approximation for the frequencies which holds true with 1 per cent accuracy.
Unfortunately, 4-D geometry does not give rise to this kind of equations: time and space are not in democratic roles. TGD inspired vision would be different. The magnetic flux tubes and even strings could be the fundamental objects concerning biology and consciousness. The acoustic realization of the 12-note scale would be secondary one. Even genetic code would have fundamental realization at the level of dark nuclear physics and chemical realization of genetic code would be secondary realization.

2. Why 12-note scale?

Why I am convinced that 12-note scale should be so important?

  1. The mysterious fact about music experience is that frequencies whose ratios come as rationals are somehow special concerning music experience. People with absolute pitch prefer the Pythagorean scale with this property as aesthetically pleasing. Pythagorean scale is obtained by forming the 3k multiples of fundamental and by dividing by a suitable power 2m of 2 to get a frequency in the basic octave. This scale appears in TGD inspired model for music harmonies, which as a byproduct led to a model of genetic code predicting correctly the numbers of DNA codons coding for given amino-acid. The appearance of powers of 2 and 3 suggest 3-adicity and 2-adicity. Furthermore, rationals correspond to the lowest evolutionary level defined by the hierarchy of algebraic extensions of rationals.

    This gives excellent reasons to ask whether 12-note scale could be realized as some physical system. One might hope that this system could be somehow universal. Geometric realization in terms of wave equation would be the best that one could have.

  2. The model of harmony is realized in terms of Hamilton cycles assignable to icosahedron and tetrahedron. Hamilton cycles at icosahedron are closed paths going through all 12 points of icosahedron and thus can define a geometric representation of the Pythagorean scale. The rule is that curve connects only nearest points of icosahedron and corresponds to scaling of frequency by 3/2 plus reduction to basic octave by dividing by a suitable power of 2. The triangles of the icosahedron define allowed 20 chords for given harmony and one obtains 256 basic harmonies characterized by the symmetries of the cycle: symmetry group can be cyclic group Z6, Z4 or Z2 or reflection group Z2 acting on icosahedron.

    Bioharmonies are obtained by combining Z6, Z4 and Z2 of either type. One obtains 20+20+20 =60 3-chords defining the bio-harmony. One must add tetrahedral harmony with 4 chords in order to obtain 64 chords. It turns out that it corresponds to genetic code under rather mild assumptions. DNA codons with 3 letters could correspond 3-chords with letter triplets mapped to 3-chords. Amino-acids would correspond to orbits of given codon at icosahedron under one of the symmetry groups involved.

How to realize 12-note scale at fundamental level universally?

How could one realize 12-note scale at the fundamental level - that is in terms of 4-D geometry? The realization should be also universal and its existence should not depend on special properties of physical system. Vibrating strings provide the simplest manner to realize 12-note scale. Harmonics do not however allow its realization. They are in higher octaves and define only the color of the note. There are actually two realizations.

The simplest realization relies on the analogy with piano.

  1. The string of piano corresponds to a magnetic flux tube/associated fermionic string and the frequency of the note would be determined by the length of the flux tube. The quantization for the length as certain rational multiples of p-adic length scale gives rise to the 12-note scale. Tensor network would be like piano with the flux tubes of the network with quantized lengths defining the strings of piano.
  2. Why the length of the flux tube defining the fundamental frequency would correspond to a frequency of Pythagorean scale? Could this be due to the preferred extremal property realizing SH and posing very strong conditions on allowed space-time surface and 3-surfaces at their ends at boundaries of causal diamonds? If so, 12-note scale would be part of fundamental physics!

    The rational multiples f(m,n)= (m/n)f0, m=0,1,..n-1, of the fundamental f0 with m/n≤ 2 (single octave) are in a preferred position mathematically since the superpositions of waves with these frequencies can be represented as superpositions of the suitable harmonics of the scaled down fundamental f1=f0/n. For Pythagorean scale m/n= 3k/2l the new fundamental is some "inverted octave f1= f0/2kmax of the fundamental and the allowed harmonics are of form m=2r3l.

Second realization would be dynamical and based on the analogy with string instruments.
  1. String instruments allow to realize 12-note scale by varying the length of the vibrating string. The note of scale corresponds to the fundamental frequency for the portion of the shortened string, which is picked. Why the lengths of shortened strings should correspond to inverses of frequencies of 12-note scale? One should have powers of 3 divided by powers of 2 to get a frequency in fundamental octave. Could p-adic length scale hypothesis, which generalizes and length scales coming as powers of square roots of small primes help?
  2. Strings bring in mind magnetic flux tubes connecting partonic 2-surfaces. They behaving in good approximation like strings and are actually accompanied by genuine fermionic strings and corresponding string world sheets. Flux tubes play a fundamental role in living matter in TGD Universe. Flux tubes carrying dark matter identified as large heff=n× h phases would serve as space-time correlates for negentropic entanglement and gives rise to tensor nets with partonic 2-surfaces as nodes and flux tubes connecting them (see this). Could magnetic flux tubes or associated fermionic strings provide the instruments using Pythagorean scale?

    Partonic 2-surfaces and string world sheets dictate space-time surface by strong form of holography (SH) implied by strong form of general coordinate invariance. It is quite possible that not all configurations of partonic 2-surfaces and string world sheets allow SH that is realization as space-time surface: perhaps only the flux tubes with length corresponding to Pythagorean scale allow it. For p-adic counterparts of space-time surfaces the possibility of p-adic pseudo-constants (failure of strict determinism of field equations) makes this possible: the interpretation is as imagined p-adic space-time surface which cannot be realized as real space-time surface.

    How these flux tubes could behave like strings of guitar? When my finger touching the guitar string it dividing it to two pieces. The analogy for this is the appearance of additional partonic 2-surface between the two existing ones so that one has two flux tubes connecting the original partonic two-surface to the new one. A change of the topology of 3-space would be involved with this stringy music!

    More precisely, the flux tubes would be closed if they carry monopole magnetic flux: they would begin from "upper" wormhole throat of wormhole contact A (partonic 2-surface), go along "upper" space-time sheet to the throat of wormhole contact B go the "lower"space-time sheet through it, return to the "lower" throat of wormhole contact A and back to the "upper" throat. Shortening of the string would correspond to a formation of wormhole contact at some point of this flux tube structure splitting the flux tube to two pieces.

  3. Another realization could be in terms of the quantization of the distance between partonic 2-surfaces connected by flux tubes and associated strings in given p-adic length scale, which by p-adic length scale hypothesis would correspond to power of square root of 2 so that also octaves and possibly also half octaves would be obtained (note that half octave corresponds to tritonus, which was regarded by church as an invention of devil!). Also now the justification in terms of SH.

See the chapter Quantum model for hearing. See also the article What could be the physical origin of Pythagorean scale? .



Anesthetes again

The writing of the summary about SSE-2016 conference forced to think again the model for anesthetes in light of the vision about cell membrane as sel-loading battery relying on TGD based model for Pollack's exclusion zones (EZ) in terms of heff/h=n phases.

First however a philosophical remark.

  1. According to the behavioristic definition of consciousness, the ability to respond to sensory input and perform motor actions are essential aspects of consciousness. To my opinion these abilities correspond to only particular type of consciousness and consciousness might be possible even without neural activities (OBEs and NDEs). In any case, the inability to generate nerve pulse patterns would be an essential aspect for what we call loss of consciousness. This happens if there is hyperpolarization of neuronal membrane.
  2. Hyperpolarization means reduced rate of spontaneous nerve pulse generation. This would be achieved if microtubules gain additional negatively charge so that the radial component of microtubule electric field increases. Hence the interaction of anesthetes with the microtubuli should generate this negative charge. One possibility is that Pollack effect generates in the presence of anesthete negatively charged exclusion zone (EZs). The TGD based model assumes that the protons are transferred to the magnetic flux tubes as dark protons and perhaps end up to the exterior of cell membrane and transform to ordinary protons. This would induce hyperpolarization. The neutral anesthete atoms or molecules in turn could be transferred to the microtubules along flux tubes.
Consider next a model for the cell membrane.
  1. In TGD Universe cell membranes could be generalized Josephson junctions. The energy of generalized Josephson photons (dark with energies in bio-photon range) would be the difference of cyclotron energies for flux tubes at the two sides of the membrane plus the ordinary Josephson energy. Generalized Josephson photons would take care of communications of sensory data to MB.

    Unless the cyclotron energies at the two sides of the membrane are same, the new contribution would dominate in the communications to MB for large values of heff since cyclotron energy is proportional to heff, and neuronal contribution would represent frequency modulation allowing to code nerve pulse patterns to kind of "whale's song". For smaller value of heff ordinary Josephson energy would dominate.

    There is a temptation to assume that the value of heff serves as a kind of intelligence quotient of cell. Frequency scale and energy scale for the analog of EEG would serve for the same purpose. For instance, pyramidal neurons responsible for EEG would represent the intellectual elite of brain and ordinary cells could have much smaller value of heff being say by factor 2-10 smaller than for pyramidal cells so that generalized Josephson energy would be of the same order of magnitude as ordinary Josephsone energy and in IR range.

  2. Generalized Josephson photons with biophoton energies would also generate Pollack's EZs by ionizing one proton from hydrogen bonded pair of water molecules. The reduction of the membrane potential below the threshold for nerve pulse generation could reduce the energy of Josephson photons below threshold for generating Pollack's EZs and neuronal membrane would cease to be self-loading battery: this would replace ionic Josephson currents with ohmic currents through cell membrane and generate nerve pulse.

    The objection is that for low values of heff generalized Josephson energy reduces to ordinary one in IR range and for high values to cyclotron energy in visible-UV range. It is known that IR photons generate EZs in the experiments of Pollack. The process could occur in two steps involving cyclotron radiation - perhaps from MB - kicking of hydrogen bonded water molecules to a state, where proton is almost ionized so that the IR radiation would take care of the ionization. The mechanism generating EZs cannot be different for ordinary cells and neurons. Either the notion of generalized Josephson junction must be given up or in the case of neurons glial cells accompanying also axons generate the IR radiation giving rise to EZs inside axons.

  3. It is also attractive to see at least ordinary cell membrane as a self-loading battery. The generation of Pollack's EZs with negative charge and dark proton charge at magnetic flux tubes of the associated MB could make cell a self-loading battery ".

    Generalized Josephson photons from cell membrane or cyclotron photons could generate EZs by kicking protons to dark protons at flux tubes of MB of the cell. The energy must be in some critical range in order that this can happen. For too small energies the process stops. Besides ionic charge distributions EZs and the delocalized dark proton charges and the flux tubes extending beyond cell interior would be responsible for the resting potential.

    EZs are not expected to be completely stable. The heff→ h phase transition would bring dark protons back as ordinary protons and destroy EZs and reduce the magnitude of membrane potential. There could be a competition between the generation and destruction of EZs by heff→ h phase transition.

  4. This picture is enough to explain the effect of anesthetes. Anesthetes at microtubules would generate a negative charge assignable to additional EZs thus increasing the magnitude of the membrane potential. This would imply stable hyperpolarization preventing the generation of nerve pulses.
What about generation of nerve pulses in this framework? I have suggested a TGD based model for nerve pulse relying on the idea about cell membrane as array of Josephson junctions consisting of membrane proteins (channel and pump proteins) but the model leaves open what exactly generates the nerve pulse. The expectation has however been that microtubules play a key role in the generation of nerve pulse. A charge wave with positive charge propagating along microtubule could induce the reduction of the membrane potential and lead to a generation of nerve pulse as a secondary wave.
  1. The propagation of heff→ h phase transition followed by its reversal along axon interior could serve as a weak control signal inducing the nerve pulse propagation at quantum criticality. This phase transition could be assignable to microtubules. Battery would temporarily discharge during the nerve pulse. If glial cells generate the EZs making axons glial-cell loaded batteries then the return back to the normal state after nerve pulse would be possible by the presence glial cells.
  2. During nerve pulse either the generation of EZs ceases and/or the existing EZs suffer an heff reducing phase transition so that flux tubes are shortened and the positive dark charge returns to EZs and cell membrane potential is reduced. The generation of nerve pulse is usually modelled using ohmic ionic currents, which suggests that quantum coherence is lost by a reduction of heff, which is predicted to be proportional to ion mass so that cyclotron energy spectrum is universal and in visible-UV range for bio-photons.
  3. Nerve pulse could be a "secondary wave induced by a wave of positive charge propagating along microtubule. This wave of positive charge would rather naturally result from the reduction heff→ h and return back to heff. A pair of phase transitions dark-ordinary-dark would propagate along the microtubule. The unidirectionality of the propagation direction would be forced by the fact that it can begin only from axonal hillock. Axonal hillock contains a large number of voltage gated ion channels, which would serve as generalized Josephson junctions in TGD framework.
  4. What one can one conclude about the development of total charge during the time development of membrane potential V(t)? Nerve pulse corresponds to certain segment of axon and lasts for few milliseconds. The cell membrane voltage goes from resting potential V(t=0)= Vrest to approximately V(t=T)= -Vrest and returns back. The total charge in cell interior defines the value of electric field E at the interior side of cell membrane and approximation interior as conductor, the value of Ein good approximation one has V= Ed= Qcelld/4π R2 in spherical geometry and V= Ed= dQtot/dl d/2π R in cylindrical geometry of axon. Here Qtot is the charge of the piece of axons at which nerve pulse is located. Total charge is sum of microtubular charge Qmt serving as a control parameter and the total ionic charge QI changing due to the presence of ohmic ionic currents during the pulse (ionic currents are Josephson currents except during nerve pulse).

    To get some quantitative grasp, let us idealize the situation by assuming that during nerve pulse the negative microtubular charge Qmt(0)<0 goes to Qmt(T)=0 for V(T)= -Vrest (EZs disappear totally) and returns back to its original value as the phase transition returning the value of heff occurs.

    One has Qtot(0)=Qmt(0)+QI(0) before the nerve pulse. At V= -Vrest one has Qtot (T)=-Qtot(0), which gives -Qtot(0) = QI(T). This gives Qmt(0)= QI(T)-QI(0).

    What can one say about the magnitude of Qmt? If this charge serves control purpose and if the system is kicked off from quantum criticality, the change of Qmt need not be large so that no large modifications of the ordinary model of nerve pulses are needed. The negative microtubular charge is partially due to the GTPs along microtubular to which EZs are associated. The value of resting potential of order .06 eV at threshold for nerve pulse generation and estimates for linear ionic charge densities dQI(0)/dl and dQI(T)/dl and Qmt(0)/dt would allow to test the model. The heff→ h phase transition outside quantum criticality would take place in millisecond time scale.

The distinctions between neurons and ordinary cells allow to invent objections against the proposed scenario.
  1. Ordinary cell membrane should act as a self-loading battery with Josephson radiation generating Pollack's EZs. Axonal microtubules are missing but the cytoskeleton consisting also of microtubules is present. Inside the cell soma the microtubules meet the cell membrane transversally. There is also T-shaped antenna like structure involving microtubules whereas ordinary neurons have axonal microtubules. Also now a microtubular positive charge generated by heff→ h phase transition could induce the reduction of membrane potential.
  2. Why the analog of nerve pulse does not take place also now? In the case of cancer cells membrane potential is reduced and can become even vanishing, and one might think that the lack of recovery is due to the absence of glial cells taking care that EZs are generated. For too low Josephson energies the self-loading would stop and due to the spontaneously occurring heff→ h phase transitions, the membrane potential would be gradually reduced.

    In the case of neurons the heff→ h phase transition would occur fast. The transition away from quantum criticality could cause this since long range quantum fluctuations would disappear. The value of membrane potential or the difference between neuronal and glial membrane potentials could serve as a critical parameter changing as the membrane potential is reduced. The quantum criticality of ordinary cell membrane would be analogous to self-organized quantum criticality. That of neuronal axon to quantum criticality induced by glial cells.

See the chapter Quantum model for nervepulse. See also the article Comments about the representations in SSE-2016 conference about consciousness, biology, and paranormal phenomena .



Could Pollack effect make cell membrane a self-loading battery?

Elemer Rosinger had a Facebook link to an article telling about Clarendon dry pile, a very long-lived battery providing energy for an electric clock (see this, this, and this ). This clock known also as Oxford bell has been ringing for 175 years now and the article suggests that the longevity of the battery is not really understood. The bell is not actually ringing so loud that human ear could hear it but one can see the motion of the small metal sphere between the oppositely charged electrodes of the battery in the video.

The principle of the clock is simple. The gravitational field of earth is also present. When the sphere touches the negative electrode, it receives a bunch of electrons and gives the bunch away as it touches positive electrode so that a current consisting of these bunches is running between electrons. The average current during the oscillation period of 2 seconds is nanoampere so that nanocoulomb of charge is transferred during each period (Coulomb corresponds to a 6.242 × 1018 elementary charges (electrons)).

The dry pile was discovered by priest and physicist Giuseppe Zamboni at 1812. The pile consists of 2,000 pairs of pairs of discs of tin foil glued to paper impregnated with Zinc sulphate and coated on the other side with manganese dioxide: 2,000 thin batteries in series. The operation of battery gradually leads to the oxidation of Zinc and the loss of manganese dioxide but the process takes place very slowly. One might actually wonder whether it takes place too slowly so that some other source of energy than the electrostatic energy of the battery would be keep the clock running. Karpen pile is analogous battery discover by Vasily Karpen. It has now worked for 50 years.

Cold fusion is associated with electrolysis. Could the functioning of this mystery clock involve cold fusion taken seriously even by American Physical Society thanks to the work of the group of prof. Holmlid. Electrolytes have of course been "understood" for aeons. Ionization leads to charge separation and current flows in the resulting voltage. With a feeling of deep shame I must confess that I cannot understand how the ionization is possible in standard physics. This of course might be just my immense stupidity - every second year physics student would immediately tell that this is "trivial" - so trivial that he would not even bother to explain why. The electric field between the electrodes is immensely weak in the scale of molecules. How can it induce the ionisation? Could ordinary electrolytes involve new physics involving cold fusion liberating energy? These are the questions, which pop up in my stupid mind. Stubborn as I am in my delusions, I have proposed what this new physics might be with inspiration coming from strange experimental findings of Gerald Pollack, cold fusion, and my own view about dark matter has phases of ordinary matter with non-standard value heff=n× h of Planck constant. Continuing with my weird delusions I dare ask: Could cold fusion provide the energy for the "miracle" battery?

To understand what might be involved one must first learn some basic concepts. I am trying to do the same.

  1. Battery consistes of two distinct electrochemical cells. Cell consists of electrode and electrolyte. The electrodes are called anode and catode. By definition electron current along external wire flows to catode and leaves anode.
  2. There are also ionic currents flowing inside the battery. In absence of the ionic currents the electrodes of the battery lose their charge. In the loading the electrodes get their charges. In the ideal situation the ionic current is same as electron current and the battery does not lose its charging. Chemical reactions are however taking place near and at the electrodes and in their reversals take place during charging. Chemical changes are not completely reversible so that the lifetime of the battery is finite.

    The ionic current can be rather complex: the carriers of the positive charge from anode can even change during the charge transfer: what matters that negative charge from catode is transferred to anode in some manner and this charge logistics can involve several steps. Near the catode the currents of positive ions (cations) and electrons from the anode combine to form neutral molecules. The negative current carriers from catode to the anode are called anions.

  3. The charge of the clectrochemical cell is in the electrolyte near the surface of the electrode rather than inside it as one might first think and the chemical processes involve neutralization of ion and the transfer of neutral outcome to or from the electrode.
  4. Catode - or better, the electrochemical cell containing the catode - can have both signs of charge. For positive charge one has a battery liberating energy as the electron current connecting the negative and positive poles goes through the load, such as LED. For negative charge current flows only if there is external energy feed: this is loading of the battery. External voltage source and thus energy is needed to drive the negative charges and positive charges to the electrodes. The chemical reactions involved can be rather complex and proceed in reverse direction during the loading process. Travel phone battery is a familiar example.

    During charging the roles of the anode and catode are changed: understanding this helps considerably.

Could cold fusion help to understand why the Clarendon dry pile is so long lived?
  1. The battery is series of very many simpler batteries. The mechanism should reduce to the level of single building brick. This is assumed in the following.
  2. The charge of the battery tends to be reduced unless the ionic and electronic currents are identical. Also chemical changes occur. The mechanism involved should oppose the reduction of the charging by creating positive charge to the catode and negative charge to the anode or induce additional voltage between the electrodes of the battery inducing its loading. The energy feed involved might also change the direction of the basic chemical reactions as in the ordinary loading by raising the temperature at catode or anode.
  3. Could be formation of Pollack's exclusion zones (EZs) in the elecrolytic cell containing the anode help to achieve this? EZs carry a high electronic charge. According to TGD based model protons are transformed to dark protons at magnetic flux tubes. If the positive dark charge at the flux tubes is transferred to the electrolytic cell containing catode and transformed to ordinary charge, it would increase the positive charge of the catode. The effect would be analogous to the loading of battery. The energy liberated in the process would compensate for the loss of charge energy due to electronic and ionic currents.
  4. In the ordinary loading of the battery the voltage between batteries induces the reversal of the chemical processes occuring in the battery. This is due to the external energy feed. Could the energy feed from dark cold fusion induce similar effects now? For instance, could the energy liberated at the catode as positively charged dark nuclei transform to ordinary ones raise the temperature and in this manner feed the energy needed to change the direction of the chemical reactions.
Elemer Rosinger had a Facebook link to an article telling about Clarendon dry pile, a very long-lived battery providing energy for an electric clock (see this, this, and this ). This clock known also as Oxford bell has been ringing for 175 years now and the article suggests that the longevity of the battery is not really understood. The bell is not actually ringing so loud that human ear could hear it but one can see the motion of the small metal sphere between the oppositely charged electrodes of the battery in the video.

The principle of the clock is simple. The gravitational field of earth is also present. When the sphere touches the negative electrode, it receives a bunch of electrons and gives the bunch away as it touches positive electrode so that a current consisting of these bunches is running between electrons. The average current during the oscillation period of 2 seconds is nanoampere so that nanocoulomb of charge is transferred during each period (Coulomb corresponds to a 6.242 × 1018 elementary charges (electrons)).

The dry pile was discovered by priest and physicist Giuseppe Zamboni at 1812. The pile consists of 2,000 pairs of pairs of discs of tin foil glued to paper impregnated with Zinc sulphate and coated on the other side with manganese dioxide: 2,000 thin batteries in series. The operation of battery gradually leads to the oxidation of Zinc and the loss of manganese dioxide but the process takes place very slowly. One might actually wonder whether it takes place too slowly so that some other source of energy than the electrostatic energy of the battery would be keep the clock running. Karpen pile is analogous battery discover by Vasily Karpen. It has now worked for 50 years.

Cold fusion is associated with electrolysis. Could the functioning of this mystery clock involve cold fusion taken seriously even by American Physical Society thanks to the work of the group of prof. Holmlid. Electrolytes have of course been "understood" for aeons. Ionization leads to charge separation and current flows in the resulting voltage. With a feeling of deep shame I must confess that I cannot understand how the ionization is possible in standard physics. This of course might be just my immense stupidity - every second year physics student would immediately tell that this is "trivial" - so trivial that he would not even bother to explain why. The electric field between the electrodes is immensely weak in the scale of molecules. How can it induce the ionisation? Could ordinary electrolytes involve new physics involving cold fusion liberating energy? These are the questions, which pop up in my stupid mind. Stubborn as I am in my delusions, I have proposed what this new physics might be with inspiration coming from strange experimental findings of Gerald Pollack, cold fusion, and my own view about dark matter has phases of ordinary matter with non-standard value heff=n× h of Planck constant. Continuing with my weird delusions I dare ask: Could cold fusion provide the energy for the "miracle" battery?

To understand what might be involved one must first learn some basic concepts. I am trying to do the same.

  1. Battery consistes of two distinct electrochemical cells. Cell consists of electrode and electrolyte. The electrodes are called anode and catode. By definition electron current along external wire flows to catode and leaves anode.
  2. There are also ionic currents flowing inside the battery. In absence of the ionic currents the electrodes of the battery lose their charge. In the loading the electrodes get their charges. In the ideal situation the ionic current is same as electron current and the battery does not lose its charging. Chemical reactions are however taking place near and at the electrodes and in their reversals take place during charging. Chemical changes are not completely reversible so that the lifetime of the battery is finite.

    The ionic current can be rather complex: the carriers of the positive charge from anode can even change during the charge transfer: what matters that negative charge from catode is transferred to anode in some manner and this charge logistics can involve several steps. Near the catode the currents of positive ions (cations) and electrons from the anode combine to form neutral molecules. The negative current carriers from catode to the anode are called anions.

  3. The charge of the clectrochemical cell is in the electrolyte near the surface of the electrode rather than inside it as one might first think and the chemical processes involve neutralization of ion and the transfer of neutral outcome to or from the electrode.
  4. Catode - or better, the electrochemical cell containing the catode - can have both signs of charge. For positive charge one has a battery liberating energy as the electron current connecting the negative and positive poles goes through the load, such as LED. For negative charge current flows only if there is external energy feed: this is loading of the battery. External voltage source and thus energy is needed to drive the negative charges and positive charges to the electrodes. The chemical reactions involved can be rather complex and proceed in reverse direction during the loading process. Travel phone battery is a familiar example.

    During charging the roles of the anode and catode are changed: understanding this helps considerably.

Could cold fusion help to understand why the Clarendon dry pile is so long lived?
  1. The battery is series of very many simpler batteries. The mechanism should reduce to the level of single building brick. This is assumed in the following.
  2. The charge of the battery tends to be reduced unless the ionic and electronic currents are identical. Also chemical changes occur. The mechanism involved should oppose the reduction of the charging by creating positive charge to the catode and negative charge to the anode or induce additional voltage between the electrodes of the battery inducing its loading. The energy feed involved might also change the direction of the basic chemical reactions as in the ordinary loading by raising the temperature at catode or anode.
  3. Could be formation of Pollack's exclusion zones (EZs) in the elecrolytic cell containing the anode help to achieve this? EZs carry a high electronic charge. According to TGD based model protons are transformed to dark protons at magnetic flux tubes. If the positive dark charge at the flux tubes is transferred to the electrolytic cell containing catode and transformed to ordinary charge, it would increase the positive charge of the catode. The effect would be analogous to the loading of battery. The energy liberated in the process would compensate for the loss of charge energy due to electronic and ionic currents.
  4. In the ordinary loading of the battery the voltage between batteries induces the reversal of the chemical processes occuring in the battery. This is due to the external energy feed. Could the energy feed from dark cold fusion induce similar effects now? For instance, could the energy liberated at the catode as positively charged dark nuclei transform to ordinary ones raise the temperature and in this manner feed the energy needed to change the direction of the chemical reactions.
This model might have an interesting application to the physics of cell membrane.
  1. Cell membrane consisting of two lipid layers defines the analog of a battery. Cell interior plus inner lipid layer (anode) and cell exterior plus outer lipid layer (catode) are analogs of electrolyte cells.

    What has been troubling me for two decades is how this battery manages to load itself. Metabolic energy is certainly needed and ADP-ATP mechanism is essential element. I do not however understand how the membrane manages to keep its voltage.

    Second mystery is why it is hyperpolarization rather than polarization, which tends to stabilize the membrane potential in the sense that the probability for the spontaneous generation of nerve pulse is reduced. Neither do I understand why depolarization (reduction of the membrane voltage) leads to a generation of nerve pulse involving rapid change of the sign of the membrane voltage and the flow of various ionic currents between the interior and exterior of the cell.

  2. In the TGD inspired model for nerve pulse cell interior and cell exterior or at least their regions near to lipid layers are regarded as super-conductors forming a generalized Josephson junction. For the ordinary Josephson junction the Coulombic energy due to the membrane voltage defines Josephson energy. Now Josephson energy is replaced by the ordinary Josephson energy plus the difference of cyclotron energies of the ion at the two sides of the membrane. Also ordinary Josephson radiation can be generated. The Josephson currents are assumed to run along magnetic flux tubes connecting cell interior and exterior. This assumption receives support from the strange finding that the small quantal currents associated with the membrane remain essentially the same when the membrane is replaced with polymer membrane.
  3. The model for Clarendon dry pile suggests an explanation for the self-loading ability. The electrolytic cell containing the anode corresponds to the negatively charged cell interior, where Pollack's EZs would be generated spontaneously and the feed of protonic charge to the outside of the membrane would be along flux tubes as dark protons to minimize dissipation. Also ions would flow along them. The dark protons driven to the outside of the membrane transform to ordinary ones or remain dark and flow spontaneously back and provide the energy needed to add phosphate to ADP to get ATP.
  4. The system could be quantum critical in the sense that a small reduction of the membrane potential induces nerve pulse. Why the ability to generate Pollack's EZs in the interior would be lost for a few milliseconds during nerve pulse? The hint comes from the fact that Pollack's EZs can be generated by feeding infrared radiation to a water bounded by gel. Also the ordinary Josephson radiation generated by cell membrane Josephson junction has energy in infrared range!

    Could the ordinary Josephson radiation generate EZs by inducing the ionization of almost ionized hydrogen bonded pairs of water molecules. The hydrogen bonded pairs must be very near to the ionization energy so that ordinary Josephson energy of about .06 eV assignable to the membrane voltage is enough to induce the ionization followed by the formation of H3/2O. The resulting EZ would consist of layers with the effective stoichiometry H3/2O.

    As the membrane voltage is reduced, Josephson energy would not be anymore enough to induce the ionization of hydrogen bonded pair of water molecules, EZs are not generated, and the battery voltage is rapidly reduced: nerve pulse is created. In the case of hyperpolarization the energy excees the energy needed for ionization and the situation becomes more stable.

  5. This model allows also to understand the effect of anesthetes.Anesthetes could basically induce hyperpolarization so that Josephson photons would continually generate Pollack's EZ:s and creating of dark particles at the magnetic flux tubes. This need not mean that consciousness is lost at the cell level. Only sensory and motor actions are prevented because nerve pulses are not possible. This prevents formation of sensory and motor mental images at our level of hierarchy.

    Meyer-Overton correlation states that the effectiveness of the anesthete correlates with its solubility to the lipid membrane. This is the case if the presence of anesthete in the membrane induces hyperpolarization so that the energies of the photons of Josephson radiation would be higher than needed for the generation of EZs accompanied by magnetic flux tubes along which ionic Josephson currents would flow between cell interior and exterior. For these quantal currents evidence exists. In the case of battery these dark ions would flow from the cell containing anode to that containing catode. For depolarization the energy of Josephson photons would be too low to allow the kicking off protons from hydrogen bonded pairs of water molecules so that EZs would not be created and self-loading would stop and nerve pulse would be generated.

See the chapter Quantum model for nervepulse. See also the article Could Pollack effect make cell membrane a self-loading battery? .



Indication for high Tc superconductivity at 373 K with heff/h= 2

Bozovic et al have reported rather interesting new findings about high Tc super-conductivity: for over-critical doping the critical temperature is proportional to the density of what is identified as Cooper pairs of electronic super-fluid. Combined with the earlier findings that super-conductivity is lost - not by splitting of Cooper pairs - but by reduction of the scale of quantum coherence, and that below minimal doping fraction critical temperature goes abruptly to zero, allows to add details to the earlier TGD inspired model of high Tc super-conductivity. The super-conductivity would be indeed lost by the reconnection of flattened square shaped long flux loops to shorter loops of pseudogap phase. Quantum coherence would be reduced to smaller scale as heff is reduced. Transversal flux tube "sound waves" would induce the reconnections. Electrons at flux loops would stabilize them by contributing to the energy density and thus to the inertia increasing the string tension so that the average amplitude squared of oscillations is reduced and critical temperature increases with electron density.

See the chapter Quantum Model for Bio-Superconductivity: I or the article New findings about high-temperature super-conductors.



Indication for high Tc superconductivity at 373 K with heff/h= 2

Some time ago I learned about a claim of Ivan Kostadinov about superconductivity at temperature of 373 K (100 C). There is also claims by E. Joe Eck about superconductivity: the latest at 400 K. I am not enough experimentalist to be able to decide whether to take the claims seriously or not.

The article of Kostadinov provides a detailed support for the claim. Evidence for diamagnetism (induced magnetization tends to reduce the external magnetic field inside superconductor) is represented: at 242 transition reducing the magnitude of negative susceptibility but keeping it negative takes place. Evidence for gap energy of 15 mV was found at 300 K temperature: this energy is same as thermal energy T/2= 1.5 eV at room temperature. Tape tests passing 125 A through superconducting tape supported very low resistance (for Copper tape started burning after about 5 seconds).

I-V curves at 300 K are shown to exhibit Shapiro steps with radiation frequency in the range [5 GHz, 21 THz]. Already Josephson discovered what - perhaps not so surprisingly - is known as Josephson effect. As one drives super-conductor with an alternating current, the voltage remain constant at certain values. The difference of voltage values between subsequent jumps are given by Shapiro step Δ V= h f/Ze. The interpretation is that voltage suffers a kind of phase locking at these frequencies and alternating current becomes Josephson current with Josephson frequency f= ZeV/h, which is integer multiple of the frequency of the current.

This actually gives a very nice test for heff=n× h hypothesis: Shapiro step Δ V should be scaled up by heff/h=n. The obvious question is whether this occurs in the recent case or whether n=1 explains the findings.

The data represented by Figs. 12, 13,14 of the artcle suggest n=2 for Z=2. The alternative explanation would be that the step is for some reason Δ V= 2hf/Ze corresponding to second harmonic or that the charge of charge carrier is Z=1. (bosonic ion). I have not been able to find any error in my calculation.

  1. Fig 12 shows I-V curve at room temperature T=300 K. Shapiro step is now 45 mV. This would correspond to frequency f= ZeΔ V/h=11.6 THz. The figure text tells that the frequency is fR=21.762 THz giving fR/f ≈ 1.87. This would suggest heff/h=n ≈ fR/f≈ 2.
  2. Fig. 13 shows another at 300 K. Now Shapiro step is 4.0 mV and corresponds to a frequency 1.24 THz. This would give fR/f≈ 1.95 giving heff/h=2.
  3. Fig. 14 shows I-V curve with single Shapiro step equal to about .12 mV. The frequency should be 2.97 GHz whereas the reported frequency is 5.803 GHz. This gives fR/f≈ 1.95 giving n=2.
Irrespectively of the fate of the claims of Kostadinov and Eck, Josephson effect could allow an elegant manner to demonstrate whether the hierarchy of Planck constants is realized in Nature.

For background see the chapter Quantum Model for Bio-Superconductivity: II.



About high Tc superconductivity and other exotic conductivities

During years I have been developing a model for high Tc superconductivity ). The recent view is already rather detailed but the fact that I am not a condensed matter physicist implies that professional might regard the model as rather lopsided. Quite recently I read several popular articles related to superconductivity and various types of other exotic conductivities: one can say that condensed matter physics has experienced an inflation of poorly understood conductivities. This of course is an fascinating challenge for TGD. In fact, super string theorist Subir Sachdev has taken the same challenge.

In particular, the article about superconductivity provides a rather general sketch about the phase diagram for a typical high Tc super conductor and discusses experimental support for the idea quantum criticality in standard sense and thus defined only at zero temperature could be crucial for the understanding of high Tc super conductivity.

The cuprates doped with holes by adding atoms binding some fraction of conduction electrons are very rich structured. The transition from antiferromagnetic insulator to ordinary metal involves several steps described by a 2-D phase diagram in the plane defined by temperature and doping fraction. Besides high Tc super conducting region the phases include pseudogap region, a region allowing charge oscillations, strange metal region, and metal region.

The attempt to find a unifed TGD based view about these conductivities led to an article I consider the general vision based on magnetic flux tubes carrying the dark heff/h=n variants of electrons as Cooper pairs or as free electrons allowing to understand not only high Tc super-conductivity and various accompanying phases but also exotic variants of conductivity associated with strange and bad metals, charge density waves and spin density waves. One should also understand the anomalous conductivity of SmB6, and the fact that electron currents in graphene behave more like viscous liquid current than ohmic current (see this).

The TGD inspired model for the anomalous conductivity of SmB6 as flux tube conductivity developed during last year forms an essential element of the mode. This model implies that Fermi energy controlled by the doping fraction would serve as a control variable whose value determines whether electrons can be transferred to magnetic flux tubes to form cyclotron orbits at the surface of the tube.

Also the metals (such as graphene) for which current behaves more like a viscous flow rather than Ohmic current can be understood in this framework: the liquid flow character comes from magnetic field which is mathematically like incompressible liquid flow. The electric field at flux tube space-time sheets is parallel to the flux tube and can reverse its direction since flux tubes resemble liquid flow and only the average of the flux tube electric field is is parallel to the applied electric field.

The outcome is a unified view about various conductivities relying on universal concepts and mechanisms.

For background see the chapter Quantum Model for Bio-Superconductivity: I or the article About high Tc superconductivity and other exotic conductivities.



Nematics and superconductors

Waterloo physicists discover new properties of superconductivity is the title of article popurazing the article of David Hawthorn, Canada Research Chair Michel Gingras, doctoral student Andrew Achkar and post-doctoral student Zhihao Hao published in Science.

There is a dose of hype involved. As a matter of fact, it has been known for years that electrons flow along stripes, kind of highways in high Tc superconductors: I know this quite well since I have proposed TGD inspired model explaining this (see this and this )!

The effect is known as nematicity and means that electron orbitals break lattice symmetries and align themselves like a series of rods. Nematicity in long length scales occurs a temperatures below the critical point for super-conductivity. In above mentioned cuprate CuO2 is studied. For non-optimal doping the critical temperature for transition to macroscopic superconductivity is below the maximal critical temperature. Long length scale nematicity is observed in these phases.

In second article it is however reported that nematicity is in fact preserved above critical temperature as a local order -at least up to the upper critical temperature, which is not easy to understand in the BCS theory of superconductivity. One can say that the stripes are short and short-lived so that genuine super-conductivity cannot take place.

These two observations yield further support for TGD inspired model of high Tc superconductivity and bio-superconductivity. It is known that antiferromagnetism is essential for the phase transition to superconductivity but Maxwellian view about electromagnetism and standard quantum theory do not make it easy to understand how. Magnetic flux tube is the first basic new notion provided by TGD. Flux tubes carry dark electrons with scaled up Planck constant heff =n×h: this is second new notion. This implies scaling up of quantal length scales and in this manner makes also super-conductivity possible.

Magnetic flux tubes in antiferromagnetic materials form short loops. At the upper critical point they however reconnect with some probability to form loops with look locally like parallel flux tubes carrying magnetic fields in opposite directions. The probability of reverse phase transition is so large than there is a competion. The members of Cooper pairs are at parallel flux tubes and have opposite spins so that the net spin of pair vanishes: S=0. At the first critical temperature the average length and lifetime of flux tube highways are too short for macroscopic super-conductivity. At lower critical temperature all flux tubes re-connect permantently average length of pathways becomes long enough.

This phase transition is mathematically analogous to percolation in which water seeping through sand layer wets it completely. The competion between the phases between these two temperatures corresponds to quantum criticality in which phase transitions heff/h=n1 ←→n2 take place in both directions (n1 =1 is the most plausible first guess). Earlier I did not fully realize that Zero Energy Ontology provides an elegant description for the situation (see this and this). The reason was that I though that quantum criticality occurs at single critical temperature rather than temperature interval. Nematicity is detected locally below upper critical temperature and in long length scales below lower critical temperature.

During last years it has become clear that condensed matter physicists are discovering with increasing pace the physics predicted by TGD . Same happens in biology. It is a pity that particle physicists have missed the train so badly. They are still trying to cook up something from super string models which have been dead for years. The first reason is essentially sociological: the fight for funding has led to what might be politely called "aggressive competion". Being the best is not enough and there is a temptation to use tricks, which prevent others showing publicly that they have something interesting to say. ArXiv censorship is excellent tool in this respect. Second problem is hopelessly narrow specialization and technicalization: colleague can be defined by telling the algorithms that he is applying. Colleagues do not see physics for particle physics - or even worse, for "physics" or superstrings and branes in 10,11, or 12 dimensions.

See the chapter Quantum Model for Bio-Superconductivity: I.



E8 symmetry, harmony, and genetic code

Bee gave in Facebook a link to an article about a connection between icosahedron and E8 root system (see this). The article (I have seen an article about the same idea earlier but forgotten it!) is very interesting.

The article talks about a connection between icosahedron and E8 root system. Icosahedral group has 120 elements and its double covering 2× 120=240 elements. Remarkably, E8 root system has 240 roots. E8 Lie algebra is 248 complex-dimensional contains also the 8 commuting generators of Cartan algebra besides roots: it is essential that the fundamental representation of E8 co-incides with its adjoint representation. The double covering group of icosahedral group acts as the Weyl group E8. A further crucial point is that the Clifford algebra in dimension D=3 is 8-D.

One starts from the symmetries of 3-D icosahedron and ends up with 4-D root system F4 assignable to Lie group and also to E8 root system. E8 defines a lattice in 8-D Euclidian space: what is intriguing that dimensions 3,4, 8 fundamental in TGD emerge. To me this looks fascinating - the reasons will be explained below.

What I might have understood

I try to explain what I have possibly understood.

  1. The notion of root system is introduced. The negatives of roots are also roots but not other multiples. Root system is crystallographic if it allows a subset of roots (so called simple roots) such that all roots are expressible as combinations of these simple roots with coefficients having the same sign. Crystallographic root systems are special: they correspond to the fundamental weights of some Lie algebra. In this case the roots can be identified essentially as the quantum numbers of fundamental representations from which all other representations are obtained as tensor products. Root systems allow reflections as symmetries taking root system to itself. This symmetry group is known as Coxeter group and generalizes Weyl group. Both H3 and H4 are Coxeter groups but not Weyl groups.
  2. 3-D root systems known as Platonic roots systems (A3, B3, H3) assignable to the symmetries of tetrahedron, octahedron (or cube), and icosahedron (or dodecahedron) are constructed. The root systems consist of 3 suitably chosen unit vectors with square equal to 1 (square of reflection equals to one) and the Clifford algebra elements generated by them by standard Clifford algebra product. The resulting set has a structure of discrete group and is generated by reflections in hyper-planes defined by the roots just as Weyl group does. This group acts also on spinors and one obtains a double covering SU(2) of rotation group SO(3) and its discrete subgroups doubling the number of elements. Platonic symmetries correspond to the Coxeter groups for a "Platonic root system" generated by 3 unit vectors defining the basis of 3-D Clifford algebra. H3 is not associated with any Lie algebra but A3 and B3 are.

    Pinors (spinors) correspond to products of arbitrary/even number of Clifford algebra elements. They mean something else than usually a bein identified as elements of the Clifford algebra acting and being acted on from left or right by multiplication so that they always behave like spin 1/2 objects since only the left(right)-most spin is counted. The automorphisms involve both right and left multiplication reducing to SO(3) action and see the entire spin of the Clifford algebra element.

  3. The 3-D root systems (A3, B3, H3) are shown to allow an extension to 4-D root systems known as (D4, F4, H4) in terms of 3-D spinors. D4 and F4 are root systems of Lie algebras (see this). F4 corresponds to non-simply-laced Lie group related to octonions. H4 is not a root system of any Lie algebra.

  4. The observation that the dimension of Clifford algebra of 3-D space is 23=8 and thus allows imbedding of at most 8-D root system must have inspired the idea that it might be possible to construct the root system of E8 in 8-D Clifford algebra from 240 pinors of the double covering the 120 icosahedral reflections. Platonic solids would be behind all exceptional symmetry groups since E6 and E7 are subgroups of E8 and the construction should give their root systems also as low-dimensional root systems.

Mc Kay correspondence

The article explains also McKay correspondence stating that the finite subgroups of rotation group SU(2) correspond to simply laced affine algebras assignable with ADE Lie groups.

  1. One considers the irreducible representations of a finite subgroup of the rotation group. Let the number of non-trivial representations be m so that by counting also the trivial representation one has m+1 irreps altogether. In the Dynkin diagram of affine algebra of group with m-D Cartan algebra the trivial representation corresponds to the added node. One decomposes the tensor product of given irrep with the spin 2 representation into direct sum of irreps and constructs a diagram in which the node associated with the irrep is connected to those nodes for which corresponding representation appears in the direct sum. One can say that going between the connected nodes corresponds to forming a tensor product with the fundamental representation. It would be interesting to know what happens if one constructs analogous diagrams by considering finite subgroups of arbitrary Lie group and forming tensor products with the fundamental representation.
  2. The surprising outcome is that the resulting diagram corresponds to a Dynkin diagram of affine (Kac-Moody) algebra of ADE group with Cartan algebra, whose dimension is m. Cartan algebra elements correspond to tensor powers of fundamental representation: can one build any physical picture from this? For m= 6,7,8 one obtains E6, E7, E8. The result of the article implies that these 3 Lie-groups correspond to basis of 3 3-D unit identified as units of Clifford algebra: could this identification have some concrete meaning as preferred non-orthogonal 3-basis?
  3. McKay correspondence emerges also for inclusions of hyper-finite factors of type II1. The integer m characterizing the index of inclusion corresponds to the dimensions of Cartan algebra for ADE type Lie group. The inclusions of hyperfinite factors (HFFs) are characterized by integer m≥3 giving the dimension of Cartan algebra of ADE Lie groups (there are also C, F and G type Lie groups). m= 6,7,8 corresponds to exceptional groups E6, E7, E8 on one hand and to the discrete symmetry groups of tetrahedron, octahedron, icosahedron on the other hand acting as symmetries of corresponding 3-D non-crystallographic systems and not allowing interpretation as Weyl group of Lie group.

Connection with the model of harmony

These findings become really exciting from TGD point of view when one recalls that the model for bioharmony ( for 12-note harmonies central in classical music in general relies on icosahedral geometry. Bioharmonies would add something to the information content of the genetic code: DNA codons consisting of 3 letters A,T,C,G would correspond to 3-chords defining given harmony realized as dark photon 3-chords and maybe also in terms of ordinary audible 3-chords. This kind of harmonies would be roughly triplets of 3 basic harmonies and there would be 256 of them (the number depends on counting criteria). The harmonies could serve as correlates for moods and emotional states in very general sense: even biomolecules could have "moods". This new information should be seen in biology. For instance, different alleles of same gene are known to have different phenotypes: could they correspond to different harmonies? In epigenetics the harmonies could serve as a central notion and allow to realize the conjectured epigenetic code and histone code. Magnetic body and dark matter at them would be of course the essential additional element.

The inspiring observations are that icosahedron has 12 vertices - the number of notes in 12-note harmony and 20 faces- the number of amino-acids and that DNA codons consist of three letters - the notes of 3-chord.

  1. Given harmony would be defined by a particular representation of Pythagorean 12-note scale represented as self-non-intersecting path (Hamiltonian cycle) connecting the neighboring vertices of icosahedron and going through all 12 vertices. One assumes that neighboring vertices differ by one quint (frequency scaling by factor 3/2): quint scale indeed gives full octave when one projects to the basic octave. One obtains several realizations (in the sense of not being related by isometry of icosahedron) of 12-note scale. These realizations are characterized by symmetry groups mapping the chords of harmony to chords of the same harmony. These symmetry groups are subgroups of the icosahedral group: Z6, Z4, and two variants of Z2 (generated by rotation of π and by reflection) appear. Each Hamiltonian cycle defines a particular notion of harmony with allowed 3-chords identified by the 20 triangles of icosahedron.

  2. Pythagoras is trying to whisper me an unpleasant message: the quint cycle does not quite close! This is true. Musicologists have been suffering for two millenia of this problem. One must introduce 13th note differing only slightly from some note in the quint cycle. At geometrical level one must introduce tetrahedron besides icosahedron - only four notes and four chords and gluing along one side to icosahedron gives only one note more. One can keep tetrahedron also as disjoint from icosahedron as it turns out: this would give 4-note harmony with 4 chords something much simpler that 12- note harmony.

  3. The really astonishing discovery was that one can understand genetic code in this framework. First one takes three different types of 20-chord harmonies with group Z6, Z4, and Z2 defined by Hamiltonian cycles: this can be done in many different maners (there are 256 of them). One has 20+20+20 chords and one finds that they correspond nicely to 20+20+20=60 DNA codons: DNA codons coding for a given amino-acid correspond to the orbit of the triangle assigned with the amino-acid under the symmetry group of harmony in question.

    The problem is that there are 64 codons, not 60. The introduction of tetrahedron brings however 4 additional codons and gives 64 codons altogether. One can map the resulting 64 chord harmony to icosahedron with 20 triangles (aminoacids) and the degeneracies (number of DNA codons coding for given amino-acid in vertebrate code) come out correctly! Even the two additional troublesome amino-acids Pyl and Sec appearing in Nature and the presence of two variants of genetic code (relating to two kinds of Z2 subgroups) can be understood.

What could the interpretation of the icosahedral symmetry?

An open problem is the proper interpretation of the icosahedral symmetry.

  1. A reasonable looking guess would be that it quite concretely corresponds to a symmetry of some biomolecule: both icosahedral or dodecahedral geometry give rise to icosahedral symmetry. There are a lot of biomolecules with icosahedral symmetry, such as clathrate molecules at the axonal ends and viruses. Note that dodecahedral scale has 20 notes - this might make sense for Eastern harmonies - and 12 chords and there is only single dodecahedral Hamiltonian path found already by Hamilton and thus only single harmony. Duality between East and West might exist if there is mapping of icosahedral notes and to dodecahedral 5-chords and dodecahedral notes to icosahedral 3-chords and different notions of harmony are mapped to different notions of melody - whatever the latter might mean!).
  2. A more abstract approach tries to combine the above described pieces of wisdom together. The dynamical gauge group E8 (or Kac-Moody group) emerging for m=8 inclusion of HFFs is closely related to the inclusions for the fractal hierarchy of isomorphic sub-algebras of super-symplectic subalgebra. heff/h=n could label the sub-algebras: the conformal weights of sub-algebra are be n-multiples of those of the entire algebra.

    The integers ni resp. nf for included resp. including super conformal sub-algebra would be naturally related by nf= m× ni. m=8 would correspond to icosahedral inclusion and E8 would be the dynamical gauge group characterizing dark gauge degrees of freedom. The inclusion hierarchy would allow to realize all ADE groups as dynamical gauge groups or more plausibly, as Kac-Moody type symmetry groups associated with dark matter and characterizing the degrees of freedom allowed by finite measurement resolution.

  3. E8 as dynamical gauge group or Kac-Moody group would result from the super-symplectic group by dividing it with its subgroup representing degrees of freedom below measurement resolution. E8 could be the symmetry group of dark living matter. Bioharmonies as products of three fundamental harmonies could relate directly to the hierarchies of Planck constants and various generalized super-conformal symmetries of TGD! This convergence of totally different theory threads would be really nice!
Experimental indications for dynamical E8 symmetry

Lubos (thanks to Ulla for the link to the posting of Lubos) has written posting about experimental finding of E8 symmetry emerging near the quantum critical point of Ising chain at quantum criticality at zero temperature. Here is the abstract :

Quantum phase transitions take place between distinct phases of matter at zero temperature. Near the transition point, exotic quantum symmetries can emerge that govern the excitation spectrum of the system. A symmetry described by the E8 Lie group with a spectrum of eight particles was long predicted to appear near the critical point of an Ising chain. We realize this system experimentally by using strong transverse magnetic fields to tune the quasi–one-dimensional Ising ferromagnet CoNb2O6 (cobalt niobate) through its critical point. Spin excitations are observed to change character from pairs of kinks in the ordered phase to spin-flips in the paramagnetic phase. Just below the critical field, the spin dynamics shows a fine structure with two sharp modes at low energies, in a ratio that approaches the golden mean predicted for the first two meson particles of the E8 spectrum. Our results demonstrate the power of symmetry to describe complex quantum behaviors.

Phase transition leads from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase and spin excitations as pairs of kinks are replaced with spin flips (shortest possible pair of kinks and loss of the ferromagnetic order). In attempts to interpret the situation in TGD context, one must however remember that dynamical E8 is also predicted by standard physics so that one must be cautious in order to not draw too optimistic conclusions.

In TGD framework heff/h> 1 phases or phase transitions between them are associated with quantum criticality and it is encouraging that the system discussed is quantum critical and 1-dimensional.

  1. The large value of heff would be associated with dark magnetic body assignable to the magnetic fields accompanying the E8 "mesons". Zero temperature is not a prerequisite of quantum criticality in TGD framework.
  2. One should clarify what quantum criticality exactly means in TGD framework. In positive energy ontology the notion of state becomes fuzzy at criticality. For instance, it is difficult to assign the above described "mesons" with either ferromagnetic or paramagnetic phase since they are most naturally associated with the phase change. Hence Zero Energy Ontology (ZEO) might show its power in the description of (quantum) critical phase transitions.

    Quantum criticality could correspond to zero energy states for which the value of heff differs at the opposite boundaries of causal diamond (CD). Space-time surface between boundaries of CD would describe the transition classically. If so, then E8 "mesons" would be genuinely 4-D objects - "transitons" - allowing proper description only in ZEO. This could apply quite generally to the excitations associated with quantum criticality. Living matter is key example of quantum criticality and here "transitons" could be seen as building bricks of behavioral patterns. Maybe it makes sense to speak even about Bose-Einstein condensates of "transitons".

    The finding suggests that quantum criticality is associated with the transition increasing neff by factor m=8 or its reversal - maybe the standard value neff(i) =1. neff(f) =8 could correspond to the ferromagnetic phase having long range correlations. Could one could say that at the side of criticality (say the "lower" end of CD) the neff(f)=8 excitations are pure gauge excitations and thus "below measurement resolution" but become real at the other side of criticality (the "upper" end of CD)?

  3. The 8 "mesons" associated with spin excitations naturally correspond to the generators of the Cartan algebra of E8. If the "mesons" belong to the fundamental (= adjoint) representation of E8, one would expect 120+120 additional particles with non-vanishing E8 charges. Why only Cartan algebra? Is the reasons that Cartan algebra is in preferred role in the representations of Kac-Moody algebras in that charged Kac-Moody generators can be constructed from Cartan algebra generators by standard construction used also in string models. Could this explain why one expects only 8 "mesons". Are charged "mesons" labelled by the elements of double covering of icosahedral group more difficult to excite?
See the article E8 symmetry, harmony, and genetic code or the chapter Quantum model for hearing.



Lithium and brain

My friend Samppa told about positive effects of lithium on brain. I have proposed years ago that these effects could be explained by cyclotron frequency hypothesis and I decided to search for web about the recent situation. Lithium has been used for more than 50 years as a mood stabilizer in manic depression. During last years Lithium has been studied intensively and found that it can be used also in treatment of schizophrenia and many other brain disorders. The popular and somewhat hypeish article Lithium promotes longevity-mood and love tells about various applications of lithium. Even statistical evidence that lithium reduces violent crime is represented.

  1. Lithium is found to increase the volume of grey matter (see Lithium-induced increase in human brain grey matter) and it is accumulated in white matter (axons) (see Lithium in brain). Lithium also enhances axonal growth and myelinination.
  2. The higher concentration of lithium in drinking water is found to reduce mortality and suicide rate. It has been also found that higher lithium concentration increases the life span of bacteria.
  3. Lithium might also help in Altzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. Lithium is found to inhibit neuro-atoptosis (death of neurons). Lithium's neuroprotection may result from its inhibition of protein GSK3, which in turn prevents neuroatoptosis regulating survival and differentiation.
  4. Lithium is found to increase neurogenesis helping the healing of brain injuries (see Inactivation of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Promotes Axonal Growth and Recovery in the CNS). Lithium has also positive effect on memory. Lithium affects various signalling proteins and pathways. Indeed, lithium has been claimed to serve as "brain food".
  5. Disruption in the blood-brain barrier is proposed to be a missing link between brain and body flammation in bipolar disorder. According to the abstract of the article:

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) regulates the transport of micro- and macromolecules between the peripheral blood and the central nervous system (CNS) in order to maintain optimal levels of essential nutrients and neurotransmitters in the brain. In addition, the BBB plays a critical role protecting the CNS against neurotoxins. There has been growing evidence that BBB disruption is associated with brain inflammatory conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis. Considering the increasing role of inflammation and oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD), here we propose a novel model wherein transient or persistent disruption of BBB integrity is associated with decreased CNS protection and increased permeability of proinflammatory (e.g., cytokines, reactive oxygen species) substances from the peripheral blood into the brain. These events would trigger the activation of microglial cells and promote localized damage to oligodendrocytes and the myelin sheath, ultimately compromising myelination and the integrity of neural circuits. The potential implications for research in this area and directions for future studies are discussed.

The mechanism of lithium-brain interaction is still unkown: mechanisms like altered mitochondrial function, inflammation, dysregulated dopaminegic/glutamatergic systems have been proposed. It is said that lithium helps to cure multisystem disorder rather than disease (reader can try to figure out what this might mean!). In any case, the effect of lithium seems to be on gene expression and it would seem that lithium only makes possible natural healing mechanisms to operate rather than providing single healing mechanism.

In TGD framework organism-environment pair of standard biology is replaced with the triplet magnetic body - organism -environment. Magnetic body uses biological body as sensory receptor and motor instrument. This suggests that the re-establishment of communications of brain with some level of the magnetic body is how lithium causes its positive effects. The disorders caused by the lack Lithium and other biologically important ions would be something totally new from the perspective of standard neuroscience. The standard idea that some kind of neuronal receptors or some information molecules are underpresented or over-represented would not be enough. Magnetic body would take care of healing in much more effective manner than more or less random tinkering of bio-molecular concentrations.

  1. The basic hypothesis is that communications between biological body and magnetic body correspond to sending sensory input from the cell membrane to magnetic body as generalized Josephson radiation and receiving control command from magnetic body controlling gene expression as cyclotron radiation (see this, this this and this) .

    The control commands from magnetic body would rely on signals having carrier waves with cyclotron frequencies associated with dark variants of biologically important ions and assignable to dark magnetic bodies forming an onionlike scale hierarchy with sizes of order cyclotron frequency in endogenous magnetic field B= 2BE/5, where BE =.5 Gauss is the nominal value of the Earth's magnetic field. The size scale assignable to 10 Hz frequency would be of order Earth size.

    The sensory communications to magnetic body from cell membrane based on generalized Josephson frequencies associated with cell membrane regarded as generalized Josephson junction. The frequencies of radiated dark photons would be differences of cyclotron frequencies at the two sides of the junction plus relatively small contribution corresponding to the ordinary Josephson frequency determined by the membrane potential. Nerve pulse activity would thus induce frequency modulations of the carrier wave: kind of whale's song (or human speech) would be in question. Also amplitude modulation and even modulation of the polarization of radiation can be considered.

    The value of Planck constant is large and EEG frequencies correspond to energies in the energy range of biophotons assumed to result in the transformation of dark photons to ordinary ones visible and UV photons. These energies correspond to excitation energies of biomolecules so that magnetic body could induce chemical reactions.

    The gravitational Planck constant hgr= GMm/v0 (here M and m denote masses connected by magnetic flux tubes carrying dark gravitons and v0/c <1 defines a velocity parameter - some natural velocity in the system) introduced originally by Nottale Nottale is identified with the effective Planck constant heff=n× h emerging in TGD framework from the fracal hierarchy of isomorphic sub-algebras of super-conformal algebras of various kinds (generalizations of ordinary conformal algebras) serving as symmetries of quantum TGD.

    If M corresponds to large central mass and m to a mass of charged particle (elementary particle, ion, molecular ion,..), one obtains that cyclotron energies proportional to heff/m do not depend on mass number at all so that cyclotron energy spectrum is universal (and corresponds to that of bio-photons in visible and UV where also molecular transition energies are). The additional prediction is that each charged dark particle is at its "personal" dark magnetic flux tube. Instead of being a random chemical soup, dark living matter is highly organized, somewhat like library containing each book at its own self! It is difficult to exaggerate the importances of this implication.

  2. The most important biologically important ions include H+, Li+, Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca++, Mg++. If some of these ions are absent, the communications to the corresponding layer of the magnetic are not possible and this part of magnetic body cannot control the corresponding parts of brain. The generation of these ions could be based on charge separation causing also the formation of exclusion zones (EZs) of Pollack as protons are transformed to dark protons at dark flux tubes outside EZ.

    It is known that lithium ions accompanying lithium carbonate Li2CO3 dose intefere with ion transport processes (sodium pump) pumping Na+ ions from cell interior (see this). This suggests that also Li ions give rise to dark generalized Josephson currents through the cell membrane.

  3. Electron corresponds to 6× 105 Hz, proton to 300 Hz, and lithium cyclotron frequency is 50 Hz and could be assigned to the limbic brain. Mg++ corresponds to 26 Hz, Ca++ to 15 Hz, Na+ to 13 Hz, Cl- to 8.5 Hz, K+ to 7.5 Hz, etc... Iron and Cobolt would have cyclotron frequencies near 10 Hz of alpha band.

    Also higher harmonics of cyclotron frequencies are present and I have proposed that the magnetic field strength has spectrum, which corresponds apart from scaling to the frequency spectrum of biophotons, so that this picture is oversimplified. For instance, in retina 80 Hz frequency appears and would require stronger magnetic field unless it corresponds to higher harmonic.

  4. Magnetic fields oscillating at 50 Hz frequency are known to have biological effects (see this). The size of the corresponding magnetic body part would be obtained from the wavelength λ= 2πR (R denotes the radius of Earth) of the lowest Schumann frequency 7.8 Hz as (7.8/50)×R=.98×R. This suggests that dark magnetic flux tubes assignable with Earth are involved: not however that the field strength is 2/5 of BE.

    The naive guess is that EEG amplitude at 50 Hz is enchanced. It is found that the increase of lithium carbonate level for patients increases EEG delta and theta intensities and slow down alpha frequency (see this ): unfortunately there is no mention about 50 Hz. The simplest interpretation is that improved communications at 50 Hz induce healing and indirectly improve communications also at lower frequencies. The slow down of alpha frequency remains to be understood. The precise values of cyclotron frequencies are controlled by magnetic body by varying flux tube thickness (flux quantization and conservation implies correlation of field strength with the thickness of the flux tube). Typical variation is about 10 per cent.

  5. A naive dimensional guess is that the size scale of the part of the magnetic body corresponding to particular part of brain is proportional to its size. The naive scaling argument would suggests that lithium scale is few centimeters. One must of course take this kind of estimates with extreme caution. The most primitive parts of CNS such as spinal chord and brain stem would correspond to highest frequencies in EEG and also above it, and the most advanced parts such as cortex or its sub-structures to the lowest frequencies such as at 10 Hz alpha frequency: lower frequencies would not correlate directly with our conscious experience but could correspond to large structures giving rise to collective levels of consciousness.
To sum up, lithium would help by re-establishing the connection to the lithium part of the magnetic body so that it could fix the part of brain involved. This would take place by control commands controlling gene expression.

For background see the chapter Magnetic sensory canvas hypothesis.



Magnetic body, bio-harmonies and epigenetics

What TGD can possibly give to biology is the vision about magnetic body as an intentional agent using biological body as a sensory receptor and motor instrument and about various mechanism used by magnetic body for control and communication purposes. A new element is brought in by Zero Energy Ontology: magnetic body is 4-dimensional and thus correlate for a behavioral pattern rather than 3-D state for part of organism. Also the notion of bio-harmony suggests itself as a correlate for quantum coherence at the level of basic bio-molecules. The discussion below raises and tries to answer general questions.

The finding that behavioral patterns of planaria can be remembered also by the piece of split planaria without brains is consistent with the idea that replication of magnetic body coding for behaviors is behind biochemical replication. That alleles of the same gene have different expression could be understood if the bio-harmony assignable to gene carries additional information besides the biochemical information.

These notions might also provide a fresh approach to epigenetics. Histone modification and DNA methylation are believed to induce kind of geometric locking preventing transcription. They could also affect the frequency assignable to DNA codon or some key unit so that the resonance condition making possible reconnection of U-shaped flux tubes allowing biomolecules to get in contact fails and transcription cannot proceed. Epigenetic inheritance could reduce to the inheritance of bio-harmony: the magnetic bodies of cells of offspring get in tune with those of parent. To how high degree magnetic body and bio-harmony are inherited? This becomes the key question.

1. Basic ideas related to magnetic body

Consider first some key ideas of TGD inspired quantum biology.

  1. In TGD framework magnetic body extends the pair formed by organism and environment to a kind of holy trinity. Magnetic flux tubes and the realization of genetic code in terms of dark proton sequences has been the key hypothesis. The model for cold fusion suggests that also more general dark nuclei must be allowed. Dark neutron sequences could correspond to genes separated by dark protons. Dark weak interactions with large value of heff effectively massless below neuron size scale would play central role and induce large parity breaking effects (chiral selection).

    The chemistry of DNA and tRNA would not be all that matters. DNA-nuclear/cell membrane as topological quantum computer with braided magnetic flux tubes would explain why organisms with virtually identical genomes are so different (we and our ancestors for instance). The hierarchy of magnetic bodies would be responsible for the development of intelligence and for cultural evolution. Flux tubes connecting DNA and mRNA as well as mRNA and tRNA molecules are present but it is difficult to say anything concrete.

  2. During the process of making sense of the abstract of the article, I learned that ontogeny can be seen as a kind of editing process for the text defined by the DNA. Control of control of... is involved so that situation is very complex. Who performs the editing? Does DNA edit itself and is the editing process defining evolution of genome coded by genome? Or is the editing performed by Darwinian selection at cell level? Or is the magnetic body the editor using genome also as its tool as TGD would suggest? What is important that in TGD framework self-organization in 4-D sense implied by Zero Energy Ontology replaces ordinary self-organization leading to asymptotic spatial patterns and select spatiotemporal patterns as asymptotic behavioral patterns defining various biological functions. The role of magnetic body is central in this process.
  3. Magnetic body contains cyclotron Bose-Einstein condensates and cyclotron frequencies determined by the strength of magnetic field would give for DNA and other biomolecules additional characteristics. In TGD based model for musical harmony DNA codons would correspond quite concretely to 3-chords but played using dark photons (also ordinary music represented as sounds could be transformed to dark photon music). If one accepts the icosahedral model of bio-harmonies predicting genetic code correctly, there would be 256 fundamental harmonies characterised by the allowed collection of 3-chords and they would add to the information carried by DNA molecules. I have constructed a program building random sequences of the allowed chords using the additional harmonic rule that two subsequent chords contain at least one common note and this music sounds rather harmonic (albeit boring in absence of any other elements!)
  4. Could one distinguish between different states/phases of DNAs, mRNAs, tRNAs, and amino acids in terms of harmony? Could their functioning depend on the harmony? With the inspiration coming from the connection of emotions and musical harmonies I have proposed that the harmony associated with a gene or organ could correlate with something analogous to an emotional state or mood - maybe micro-mood or microemotion could be the proper notion. Could amino-acids be happy, hilarious, melancholic, sad, depressed? Could one distinguish between different phases of DNA, RNA, tRNA, aminoacid collections characterized by the harmony in turn characterizing the of a cell, organelle, organ, or even organism? tRNA defines the map of the harmony associated with DNA codons to amino-acid harmony. Is the information about DNA codon and about corresponding 3-chord represented at the level of magnetic body of amino-acid- that is as the 3-chord, which it represents, and realized as the rules telling with which tRNAs amino-acid can reconnect?

    In contrast to DNA codons, which represent local information, harmony could represent holistic information and characterize entire genes or their intronic portions.

2. Problem

There is however a problem. DNA codons coding for the same amino-acid correspond to different 3-chords of harmony. One of these chords corresponds to amino-acid itself and the codons coding for amino-acid correspond to the orbit of this chord under subgroup of isometries of icosahedron moving the triangles of icosahedron along the orbit. This would apply also to mRNA and maybe also to tRNA. The chords at the orbit of amino-aicid are isomorphic (intervals are same) and obtained as transposes of each other.

The chords are isomorphic but not identical and this leads to the problem with resonance paradigm unless one gives up the idea that amino-acid corresponds to a unique DNA codon and assumes that there is analog of gauge invariance allowing to choose the preferred codon freely.

  1. The assumption about preferred DNA codon could be given up if one can choose the preferred DNA codon freely so that also the magnetic bodies of amino-acids are characterized by 3-chords and thus carry information about what DNA codon coded them. This is possible if one has the analog of fiber space structure with DNA codons coding for amino-acid defining the fiber and amino-acids defining the base. This fiber structure with discrete gauge invariance is strongly suggestive and I have proposed it for two decades ago but it seems that it poses strong conditions on the orbits of the subgroups of isometries of icosahedron.

    This condition is very restrictive. Simplifying somewhat: one considers 60 codons decomposing into 20+20+20 codings and each group of 20 codons codes for amino-acids belonging to different groups. There are twenty of them. The 20 triangles of icosahedron correspond to 3 DNA codons each and each of them corresponds to one and only one amino-acid. One has 3 subgroups of isometries corresponding to 20+20+20 decomposition.

    Can one perform a global gauge transformations realized as isometries and moving triangles along the orbits of one of the 3 subgroups involved - say isometry g1 of G1? These transformations would move the entire orbits of 2 subgroups involved - call them G2 and G3. What happens to the chords of G2 and G3: is their character changed completely so that these harmonies would be destroyed? It seems that this cannot work. Should one replace G2 and G3 with their automorphs g1G2g1-1 and g1G3g1-1. Does this make sense? 3-chords defining give orbit should be invariant under automorphisms of Gi? This does not seem to be a realistic condition.

  2. Could different automorphs correspond to different collections of chords physically just as global gauge transformations generate different physical situations? Isometries of groups Gi would therefore define physically different realizations of bio-harmonies such that for each of them only one of the DNA codons coding for given amino-acid could actually perform the coding. Ordinary genetic code with many-to-one correspondence would make sense in statistical sense only. If this is true, the cyclotron frequency 3-chord assignable to amino-acid depends on the DNA coding it and implies physical distinctions.
  3. One can consider also a third alternative. DNA codon with same 3-chord as coding for amino-acid is in special role in that only it can resonate with the amino-acid! Could DNA codons codons correspond to same cyclotron frequency triplet (magnetic fields) but different value of heff so that one would have chord with respect to energy rather than frequency. Different values of heff for DNA codons coding for the same amino-acid would scale their cyclotron frequencies to the same amino-acid frequency while keeping cyclotron energies invariant? Cyclotron energy ratios for codons correspond to rational valued ratios Ei/Ej = heff(i)/heff(j)= n(i)/n(j). Amino-acid would correspond to fixed heff and this creates a problem: can DNA codon code for amino-acid with different value of heff. This option does not look attractive.
Second option looks most plausible. Of course, it is early to talk about a prediction: it might well be that I have mis-understood something.

3. Questions about bio-harmony

One can pose a lot of questions about bio-harmony.

  1. It is not necessary to assign any interpretation on the harmony. Just the harmony could be enough if it is forced to be same for DNA, corresponding mRNA, tRNA, and aminoacids. One can however make questions. Is the harmony inherited invariant and could it distinguish between different personality types about which we learned in old books of psychology? Or could the harmonies correlate with our own moods?
  2. Could differentiation selecting particular genes as expressed genes apply also to harmonies so that given gene would correspond only to a particular harmony and different copies of gene could correspond to different harmonies. Could this selection rely on the same mechanisms as ordinary differentiation realized in terms of epigenetic mechanisms and DNA editing? From the magnetic bodies of genes the harmony would be automatically transferred to the magnetic bodies of mRNA, tRNA and aminoacids since otherwise the transcription and translation do not work since magnetic bodies do not have common resonance frequencies and reconnection and resonant interaction is not possible.
  3. Does given harmony characterize given gene or the entire cell? All basic biomolecules associated with a gene would naturally correspond to the same harmony. If the rRNAs associated with ribosomes are in harmony mutually cellular harmony seems to be the only option. If ribosomes have their own harmonies, only certain ribosomes can translate given gene. This would bring in additional control tool. The most plausible picture is that the situation depends on what happens in the self-organization process. Some organs/organisms are more harmonious, others not so harmonious. Harmony need not be given fixed to remain the same: magnetic body can have motor actions changing the cyclotron frequencies. Moods could reflect the character of harmony at gene level.
  4. Does magnetic body control the differentiation by posing restrictions on gene expression or vice versa? The idea about magnetic body as intentional agent suggests that the first option is correct. There would be hierarchy of magnetic bodies with magnetic bodies at the higher level controlling bodies at the lower level. The value of Planck constant would label the hierarchy levels and also DNA codons would be characterized by "intelligence quotient" defined by heff/h. This would be nothing but the analog for the hierarchy of program modules and I have earlier considered the realization of this hierarchy.
  5. The selection of harmony could take place and be analogous to cell differentiation. This would be a self-organization process in which magnetic bodies of genes, cells, etc.. tune themselves to resonance with each other by modifying their magnetic fields by controlling their thickness (for monopoles flux the flux is invariant). Something analogous to the development of social skills. This could pose resonance as a constraint on processes like replication, transcription, reverse transcription, silencing, enhancing, editing, etc.... It might induce the differentiation at gene level.

    Editing processes for genome could be seen as being induced by the motor actions of the magnetic body involving reconnection and change of the value of heff changing the length of the flux tube and bringing biomolecules near to each other or separating them. This selection would also apply to the intronic part of DNA proposed to be responsible for topological quantum computation like processes. The copies of same fragment appearing in intronic portion and copies of genes could correspond to different harmonies.

It would be nice to identify some biological phenomenon difficult to understand in standard framework but having an elegant explanation in terms of magnetic body.
  1. The notion of harmony could manifest itself at the level of genes as different expressions for the copies of same gene if they correspond to different notions of harmony. The copies of gene are known as alleles. The alleles can indeed give rise to different phenotypic traits such as different pigmentation.
  2. Morphogenesis provides examples of this kind of phenomena (see this). The key idea is that DNA and cell replication is induced by the replication of magnetic bodies serving as information carriers. For instance, memory as behavioral patterns can be inherited by the piece of planaria worm not containing the brain. The explanation could be that the magnetic body carries behavioral patterns replicated in the splitting of the worm.
  3. Epigenetics studies changes of gene expression not caused by the change of DNA itself. Epigenome is the highly dynamic part of DNA controlling expression of the rather stable part of genome. One might regard stable part of genome as hardware and epigenome as topological quantum computer programs assignable to magnetic body and modifying gene expression epigenetically. Comment sign in computer code serves as a computer scientific metaphor for epigenetic control by repression.
The modelling of epigenesis in terms of magnetic body and bio-harmonies deserves a separate discussion.
  1. The modification of transcription rate is the basic tool of epigenetic regulation. There are two basic mechanisms involved. Histone modification affects the histones of chromatin so that the transcription is repressed or activated. Histone modification takes place by several mechanisms. DNA methylation occurs for CpG pair and if it occurs for a promoter region it represses the transcription and serves as a kind of gene lock. The degree of methylation serves as a measure for the effectiveness of repression. I do not know whether the locking is absolute at the level of single gene or whether only the transcription rate is reduced. Two mechanisms are mentioned in the Wikipedia article. Methylation can impede geometrically some step in the transcription. Methylated site can be also accompanied by proteins affecting histones in chromatin and in this manner impede transcription.

  2. The notions of magnetic body and bio-harmony suggest an alternative - one might even hope fundamental - mechanism of repression. Methylation (histone modification) could affect some cyclotron frequency associated with DNA codon (histone). In the optimal situation for transcription the DNA and protein catalyzing the transcription or mRNA are in resonance. When cyclotron resonance condition is not exactly satisfied, the reconnection rate for the U-shaped flux tubes associated with the molecules involved in the process is reduced and also transcription is repressed.

    I have considered also the radical possibility that the dynamics at the level of magnetic body is fundamental for biology and that magnetic body defines templates for the bio-molecular self-organization making dark matter dynamics visible. This is probably too extremist view and it would seem that biochemistry affects the cyclotron frequencies assignable to the magnetic body by affecting the strengths of magnetic fields also at dark magnetic flux tubes.

  3. The notions of epigenetic code and histone code have been proposed. Epigenetic code would consist of histone modifications and additional modifications such as DNA methylation. The codeword of the epigenetic code could code for some larger unit than protein: say gene or entire cell. The hypothesis is that the chromatin-DNA interactions are induced by histone tail modifications (such as methylation, acetylation, ADP-ribosylation, ubiquitination, citrullination, and phosphorylation). There are 4 histones and the position of modification varies as well as the modifier (the above modifications are not the only ones) so so that the number of modifications is very large.

    The addition of bioharmonies to the genetic information could simplify the situation dramatically since the modifications could be seen as defining of of the 256 bio-harmonies with 64 chords each (this for fixed scale which varies if the value of magnetic field strength is varied: biophoton spectrum in visible is proposed to represent the range of values of magnetic field). The most plausible starting hypothesis is that given harmony characterizes the gene. Much simpler option would be that the harmony characterizes entire cell or even group of cells.

    If the modification by kicking cyclotron frequency out of harmony is enough to repress transcription, almost endless number of bio-chemical manners to achieve would exist but the epigenetic code could be very simple at the basic level as TGD would predict. Each bio-harmony would provide a representation of genetic code in terms of 3-chords predicting correctly the DNA-amino-acid correspondence (there are actually two slightly differing codes explaining the presence of 21st and 22nd amino-acid and deviations from the standard code). The states of dark protons (or neutrons) are also proposed to realize genetic code: it is an open question whether these codes imply each other as they should.

  4. The understanding of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance raises difficult challenges. One should understand how histone modification and DNA methylation could be transferred in cellular division or inherited by the offspring. Transgenerational interaction of the genomes seems necessary. In TGD framework the interaction of magnetic bodies of via resonance mechanism could transfer the epigenetic programs to the offspring. Offspring could "learn" the epigenetic programs of the mother by tuning.
  5. Gregory Carey gives nice real life examples about the complexities of epigenesis identified quite generally as gene regulation (see this). He compares the gene regulation involved with the handling of a stressful situation to "nightmarish Rube Goldberg mousetrap" and sees the process as extremely ineffective from engineering point of view. For instance, the hormones secreted to blood circulation are distributed to the entire body. The whole thing could be carried out in brain! He also wonders why evolution is so inefficient. All cells have same genome although most of the genes are silenced. Second strand of DNA is totally un-used and most of DNA consists of introns. His explanation is that evolution does not make long term plans but finds just a solution to a particular without thinking it from a wider perspective: "If it ain't broke, don't fix it".

    I tend to see this differently. If entire body is coherent quantum entity, engineering based thinking does not make sense. Entire body and also magnetic body must be informed from the stress situation since the reaction is holistic. The genes which are not used for gene expression might be used for other purposes. Topological quantum computation could be this purpose in TGD framework and repressed genes could be thus used for quantum information processing. Information processing could be actually the dominating function of the DNA of higher vertebrates.

To sum up, magnetic body could be seen as the "boss" controlling the gene expression and also the evolution of genome in longer scales. Magnetic body would use bio-molecular mechanisms for its purposes. This would bring in a new kind of inheritance: bio-harmony would be inherited. The most spectacular almost-prediction would be that genetic code is many-to-one only in statistical sense.

For details see the chapter Quantum model for hearing or the article Magnetic body, bio-harmonies, morphogenesis, and epigenetics



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