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TGD BASED VIEW ABOUT LIVING MATTER AND REMOTE MENTAL INTERACTIONS

Note: Newest contributions are at the top!



Year 2013



Meditation, Mind-Body Medicine and Placebo: TGD point of view

I have prepared a new chapter representing TGD inspired answers to Lian Sidorov's questions concerning meditation, mind-body medicine and placebo in quantum biology framework. To help the reader, some aspects of TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology are summarized since several new insights inspired by the notions of magnetic body and dark matter have emerged lately. This includes improved views about quantum metabolism and prebiotic life: the basic input comes from the claimed free energy phenomena interpreted in TGD framework. Water structures representing simplified analogs of basic biomolecules suggested by water splitting producing so called Brown's gas might be highly relevant also for the ordinary metabolism. The main new input concerning remote mental interactions comes from a possible answer to the question whether TGD based ontology of physics could allow the "shamanistic" view that the experiences (say encounters with strange life forms assigned with distant civilizations) induced by various psychedelics used in the spiritual practices of indigenous people could be genuine remote sensory perceptions rather than hallucinations. Affirmative answer would mean a direct and testable connection between neuropharmacology and remote sensory perception with serotonin defining the crucial neurotransmitter and pineal gland ("third eye") serving as a candidate for the brain area of special importance in this respect.

Concerning the questions about meditation, mind-body medicine and placebo, the key concept is that of magnetic body. Usually organism and environment are seen as members of an interacting pair: organism receives sensory data from environment and controls it. Now magnetic body appears as a third party, "intentional agent" using biological body as a kind of interface between magnetic body and environment. Various "motor actions" of the magnetic body are highly relevant for both consciousness and biochemistry. The pairs formed by various information molecules and corresponding receptors could define plug-ins to the Indra's net (or Internet) defined by the magnetic bodies and Josephson radiation emitted by Josephson currents assignable to receptors would propagate along flux tubes. Meditation can be seen as "bodily exercise" of the magnetic body and a method to improve the communications between magnetic body and biological body. In healing magnetic body would be the active participant and healing would be also the healing of magnetic body. The placebo effect could be seen as an outcome of intentions of magnetic body affecting biological body.

For details see the new chapter Meditation, Mind-Body Medicine and Placebo: TGD point of view.



Psychedelics induced experiences and magnetic body

There is a book about psychedelic induced experiences titled as "Inner paths to outer space" as "Inner paths to outer space" written by Rick Strassman, Slawek Wojtowicz, Luis Eduardo Luna and Ede Frecska. It took some time to realize that I have actually have met the Luna and Frecska.

Some background about psychedelics

Phychoactive drugs can be classified into three basic types. Some raise the activity level, some calm down, and some change the character of consciousness profoundly. Hallucinogens/psychedelics belong to the third group. Psychedelics (such as psilobin, psicylobin, DMT, LSD) are molecules containing aromatic rings and many of them (such as psilobin, psicylobin, DMT, LSD) attach to serotonin receptors.

As the official term "hallucinogens" implies, psychedelic induced experiences are regarded as hallucinations in the materialistic world view although the denial of the reality of subjective experiences themselves requires a really hard-nosed skeptic. The title of the book reveals that the question posed in the book is whether these experiences could be about real world, kind of sensory input from distant parts of the Universe. The indigenous people using ayahuasca and similar psychedelics have regarded these experiences involving meeting of representatives of other civilisations as perceptions about real worlds. Also Terence and Dennis McKenna, who are pioneers of systematic study of the effects of various pscychdelics, shared this view. In the materialistic ontology of standard physics this kind of interpretation is of course excluded. That hallucinations are in question is "obvious", too obvious actually!

The classical psychelics LSD, psilocybin, DMT, and mescaline are derivatives of two basic chemical groups: tryptamine and phenetylamine which in turn derive from the aminoacids trp and and phe. DMT is endogenous psychedelic and there is pumping of DMT blood-brain barrier so that DMT must have important function in brain. The action of classical psychedelics is on serotonin receptors and affects the serotonin intake so that the effect is stronger. The amount of serotonin in brain is not large but manifest in all functions. According to the book, the situation might be different for pineal gland which is the only nucleus of brain which does not appear as left-right pair. Descartes recarded it as the seat of soul. Pineal gland is also known as "third eye" and in lower species it indeed serves the function of eye. Taking the title of the book seriously, one can ask whether this eye is able to see but to cosmic distances possibly using large heff photons.

Could instantaneous communications in cosmic scales be possible in TGD Universe?

In TGD inspired ontology the notion of magnetic body with astrophysical, galactic or even super-galactic size changes the situation completely. The basic communication tool would be touch of magnetic bodies generating reconnections and making possible signalling from the biological body member of distant civilization. The perception of the biological body of alien would differ in no manner from that of my neighbour since the mechanisms would be the same as involved with the transfer of sensory data to my personal magnetic body and control commands from there to biological body (at least through genome).

The basic objection against the possibility suggested by the title of the book is that finite light velocity poses absolute upper bound for the distance of objects with it is possible to be in contact during "trip". One must be howeververy cautious here: the assumption that signals propagate only to singlet direction of time is essential also and derives from classical thermodynamics. In TGD framework second law continues to hold true but the arrow of geometric time for zero energy states changes in each state function reduction occurring to the either boundary of CD. Hence intantaneous communications ("remote seeing"!)using reflection in time direction become possible even over cosmological distances and define among other things the mechanism of memory in TGD Universe.

I have proposed earlier that UFO experiences could be induced with the mediation of primitive plasmoid like lifeforms taking the role of mediums making possible flux tube connections and entanglement with representatives of distant civilisations. Time consuming and expensive space travel would become un-necessary: our magnetic body giving us cosmic size together with zero energy ontology making possible instantaneous "seeing" of both future and past by reflection of photons in time direction would be enouh. This view would also resolve Fermi paradox. We would be actually in a continual contact with the distant civilisations but without realizing it. Similar contacts could take place in psychedelic induced experiences. Memories and future plans would be examples of "seeing" in time direction. The continual re-creation of the Universe by quantum jumps would of course mean that the actual future/past need not be same as those which are "seen". Shamans identify various plants as conscious entities teaching them - in TGD framework this would translate to magnetic bodies of representatives of distant civilisations remotely teaching the representatives of more primitive civilisations.

If the claims of shamans and true, one must ask whether our brain has well develpod tools available for building contacts with distant civilisations and what these tools might be. The receptors of neural transmitters are obviously the natural candidates for the pathways to cosmos. One can argue that evolutionary pressures have forced living matter to develop highly standardized connections to various parts biological body, of the personal magnetic body and possibly also other magnetic bodies. Personal magnetic body has astrophysical size and EEG frequencies would correspond to communications in Earth size scale.

Neurotransmitter receptor complex as plug-ins to cosmic internet and new perspective on remote seeing

If the claims of shamans and true then one must ask whether our brain has well developed tools available for building contacts with distant civilisations and what these tools might be. The receptors of neural transmitters are obviously the natural candidates for the pathways to cosmos. One can argue that evolutionary pressures have forced living matter to develop highly standardized connections to various parts of the personal magnetic body and possibly also other magnetic bodies. Receptors serving as Josephson junctions emitting Josephson radiation with frequency characterised by heff are natural candidates for plug-ins.

The model for cell membrane as Josephson junction leads at the microscopic level to the view that the proteins associated with various ion pumps, channels, and receptors (of also neurotransmitters in postsynaptic junction) define Josephson junctions to which magnetic flux tubes are associated and characterized by local value of Josephson frequency, that is membrane potential and Planck constant heff. As the information molecule is attached to a receptor, a connection to some part of some magnetic body would be generated and split as the molecule is not present. These connections are possible in the scale cell, organelle, organ, organism, population and maybe even in the scale of cosmos. Psychedelics affect serotonin receptors so that serotonin spends longer time in receptor.

The simplest picture is that the connection corresponds to a pair of flux tubes. As the connection is broken, the pair has suffered reconnection cutting it to two U-shaped closed flux tubes. When molecule is attached to the receptor, these U-shape closed flux tubes reconnect. The actual situation is of course expected to be more complex but the basic principle would be this.

In this framework psychedelics would be molecules associated with the reaction pathways facilitating the binding of neurotransmitters responsible for building connections to certain parts of the magnetic bodies characterised by passwords defined by collections of cyclotron frequencies corresponding to a hierarchy of space-time sheets. The Josephson frequency associated with the receptor is inversely proportional to heff. The natural guess is that it corresponds to the cyclotron frequency of the magnetic body part for electron, proton, or some ion associated with it. Josephson frequency should serve as kind of passwords and receptors would be in one-one correspondence with these passwords defining gateways even to the outer space if the value of Planck constant is large enough.

One might be able to test this crazy hypothesis. Pineal gland could still serve as the "third eye" but utilizing large heff photons. Fishes and birds are able to navigate to their birth places: could this miracle involve "remote seeing" by pineal gland using the dark light coming along flux tubes or even active variant of this process by sending light which is reflected back in time direction (blue and red light are necessary for the ability to navigate). What about remote seeing in the usual sense: could psychedelics help also in this process?

For details see the chapter TGD Inspired view about remote mental interactions and paranormal.



Seth Lloyd on quantum life

The notion of quantum biology is becoming accepted notion although Wikipedia contains still nothing about its most important application (photosynthesis). I can be proud that I have been a pioneer of quantum biology for about two decades. TGD remains still one of the very few theories leaving the realm of standard quantum theory and suggesting besides the new view about space-time a generalization of quantum theory involving in an essential manner quantum theory of consciousness based on the identification of quantum jump as moment of consciousness. The new view about quantum theory involves a refined view about quantum measurement based on Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) kenociteallb/nmpc identified as the basic variational principle and zero energy ontology (ZEO) replacing ordinary standard energy ontology. The new view providing new vision about the relationship between subjective time and geometric time, about the arrow of time, and about second law.

The hierarchy of Planck constants having as space-time correlate effective (or real -depending on interpretation) n-sheeted coverings of 8-D imbedding space (or space-time) with heff=nh defining the value of (effective) Planck constant. p-Adic physics as physics of cognition is essential part of theory and together with the hierarchy of Planck constants closely related to the notion of negentropic entanglement characterizing living matter. Negentropic entanglement is maximal involving two-particle case tge entanglement of n states characterized by n× n unit matrix with n identified in terms of heff. Also maximal m-particle entanglement with 1<m≤ n is possible and one can write explicit formulas for the entangled states relating closely to the notion of exotic atom introduced earlier. The hierarchy of Planck constants as associated with dark matter so that dark matter is what makes living matter living in TGD Universe.

The concepts of many-sheeted space-time and topological field quantization imply that the concept of field body (magnetic body) becomes a crucial ew element in the understanding of living matter. Non-locality in even astrophysical scales becomes an essential piece of the description of living matter. Remote mental interactions making possible communication between biological and magnetic bodies become standard phenomena in living matter. The reconnection of magnetic flux tubes and phase transitions changing the value of heff and thus changing the length of magnetic flux tubes become a basic piece of biochemistry. Various macroscopic quantum phases such as dark electronic Cooper pairs and of protons and even ions as well as Bose-Einstein condensate of various dark bosonic objects with large value of heff are also central. They are associated with magnetic flux bodies (magnetic flux tubes) .

TGD implies a new, still developing, view about metabolism. Magnetic body as a carrier of metabolic energy and negentropic entanglement allows to understand the deeper role of metabolism in a unified manner. The notion of high energy phosphate bond assigned to ATP is one of the poorly understood notions of biochemistry. As a matter fact, all basic biomolecules are carriers of metabolic energy liberated as they are broken down in catabolism. It is usually thought that the covalent bonds containing shared valence electron pair between atoms involved carries this energy and that covalent bond reduces to standard quantum theory. TGD challenges this belief: covalent bond could in TGD framework correspond to magnetic flux tube associated with the bond having considerably larger size than the distance between atoms: similar picture has already earlier emerged in the model of nuclei as strings with colored flux tubes connecting nucleons and having length scale much longer than nuclei kenociteallb/nuclstring: this model also explains kenociteallb/padmass5 the puzzling observation that protonic charge radius seems to be somewhat larger than predicted kenocitebpnu/shrinkproton.

The metabolic energy quantum would be associated with large heff valence electron pair being identifiable as cyclotron energy in endogenous magnetic field for which the pioneering experiments of Blackman suggests value Bend=.2 Gauss as the first guess.Of course, entire spectrum of values coming as power of two multiples of this field strength can be considered. This would require rather high value of heff/h=n of order 108. Reconnection of flux tubes would make possible to transfer these electron pairs between molecules: actually a piece of flux tube containing the electron pair would be transferred in the process. This view allows to unify the model of metabolism with the view of DNA-cell membrane system as topological quantum computer with DNA nucleotides and lipids (or molecules assigned with them) by flux tubes.

Seth Lloyd represents three examples about situations in which quantum biology seems to be a "must": photosynthesis, navigation of birds, and odour perception. Photosynthesis represents the strongest and most quantitative support for quantum biology. Navitation and odour perception suggest strongly quantum theory model but leave the details of the model open.

I have applied TGD to numerous situations during years and also discussed simple TGD inspired models for all these three phenomena . The following represents briefly the core of Lloyd's talk and comparison with TGD based views. I do not of course have access to the data basis and can represent only a general vision rather than detailed numerical models. I share Lloyd's belief that quantum models provide the only manner to understand the data although models as such are not final. The authors of course want to publish their work and therefore cannot introduce explicitly notions like high temperature super-conductivity, which I believe are crucial besides purely TGD based concepts. What is however good that the models start from data and just look how to explain the data in quantum approach. Data lead to assumptions, which are not easy to defend in the framework of standard quantum theory. For instance, the presence of long-lived entangled pairs of electrons and electron and hole with wave functions possessing rather long coherence length and somehow isolated from entanglement destroying interactions with the external world emerge from the data. In TGD large value of heff/h and associated negentropic entangelement justifies these assumptions.

Photosynthesis

The incredible effectiveness of the first step of the photosynthesis after photon absorption kenocitebbio/qharvesting is one of the key points of Lloyd in this talk. The organisms living deep under the surface of ocean are able to gather their metabolic energy using only the visible photons of black body radiation, whose typical photon energy is much lower than that of metabolic energy. In human eyes there is even mechanism preventing the detection of less than five photons at time.

The first step of photosynthesis after the capture of photon by harvesting antenna proteins has been a long standing mystery and here only quantum mechanical approach seems to provide the needed understanding. The light harvesting antenna proteins can be visualized as small disk like objects and are associated with a membrane like structure - so called thylakoid membrane similar to cell membrane. The absorption creates what is known as exciton - electron-hole pair, which is most naturally singlet. Photon has spin so that the exciton must have unit angular momentum. After its creation the electron of the exciton reaches by a random walk like process the reaction centre. Fromthe reaction centre the process continues as a stepwise electron transfer process leading eventually to the chemical storage of the photon energy.

The capture of photon occurs with some probability and also the process continues from reaction centre only with probability of about 5 per cent. The process with which the electrons reaches the reaction centre is however amazingly effective: effectives is above 95 per cent. This is mysterious since fort the classical random walk for exciton between the chromophores the time is proportional to the square root of distance measured as number of neighboring chromophores along the path.

The quantum proposal is that exciton is spin singlet state - this minimizes the interactions with photons - and performs quantum (random) walk to the reaction centre. The model assumes only experimental data as input and all parameters are fixed. Temperature remains the variable parameter. One can consider two extreme situations. At low energy limit the random walks tends to be stuck since external perturbations (mostly thermal photons) inducing the random walk process are not effective enough and quantum walk becomes so slow so that the exciton decays before it reaches the reaction centre. At high energy limit the thermal perturbations destroy quantum coherence and classical random walk results so that the efficiency becomes essentially zero. There is a temperature range where the transfer efficiency is near unity and time for reaching the reaction centre relatively short. This range has as midpoint room temperature.

If I have understood correctly, the model accepts as experimental facts the rather long lifetime of the exciton - few nanoseconds. In quantum-computerish this assumption translates to the statement that exciton belongs to a decoherence-free subspace so that external perturbations are not able to destroy the exciton too fast. Second assumption is that the exciton is de-localized over a ring ling like structure of size scale of 7 Angstroms (actually there are two rings of this kind, inner and outer and the wave function is assumed to be rotationally symmetric for the inner ring). This de-localization increases the probability of transfer to neighboring chromophore so that it is proportional to the square N2 of the number N of chromophores rather than N. The technical term expressing this is concatenated quantum code.

Skeptic would probably claim that coherence and stability of coherence are the weak points of the model. In TGD framework the assumption that electron-hole pair is negentropically entangled would guarantee its long life time. The reason is that NMP favors negentropic entanglement. Negentropic entanglement corresponds to entanglement associated with n-sheeted effective covering of imbedding space and n has interpretation in terms of effective Planck constant heff=nh. The naive guess is that coherence scale for the wave function of exciton scales up by factor n or kenosqrtn. This entangement need not have anything to do with spin but could relate to large hbar.

I have earlier considered a slightly different proposal. Instead of exciton the negentropically entangled system would be Cooper pair of dark electrons. Note that the negentropic entanglement need not relate to the spin but to the n-fold covering although it could be assigned with spin too in which case the state would be spin singlet. The motivation came from the fact that the transfer of electrons to the reaction centre takes as pairs (see this). The TGD inspired interpretation of electron pair would be as dark Cooper pair. Two electron pairs would come from the splitting of two water molecules to O2, 4 protons and two electron pairs, and they would end up to P680 part of photosystem II (680 refers to maximally absorbed wavelength in nanometers) and from here to P680* as two pairs. This mechanism would require that the Cooper pairs absorbs the photon as single particle. In the case of dark Cooper pairs this might be naturally true. If this requires exchange of photon between the members of the pair, the rate for this process is of the order α2 lower.

Avian navigation

Second topic discussed by Seth Lloyd is avian navigation (see this). The challenge is to understand how birds (and also fishes) are able to utilize Earth's magnetic field in order to find their way during migration. In some cases the magnetite in the beak of the bird guides the way along magnetic field lines by inducing magnetic force, and the process can be understood at least partially. Consciousness theorist could of course wonder why these animals find year after year their exact birth place.

Robins however represent an example not so easy to understand. There are three input facts:

  1. Robins are able to detect the orientation of BE but not its direction. They can also detect the angle between orientation and vertical to the Earth's surface and from this to deduce also the direction of BE.
  2. Blue or green light is necessary for the successful detection of the orientation.
  3. Oscillating em field with frequency of order MHz makes the robins totally disoriented.
The only model that seems to be able to explain the findings is that long-lived entangled pairs of electrons are created by the photon provided their energy is high enough. For red light the energy is 2 eV and is not yet quite enough. This suggests that the electrons originate from a pair of molecules or atoms of single molecule. It is not known what the molecules in question could be. The electrons of the pair are spinning in the magnetic field and this is suggested to cause the decay of the pair and second member (why not both?) of the pair would contribute to a current giving eventually rise to nerve pulse pattern.

Entangled long-lived electron pair should be created. Long lifetime is the problem. The proposed mechanism brings in mind the TGD based variant for the light harvesting mechanism of photosynthesis. Universality suggests that long lived dark negentropically entangled Cooper pairs are generated in both cases so that light harvesting is in question in both cases. These pairs assignable to membrane structures in both cases in turn would generate a supra current giving eventually rise to a generation of nerve pulses in the case of navigation and to electron transfer process in the case of photosynthesis. If the same mechanism is involved in both cases, the extreme effectiveness of this light harvesting process could make it possible for the birds to navigate even in dark. Electron has cyclotron frequency of about 1.5 MHz in the Earth's magnetic field and this makes easy to understand why oscillation with this frequency (resonance) induces disorientation by forcing the spinning of the dark Cooper pairs.

Why the energy of photon creating the dark electron Cooper pair should correspond to visible light? Cyclotron energy scale for the ordinary value of Planck constant is extremely small and corresponds to frequency in MHz range. For visible photons the frequency by order of magnitude 108 higher. Does this correspond to the value of heff? Similar order of magnitude estimate follows from several premises. If the scaling of h by n corresponds roughly to the scaling of p-adic scale by n1/2, one would have roughly 1015-fold (effective) covering of imbedding space which looks rather science-fictive! For electrons this would imply size of order cell size if dark scale corresponds to the p-adic scale. If the electrons are originally in bound states with binding energy of order eV, the value of heff could be much lower.

I smell the quantum

Quantum detection of odours was the third topic in Lloyd's talk. For decades it was believed that odor perception is based on lock and key mechanism. Human has 387 odour receptors and this would be the number of smells too. It has however turned out that humans can discriminate between about 104 smells and Luca Turin and his wife have written a book giving a catalogue of all these smells. It is clear that lock key mechanism is correct but something else is needed in order to understand the spectrum of odors.

The key observation of Turin is that the smells seems to be not purely chemically determined but is different for molecules consisting of atoms differing only by the weight of nucleus and thus being chemically identical. Therefore the vibrational spectrum of the molecule, which is typically in infrared, seems to be important. The proposal of Turin is that the process of odour perception involves the tunnelling of the vibraing electron from odour molecule. This tunnelling can be assisted by absorption of phonon coming from the receptor with frequency which corresponds to fundamental vibrational frequency or its multiple. The model has been tested in several cases. The latest test described by Lloyd is the one in which hydrogen in some molecule is replaced with deuteron, which is twice as heavy so that the vibrational frequency is reduced by a factor 1/kenosqrt2. Fruit flies took the role of odour perceivers and it turned out that they easily discriminate between the molecules.

I have considered earlier a somewhat different quantum model for odour perception by starting from the pioneering experimental work of Callahan kenocitebbio/Callahan, which led him to conclude that in the case of insects odour perception is "seeing" at infrared wavelengths. Infrared wavelengths correspond to vibrational energies for molecules so that this brings in the dependence on the square root of the inverse of the mass of the odorant and predicts that chemically identical molecules containing only different isotopes of atoms smell differently.Frequencies are same as in the model of Turin. Instead of phonons IR photons would play the key role serving as passwords exciting particular cyclotron state at particular magnetic tube. Similar mechanism could be at work in the case of ordinary vision.

For details see the chapter Quantum mind, magnetic body and biological body.



Preconscious mechanism of hypnotically altered colors

I learned recently about very interesting work on hypnosis by finnish researchers Mika Koivisto, Svetlana Kirjanen, Antti Revonsuo and Sakari Kallio. The article "A Preconscious Neural Mechanism of Hypnotically Altered Colors: A Double Case Study" is published in journal Plos ONE and is available here.

Here is the abstract of the article:

Hypnotic suggestions may change the perceived color of objects. Given that chromatic stimulus information is processed rapidly and automatically by the visual system, how can hypnotic suggestions affect perceived colors in a seemingly immediate fashion? We studied the mechanisms of such color alterations by measuring electroencephalography in two highly suggestible participants as they perceived briefly presented visual shapes under posthypnotic color alternation suggestions such as “all the squares are blue”. One participant consistently reported seeing the suggested colors. Her reports correlated with enhanced evoked upper beta-band activity (22 Hz) 70–120 ms after stimulus in response to the shapes mentioned in the suggestion. This effect was not observed in a control condition where the participants merely tried to simulate the effects of the suggestion on behavior. The second participant neither reported color alterations nor showed the evoked beta activity, although her subjective experience and event-related potentials were changed by the suggestions. The results indicate a preconscious mechanism that first compares early visual input with a memory representation of the suggestion and consequently triggers the color alteration process in response to the objects specified by the suggestion. Conscious color experience is not purely the result of bottom-up processing but it can be modulated, at least in some individuals, by top-down factors such as hypnotic suggestions.

According to the announcement of finnish academy, the results challenge the existing theories of hypnosis. I developed for some time ago a model of hypnosis as one particular instance of remote mental interactions on basis of TGD inspired quantum theory of consciousness. Quantum entanglement between parts of separate brains, the notion of magnetic body, and TGD based view about sensory organs play key roles in the model. In TGD framework the primary qualia are at the level of sensory organs and sensory representations involve a feedback from magnetic body via brain to sensory organs in terms of dark photons so that the sensory percepts consist of standardized mental images - being more like an artworks emphasizing important features rather than a faithful representation of reality.

TGD based view about hypnosis

I attach below the abstract of the chapter appearing also as an article.

In TGD framework one can argue that hypnosis represents an example about the fact that brain is not "private property": hypnotist uses the biological body and brain of the subject as instrument. Therefore remote mental interaction is in question. This idea generalizes: if one accepts self hierarchy, one can assign to any kind of higher level structure - family, organization, species, .... - a higher level self and magnetic body carrying dark matter, and these magnetic bodies can use lower level magnetic bodies as their instruments to realize their intentions. Biological bodies would be an important level in the hierarchy, which would continue down to cellular, molecular, and perhaps to even lower levels.

This view challenges the prevailing views about brain as a sole seat of consciousness and the assumption that conscious entities assigned with brains are completely isolated. Given magnetic body can use several biological bodies although one can assign to it the one providing the sensory input - at least during wake-up state. Note however that it is easy to produce illusion that some foreign object is part of biological body.

For more than decade ago I proposed a model for so called bi-camerality based on the notion of semitrance. In semitrance the brain of subject becomes partially entangled with a higher level self - in this case the self of family or more general social group uses the biological body of member for its purposes. Higher level self gives its commands and advice interpreted by the bicameral as "God's voice". The consciousness of schizophrenic might be basically bicameral. Also hypnotic state and dream consciousness are candidates for bicameral consciousness.

In this article I develop essentially this idea but using as input the recent understanding of about TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology and end up with a proposal for a detailed mechanism for how the magnetic body hijacks some parts of the brain of the subject: prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex are argued to be the most plausible targets of hijacking. Also a mechanism explaining how the sensory hallucinations and motor actions are induced by hypnotist by inhibiting a halting mechanism preventing imagined motor actions to become real and sensory imagination to become "qualiafied".

TGD based interpretation of the findings

The findings of about hypnosis can be used also to test TGD based view about hypnosis. As the abstract concludes, color experience in not purely the result of bottom-up processing but can be modulated by top-down factors. In TGD framework this reflects the basic difference between standard neuroscience and TGD deriving from two assumptions.

  • Sensory organs are carriers of primary qualia - the phenomenal experience.
  • Brain is manufacturer of sensory and memory representations decomposing perceptive field to standardized mental images representing objects and naming them. Virtual sensory input is used to achieve this.

In the experiments the form-color correlation created by hypnotic suggestion could be in conflict with the real visual input. The other subject person sensitive to hypnosis managed to transform the real color percept to a percept consistent with the suggestion. The other subject person also sensitive to hypnotic suggestions reported that his/her eyes and brain "saw" different colors.

In TGD Universe the interpretation would be that magnetic body and brain below it in the self hierarchy imagined the correlation consistent with the suggested one in both case. The imagined color was produced by a virtual sensory input realized as dark photons propagating down from magnetic body to cortex and to the lower levels of brain. This applies to imagination in general. For the sensory imagination the propagation halts before reaching sensory organ - now retina. For hallucinations this halting does not happen. Hypnotic suggestion can prevent this halting so that imagined color transforms to a hallucinated color. This happened for the first subject in the experiments. The second subject experienced both the real color and possibly conflicting imagined color associated with the virtual sensory input halting to some higher level in brain between visual cortex and retina. Note that this serves as evidence for the notion of self hierarchy, which is a basic prediction of TGD inspired theory of consciousness.

Also a comment about time scales involved is in order. The peak in the EEG of the person, who experienced the suggested color-shape correlation appeared after an average time of T= .1 seconds from the visual input. T corresponds to 10 Hz fundamental bio-rhythm and the cronon of sensory experience. In TGD framework T characterizes the scale of causal diamond (CD) defining the spotlight of consciousness assignable also to sensory percepts. That T is also the secondary p-adic length scale assigned with electron in TGD conforms with the proposal that electron Cooper pairs play a central role in sensory perception. Primary and secondary p-adic length and time scales (the latter are macroscopic) characterizing elementary particles represents new physics predicted by TGD. R=.05 seconds corresponds to distance R= cT= 15 Mm, which is more than twice the radius of Earth equal to 6.4 Mm. Hence a signal propagating with velocity of light could travel to a layer of magnetic body with this size and back during time .1 seconds.

After having received the announcement of Finnish academy and before seeing the abstract of the article, my own guess was that the high-frequency EEG refers to 40 Hz thalamo-cortical resonance studied by Antti Revonsuo - one of the authors of the recent work. I was wrong. What Revonsuo found was that 40 Hz resonance does not serve as a correlate of mental image as conjectured by Crick and Koch but for the emergence of a new mental image. What was studied was a situation in which the subject person experienced the emergence of 3-D geometric pattern from a chaotic set of dots and lines. 40 Hz activity accompanied only the eureka period: a possible TGD inspired interpretation is that the direct eureka experience was transformed to a memory, which did not generate 40 Hz activity. The 20 Hz activity involved with the change of the perceived color to the suggested color would also correspond to similar re-organization of the perceptive field induced by virtual sensory input masking the real one. What is interesting is that 10,20,40, 80 Hz frequencies appear as resonances in EEG and that they are octaves of 10 Hz. TGD indeed strongly suggests that preferred CD scales come as octaves. Primary p-adic length scales in turn would come as half octaves.

For details see the new chapter Hypnosis as remote mental interaction of "TGD based view about living matter and remote mental interactions" or the article with the same title.



Hypnosis as remote mental interaction

In TGD framework one can argue that hypnosis represents an example about the fact that brain is not "private property": hypnotist uses the biological body and brain of the subject as instrument. Therefore remote mental interaction is in question. This idea generalizes: if one accepts self hierarchy, one can assign to any kind of higher level structure - family, organization, species, .... - a higher level self and magnetic body carrying dark matter, and these magnetic bodies can use lower level magnetic bodies as their instruments to realize their intentions. Biological bodies would be an important level in the hierarchy, which would continue down to cellular, molecular, and perhaps to even lower levels.

This view challenges the prevailing views about brain as a sole seat of consciousness and the assumption that conscious entities assigned with brains are completely isolated. Given magnetic body can use several biological bodies although one can assign to it the one providing the sensory input - at least during wake-up state. Note however that it is easy to produce illusion that some foreign object is part of biological body.

For more than decade ago I proposed a model for so called bicamerality based on the notion of semitrance. In semitrance the brain of subject becomes partially entangled with a higher level self - in this case the self of family or more general social group uses the biological body of member for its purposes. Higher level self gives its commands and advice interpreted by the bicameral as "God's voice". The consciousness of schizophrenic might be basically bicameral. Also hypnotic state and dream consciousness are candidates for bicameral consciousness.

Hypnosis as hijacking of brain?

In TGD framework hypnotist and subject would partially share the biological body of the subject, and hypnotist could realize motor actions using the biological body of the subject and also induce sensory experiences by sending suggestions generating virtual sensory input to the sense organs of the subject (this if one accepts TGD view about the role of sensory organs).

One could see hypnosis as a kind of hijacking of some parts of the subject's brain. Could one identify these parts? The general finding is that there is no universal neural or EEG signature of hypnotic state and possible changes in neural activity can be interpreted as neural correlates of imagination. Only in the case of persons highly susceptible to hypnotic induction one can identify a change of neural activity pattern identifiable as a correlete of hypnotic state.

"Hijacking" can be of course criticized for its negative tone. A more positive manner to express the idea is to say that the subject is voluntarily provides part of her brain to the use of the hypnotist's magnetic body. This conforms with the acronym "TEAM" symbolizing the subject's orientation to hypnosis in terms of "trust", "expectation", "attitude", and "motivation".

The neurophysiological findings conform with the view that the really interesting phenomena take at the level of magnetic bodies. The changes - when they occur - take place in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC): this together what is known about methods of hypnotic induction provides hints about what might occur in the hijacking process. The almost-prediction would be a correlation between EEGs of the hypnotist and subject person reflecting the sharing of parts of the subject's brain. It would be therefore highly interesting to study the correlations of the EEGs of subject and hypnotist.

Strongly focused attention to hypnotic suggestion is mentioned as a basic aspect of hypnosis and distinguishes it sharply from sleep. This feature brings in mind various altered states of consciousness reached in meditation and it has been suggested that meditation is one form of self-hypnosis. In TGD framework personal magnetic body has layered onyon-like structure with layers characterized by p-adic length and time scales and the value of hbareff. Thefore meditative state could be seen as a resharing of biological body and brain by these layers and even by foreign magnetic bodies.

Do social interactions share something with hypnosis?

More generally, one can also ask whether the phenomena of collaboration and synergy on one hand, and influence, "power" and fight for power on the other hand, could be modelled in terms of the partial ownership of the biological bodies by magnetic bodies identified as intentional agents.

Social structures and organizations are complex networks in which the arrows characterizing relationships between individuals in the simplest situations are uni-directional and static. The person at either end of the arrow is in command. In more complex situtations members are connected by several arrows of this kind, their directions can vary, and need not be static.

Should one therefore give up what physicist would call "single-particle" view and replace it with "many-particle" view by bringing in the notion of magnetic body attaching to several biological bodies and organizing them to loosely bound states of individuals? Under what conditions this kind of partial fusion of conscious entities can take place? Does it occur only only when there is complete trust in either direction or can fear about consequences be enough? It would not be surprising if immune systems against hijacking of the biological body would have evolved: this would allow to understand why the reality of remote mental interactions is so difficult to demonstrate. They could however take place on daily basis in social interactions if the proposed picture makes sense.

The dynamical sharing of biological bodies can be seen also positively: this sharing would make possible collaboration and synergy at much deeper level than we have been used to think. This kind of shared use of biological bodies perhaps defines the direction to which human kind should proceed. Also the possibility to directly experience what it is to be "the other one" - something not allowed by the standard view about consciousness confined inside individual brain - is implicated.

The new view about influence and power might allow to understand better the often highly irrational looking behaviors of organizations and their members - in particular blind obediance of orders and fight for power. The hierarchy of magnetic bodies could serve as a physical correlate for the hierarchy of biological and social structures. In particular, the fight for power could be seen as fight between magnetic bodies for the ownership of biological bodies or lower level magnetic bodies. The dark matter realized as a hierarchy of phases with non-standard value of effective Planck constant would represent a new physics necessary for understanding the physical correlates of these phenomena.

In the new chapter devoted to hypnosis as remote mental interaction I will introduce some basic notions, ideas and theories about hypnosis: the Wikipedia article gives a good overall view about the subject. The techniques of hypnotic induction provide valuable clues if one wants to imagine what hypnosis is. I will also describe the classical test for hypnotic susceptibility using Chevreul pendulum (to me it was quite a stunning experience to find that I am highly susceptible to hypnotic induction!), and propose an explanation in terms of hijacking of PFC and ACC by the magnetic body of hypnotist. The model makes an assumption about the logic of brain functions. Imagined motor action "Don't (really) do this" is realized as "Do this" followed by "Don't" stopping the imagined motor action proceeding otherwise from the magnetic body to PFC to motor regions of cortex via ACC to a real motor action.

In TGD framework sensory perception and motor action are related by time reversal and therefore an analogous mechanism applies to imagination realized as a genuine hallucination unless "Don't" is realized. Hypnotist should therefore hijack the brain regions realizing "Don't" by catching their attention so that they cannot perform their function. ACC is a good candidate for the region in which "Don't" is realized under normal circumstances. This logic makes possible to induce motor actions and sensory hallucinations analogous to dreams. Dreams would be realized in terms of virtual sensory input to sensory organs (REM) rather than only to higher levels in hierarchy of sensory representations at cortex, which do not carry visual qualia conscious-to-us.

For details see the new chapter Hypnosis as remote mental interaction of "TGD based view about living matter and remote mental interactions" or the article with the same title.



Some critical questions concerning Maya and Akashic records

The discovery of representations as negentropically entangled states defining approximate invariants under quantum jump sequence and defining "Akashic records" and the idea about reading these representations using interaction free measurements have meant a dramatic progress in the understanding of TGD inspired theory of conscioiusness progress.

There are two basic objections against quantum theories of consciousness. How it is possible to have conscious information about invariant under quantum jumps if only change is experienced continuously? The outcome of state function reduction in standard quantum theory is random: how can one understand freedom of choice and intentional behaviour in terms of state function reduction? NMP and possibility of negentropic entanglement imply that TGD based quantum theory is not equivalent with the standard one, and this allows to circumvent the objections.

There are however two further questions, which I cannot answer yet. Can one really assume that the notion of interaction free measurement continues to make sense in TGD framework? Could NMP allow to make this notion exact or make it impossible? Are the invariants or at least their existence experienced directly without interaction free measurement?

The experiments carried out to test whether 40 Hz thalamocortical resonance is correlate for conscious experience suggests that the resonance is present only when a new pattern is discovered, not when it has become a memory. The TGD inspired interpretation would be that the resonances accompanies negentropy gain and quantum jump is necessary for conscious experience. However, the reports about higher states of consciousness (and also my own experiences) suggest that the invariants can be experienced directly when all thoughts (interaction free measurements) are eliminated. This experience cannot be however communicated: one understands does not know what one understands. Therefore also the original vision that negentropic entanglement corresponds to conscious experience - experience of pure understanding, which is not communicable - and in apparent contradiction with the basic hypothesis about quantum jump, would be correct after all!

For details see the new chapter Comparison of TGD Inspired Theory of Consciousness with Some Other Theories of Consciousness or the article with the same title.



How to construct Akashic records and read them?

While reading a marvellous book "The Field" by Lynne McTaggart about evolution of ideas about the role of electromagnetic fields in biology and neuroscience, I became aware of two questions which I had not yet answered.

Realization of memory representations in terms of braided flux tubes

The first question is following: How various representations (sensory - , memory -,...) - "Akashic records" - are realized as negentropically entangled states?

Magnetic body should be the seat of memories in some sense.

  1. I have already earlier proposed this kind of realization based on the observation that braiding in time direction generates space-like braiding. Dancers on the parquette with their feet connected to the wall by threads illustrates the idea. When dancers move at the parquette their world lines define a time-like braiding in 3-dimensional space-time assignable to the floor. Also the threads connecting the dancers to the wall get braided - or entangled - as one might also say. There is clearly a duality between time-like and space-like braidings: the running topological quantum computer program coded by braiding in time direction is stored as space-like braiding defining memory representation of what happened. Note that same mechanism realizes also predictions and future plans as time reversed topological quantum computer programs in ZEO. CDs in various scales contain this kind of programs and their memory representations.
  2. I have also proposed that the geometric entanglement - braiding - of flux tubes defines a space-time correlate for quantum entanglement. In the case of topological quantum computation it would be naturally described by probabilities, which are rational numbers (or perhaps even algebraic numbers in some algebraic extension of p-adic numbers characterizing together value of the p-adic prime the evolutionary level of the system). Hence the notion of number theoretic negentropy makes sense and one obtains a connection with topological quantum computation.
  3. The representation of memories in terms of space-like braiding of magnetic flux tubes connecting various systems would be universal, and not restricted to DNA-cell membrane system in which the flux tubes would connect DNA nucleotides or codons (this seems to be the more plausible option) with the lipids. One could indeed speak about Akashic records.
  4. The time reversals or these representations defined by the zero energy states of opposite arrow of the imbedding space time would define a representation for future predictions/ plans in ZEO. For instance, the development of a seed to a full-grown organism could be coded in this manner in time scale where CD has time scale of order of the lifetime of the organism. Already Burr found evidence that the radiation field assignable to the seed has the same shape as the plant or animal (salamander in his experiments). This energy field would naturally correspond to the magnetic body containing dark photon Bose-Einstein condensates. The Akashic records and their time reversal would naturally correspond to the morphic fields of Sheldrake: memories and future plans in time scales longer than than duration of life cycle for an individual member of species would be possibles. Every scientist of course agrees that the societies are busily predicting and planning their futures but find very difficult to accept the idea that this could have some concrete quantum physical correlate.

How to construct and read conscious hologram?

While reading the book of McTaggart also a second question popped up: How the vision about brain as a conscious hologram is realized in the proposed conceptual framework?

The idea about living system as a hologram has strong empirical basis. One of the most dramatic demonstrations of the hologram like character of brain was the discovery of Pietch that salamander's brain can be sliced to pieces and shuffled like a deck of cards and put together. When the resulting stuff is returned to the head of the salamander, it recovers! This extreme robustness is very strong support for the non-local hologram like storage of biological information. Ironically, Pietch tried to demonstrate that the theory of Karl Pribram about brain as a hologram is wrong!

The notion of conscious hologram is one of the key ideas of TGD inspired theory of consciousness. Hitherto I have not been owever able to find a really convincing concrete proposal for how brain could be a hologram in TGD Universe. The reading of memory - and other representations by interaction free measurement however leads to a natural proposal for what the hologram might be.

  1. Certainly the formation of the hologram must closely relate to the vision about universal Akashic records realized in terms of braided flux tubes and their non-destructive reading by interaction free measurement. Oversimplifying, tor a given bit of the representation the photons scattered without interaction would kick either of the two detectors C and D associated with it to an excited state (see Elitzur-Vaidman bomb tester). This process is very much like absorption of photons by a photosensitive plate defining an ordinary hologram.
  2. The lipids of the cell membrane are good candidates as something in 1-1 correspondence with the basic units of this hologram (note the analogy with computer screen - also a liquid crystal!). If one irradiates the laser like system formed by the detectors not only by the radiation scattered from the quantum Akashic records but by its superposition with the reference wave of same frequency, one obtains a good candidate for a hologram. It would be defined by the excited quantum state consisting of laser systems analogous to the detectors C and D. Any piece of the system should give and approximate representation of the memory and robustness of the representation is achieved.
  3. In semiclassical treatment the probability that a given laser like detector is excited must be proportional to the modulus squared of the net field amplitude, which is a superposition of reference wave and scattered wave Also just. as in the case of ordinary holograms, the irradiation of the laser like system by the negative energy counterpart of the reference wave (its phase conjugate emitted in a state resulting in state function reduction to the opposite boundary of CD) effectively generates the conjugate of the scattered wave since only those parts of the system can return to the ground state with considerable probability for which the probability to go to excited state is high enough. Note that this implies that magnetic body contains geometric representations of the perceptive field as indeed assumed. This is however not quite the classical hologram. Rather, the total number of absorbed negative energy phase conjugate photons for given pixel defines the "real" picture. A given point of the hologram corresponds to an ensemble of laser like detectors so that a statistically deterministic response is obtained as an ensemble average.

How to realize this concretely?

  1. I have proposed that the lipids of cell membrane could serve as pixels of sensory representations. They could indeed serve as the pixels of conscious hologram. Each pixel should contain large number of laser like "detectors" so that statistical determinism would be achieved.
  2. There should be pair C and D of detectors such that either of them absorbs photon in an interaction free measurement so that a value of bit is defined. Universality serves as a strong constraint as one tries to guess what C and D could be.
    1. The lipids at the two lipid layers of cell membrane could be in 1-1 correspondence with C and D. This option is not however universal.
    2. It is however quite possible that the magnetic fields involved are what I have called wormhole magnetic fields, which carry monopole flux and and involve two space-time sheets carrying opposite net fluxes. As a matter of fact, all elementary particles correspond to flux quanta of wormhole magnetic fields. In this case the two sheets would naturally correspond to detectors C and D and in the simplest situation they would have same Minkowski space projection. Universality of both detectors and holograms is achieved.
  3. The cyclotron Bose-Einstein condensates for charged particles at magnetic flux tubes assignable to lipids are good candidates for the laser like systems if they contain cyclotron Bose-Einstein condensates. There are however several options since the magnetic flux tubes are closed and there are several manners to realize this.
    1. DNA as topological quantum computer vision and the view about cell membrane as a sensory receptor communicating data to the magnetic body in turn sending control signals via DNA suggest the following. Magnetic flux loops have a part connecting DNA with nuclear or cell membrane (this would be the analog for the dipole of the dipole magnetic field) and part which is long - even with size scale of Earth and corresponds to the magnetic field created by the DNA-cell membrane system. This picture applies both to the flux tubes of ordinary magnetic field and to the flux tubes of the wormhole magnetic field.
    2. An assumption in accordance with the general role of magnetic body is that Akashic records reside at the short portions of flux tubes connecting lipids with DNA codons: their braiding would define badsic example about universal representations in living matter. The laser like detectors would reside at the long portions of the flux tubes connecting cell membrane and DNA. If wormhole magnetic fields are in question, the detectors C and D could correspond to the two parallel flux tubes carrying opposite monopole fluxes.
    3. Universality suggest that this picture allows many alternative realizations. In principle, the relative motion of any system (partonic 2-surfaces with light-like orbits) connected by flux tubes could give rise to Akashic records. The lipids of axonal membrane are excellent candidates for the pixels and the flux tubes connecting the lipids to microtubuli would also define Akashic records with long parts of the flux tubes serving as the laser like system. The maximization of the memory capacity would also explain why the neural pathways to brain tend to maximize their lengths by connecting right side of the body to left hemisphere and vice versa.
  4. What remains still open is how to integrate the Josephson junctions defined by the lipid layers of the cell membrane to this picture.

For details see the new chapter Comparison of TGD Inspired Theory of Consciousness with Some Other Theories of Consciousness or the article with the same title.



Comparison of TGD Inspired Theory of Consciousness with Some Other Theories of Consciousness

After few years with emphasis on particle physics, I have returned to TGD inspired theory and consciousness and quantum biology. One reason is that no new results will emerge from LHC for two years, and the recent rather depressing situation in theoretical particle physics which have continued for decades.

During last years it has become kore and more clear that biophotons are highly relevant for biology and neuroscience. In TGD framework biophotons are decay products of dark photons, which are key players in TGD inspired theory of consiousness and quantum biology. Therefore I felt that it is time to write a chapter about biophotons taking into account also quite recent progress in understanding the structure of quantum jump in zero energy ontology leading to surprisingly detailed understanding of based structure of information processing in brain. I attach below the abstract of the new chapter Are dark photons behind biophotons?, which can be found also as an article with the same title.

TGD approach leads to a prediction that biophotons result when dark photons with large value of effective Planck constant and large wavelength transform to ordinary photons with same energy. The collaboration with Lian Sidorov stimulated a more detailed look for what biophotons are. Also the recent progress in understanding the implications of basic vision behind TGD inspired theory of consciousness erved as an additional motivation for a complementary treatment.

  1. The anatomy of quantum jump in zero energy ontology (ZEO) allows to understand basic aspects of sensory and cognitive processing in brain without ever mentioning brain. Sensory perception - motor action cycle with motor action allowing interpretation as time reversed sensory perception reflects directly the fact that state function reductions occur alternately to the two opposite boundaries of causal diamond (which itself or rather, quantum superposition of CDs, changes in the process).
  2. Also the abstraction and de-abstraction processes in various scales which are essential for the neural processing emerge already at the level of quantum jump. The formation of associations is one aspect of abstraction since it combines different manners to experience the same object. Negentropic entanglement of two or more mental images (CDs) gives rise to rules in which superposed n-particle states correspond to instances of the rule. Tensor product formation generating negentropic entanglement between new mental images and earlier ones generates longer sequences of memory mental images and gives rise to negentropy gain generating experience of understanding, recognition, something which has positive emotional coloring. Quantum superposition of perceptively equivalent zero energy states in given resolution gives rise to averaging. Increasing the abstraction level means poorer resolution so that the insignificant details are not perceived.
  3. Various memory representations should be approximately invariant under the sequence of quantum jumps. Negentropic entanglement gives rise to this kind of stabilization. The assumption that self model is a negentropically entangled system which does not change in state function reduction, leads to a problem. If the conscious information about this kind of subself corresponds to change of negentropy in quantum jump, it seems impossible to get this information. Quite generally, if moment of consciousness corresponds to quantum jump and thus change, how it is possible to carry conscious information about quantum state? Interaction free measurement however allows to circumvent the problem: non-destructive reading of memories and future plans becomes possible in arbitrary good approximation.

    This memory reading mechanism can be formulated for both photons and photons and these two reading mechanisms could correspond to visual memories as imagination and auditory memories as internal speech. Therefore dark photons decaying to biophotons could be crucial element of imagination and the notion bio-phonon could also make sense and even follow as a prediction. This would also suggest a correlation of biophoton emission with EEG for which there is a considerable evidence. The observation that biophotons seem to be associated only with the right hemisphere suggests that at least some parts of right hemisphere prefer dark photons and are thus specialized to visual imagination: spatial relationships are the speciality of the right hemisphere. Some parts the of left hemisphere at least might prefer dark photons in IR energy range transforming to ordinary phonons in ear or dark phonons: left hemisphere is indeed the verbal hemisphere specialized to linear linguistic cognition.

In the sequel I shall discuss biophotons in TGD Universe as decay products of dark photons and propose among other things an explanation for the hyperbolic decay law in terms of quantum coherence and echo like mechanism guaranteing replication of memory representations. Applications to biology, neuroscience, and consciousness are discussed and also the possible role of biophotons for remote mental interactions is considered. Also the phenomenon of taos hum is discussed as a possible evidence for biophonons.

For details see the new chapter Are dark photons behind biophotons? or the article with the same title.



Comparison of TGD Inspired Theory of Consciousness with Some Other Theories of Consciousness

Reading of two highly inspiring books led to a new chapter summing up the vision behind TGD inspired theory of consciousness and also generating some new ideas. The first book "On intelligence" is by Jeff Hawkins. The second book "Consciousness: the science of subjectivity" is by Antti Revonsuo.

Jeff Hawkins has developed a highly interesting and inspiring vision about neo-cortex, one of the few serious attempts to build a unified view about what brain does and how it does it. Since key ideas of Hawkins have quantum analogs in TGD framework, there is high motivation for developing a quantum variant of this vision. The vision of Hawkins is very general in the sense that all parts of neo-cortex would run the same fundamental algorithm, which is essentially checking whether the sensory input can be interpreted in terms of standard mental images stored as memories. This process occurs at several abstraction levels and involve massive feedback. If it succeeds at all these levels the sensory input is fully understood.

TGD suggests a generalization of this process. Quantum jump defining moment of consciousness would be the fundamental algorithm realized in all scales defining an abstraction hierarchy. Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) would be the variational principle driving this process and in optimal case lead to an experience of understanding at all levels of the scale hierarchy realized in terms of generation of negentropic entanglement. The analogy of NMP with second law suggests strongly thermodynamical analogy and p-adic thermodynamics used in particle mass calculations might be also seen as effective thermodynamics assignable to NMP.

In the following I will first discuss the ideas of Hawkins and then summarize some relevant aspects of quantum TGD and TGD inspired theory of consciousness briefly in the hope that this could make representation comprehensible for the reader having no background in TGD (I hope I have achieved this). The representation involves some new elements: reduction of the old idea about motor action as time reversal of sensory perception to the anatomy of quantum jump in zero energy ontology (ZEO); interaction free measurement for photons and photons as a non-destructive reading mechanism of memories and future plans (time reversed memories) represented 4-dimensionally as negentropically entangled states approximately invariant under quantum jumps (this resolves a basic objection against identifying quantum jump as moment of consciousness) leading to the identification of analogs of imagination and internal speech as fundamental elements of cognition; and a more detailed quantum model for association and abstraction processes.

I will also compare various theories and philosophies of consciousness with TGD approach following the beautifully organized representation of Revonsuo. Also anomalies of consciousness are briefly discussed. My hope is that this comparison would make explicit that TGD based ontology of consciousness indeed circumvents the difficulties against monistic and dualistic approaches and also survives the basic objections that I have been able to invent hitherto.

For details see the new chapter Comparison of TGD Inspired Theory of Consciousness with Some Other Theories of Consciousness or the article with the same title.



A Vision about Quantum Jump as a Universal Cognitive Process

Jeff Hawkins has developed in his book "On Intelligence" a highly interesting and inspiring vision about neo-cortex, one of the few serious attempts to build a unified view about what brain does and how it does it. Since the key ideas of Hawkins have quantum analogs in TGD framework, there is high motivation for developing a quantum variant of this vision. The vision of Hawkins is very general in the sense that all parts of neo-cortex would run the same fundamental algorithm, which is essentially checking whether the sensory input can be interpreted in terms of standard mental images stored as memories. This process occurs at several abstraction levels and involve massive feedback. If it succeeds at all these levels the sensory input is fully understood.

TGD suggests a generalization of this process. Quantum jump defining moment of consciousness would be the fundamental algorithm realized in all scales defining an abstraction hierarchy. Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) would be the variational principle driving this process and in optimal case lead to an experience of understanding at all levels of the scale hierarchy realized in terms of generation of negentropic entanglement. The analogy of NMP with second law suggests strongly thermodynamical analogy and p-adic thermodynamics used in particle mass calculations might be also seen as effective thermodynamics assignable to NMP. Quantum jump sequence realised as alternate reductions at the future and past boundaries of causal diamonds (CDs) carrying positive and negative energy parts of zero energy states.

The anatomy of quantum jump implies alternating arrow of geometric time at the level of imbedding space. This looks strange at first glance but allows to interpret the growth of syntropy as growth of entropy in reversed direction of imbedding space time. As a matter fact, one has actually wave function in the moduli space of CDs and in state function reductions localisation of either boundary takes place and gradually leads to the increase of the imbedding space geometric time and implies the alternating arrow for this time. The state function reduction at positive energy boundary of CD has interpretation as a process leading to sensory representation accompanied by p-adic cognitive representation. The time reversal of this process has interpretation as motor action in accordance with Libets findings. This duality holds true in various length scales for CDs. In the same manner p-adic space-time sheets define cognitive representations and their time reversals as intentions. It seems that selves (identified earlier as quantum jumps) could be assigned to negentropically entangled collections of sub-CDs and negentropic entanglement would stabilize them.

One can understand the fundamental abstraction process as generation of negentropic entanglement serving as a correlate for the experience of understanding. This process creates new mental images (sub-CDs) and to longer sequences of mental images (accumulation of experience by formation of longer quantum association sequences). Abstraction process involves also reduction of measurement resolution characterizing cognitive representations defined in terms of of discrete chart maps mapping discrete set of rational points of real preferred extremals to their p-adic counterparts allowing completion to p-adic preferred extremal. The reversal of this abstraction process gives rise to improved resolution and adds details to the representation. The basic cognitive process has as its building bricks this abstraction process and its reversal.

For details see the new chapter Comparison of TGD Inspired Theory of Consciousness with Some Other Theories of Consciousness or the article with the same title.



Comments on the recent experiments by the group of Michael Persinger

Michael Persinger's group reports three very interesting experimental findings related to EEG, magnetic fields, photon emissions from brain, and macroscopic quantum coherence. The findings provide also support for the proposal of Hu and Wu that nerve pulse activity could induce spin flips of spin networks assignable to cell membrane. In this article I analyze the experiments from TGD point of view. It turns out that the experiments provide support for several TGD inspired ideas about living matter. Magnetic flux quanta as generators of macroscopic quantum entanglement, dark matter as a hierarchy of macroscopic quantum phases with large effective Planck constant, DNA-cell membrane system as a topological quantum computer with nucleotides and lipids connected by magnetic flux tubes with ends assignable to phosphate containing molecules, and the proposal that "dark" nuclei consisting of dark proton strings could provide a representation of the genetic code. The proposal of Hu and Wu translates to the assumption that lipids of the two layers of the cell membrane are accompanied by dark protons which arrange themselves to dark protonic strings defining a dark analog of DNA double strand.

For details see the chapter Comments on the recent experiments by the group of Michael Persinger or the article with the same title.



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