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Topological Geometrodynamics: an Overview

Note: Newest contributions are at the top!

Year 2017

Could second generation of weak bosons explain the reduction of proton charge radius?

The discovery by Pohl et al (2010) was that the charge radius of proton deduced from the muonic version of hydrogen atom - is .842 fm and about 4 per cent smaller than .875 fm than the charge radius deduced from hydrogen atom is in complete conflict with the cherished belief that atomic physics belongs to the museum of science (for details see the Wikipedia article). The title of the article Quantum electrodynamics-a chink in the armour? of the article published in Nature expresses well the possible implications, which might actually go well extend beyond QED.

Quite recently (2016) new more precise data has emerged from Pohl et al (see this). Now the reduction of charge radius of muonic variant of deuterium is measured. The charge radius is reduced from 2.1424 fm to 2.1256 fm and the reduction is .012 fm, which is about .8 per cent (see this). The charge radius of proton deduced from it is reported to be consistent with the charge radius deduced from deuterium. The anomaly seems therefore to be real. Deuterium data provide a further challenge for various models.

The finding is a problem of QED or to the standard view about what proton is. Lamb shift is the effect distinguishing between the states hydrogen atom having otherwise the same energy but different angular momentum. The effect is due to the quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The energy shift factorizes to a product of two expressions. The first one describes the effect of these zero point fluctuations on the position of electron or muon and the second one characterizes the average of nuclear charge density as "seen" by electron or muon. The latter one should be same as in the case of ordinary hydrogen atom but it is not. Does this mean that the presence of muon reduces the charge radius of proton as determined from muon wave function? This of course looks implausible since the radius of proton is so small. Note that the compression of the muon's wave function has the same effect.

Before continuing it is good to recall that QED and quantum field theories in general have difficulties with the description of bound states: something which has not received too much attention. For instance, van der Waals force at molecular scales is a problem. A possible TGD based explanation and a possible solution of difficulties proposed for two decades ago is that for bound states the two charged particles (say nucleus and electron or two atoms) correspond to two 3-D surfaces glued by flux tubes rather than being idealized to points of Minkowski space. This would make the non-relativistic description based on Schrödinger amplitude natural and replace the description based on Bethe-Salpeter equation having horrible mathematical properties.

The basic idea of the original model of the anomaly (see this) is that muon has some probability to end up to the magnetic flux tubes assignable to proton. In this state it would not contribute to the ordinary Schrödinger amplitude. The effect of this would be reduction of |Ψ|2 near origin and apparent reduction of the charge radius of proton. The weakness of the model is that it cannot make quantitative prediction for the size of the effect. Even the sign is questionable. Only S-wave binding energy is affected considerably but does the binding energy really increase by the interaction of muon with the quarks at magnetic flux tubes? Is the average of the charge density seen by muon in S wave state larger, in other words does it spend more time near proton or do the quarks spend more time at the flux tubes?

In the following a new model for the anomaly will be discussed.

  1. The model is inspired by data about breaking of universality of weak interactions in neutral B decays possibly manifesting itself also in the anomaly in the magnetic moment of muon. Also the different values of the charge radius deduced from hydrogen atom and muonium could reflect the breaking of universality. In the original model the breaking of universality is only effective.
  2. TGD indeed predicts a dynamical U(3) gauge symmetry whose 8+1 gauge bosons correspond to pairs of fermion and anti-fermion at opposite throats of wormhole contact. Throats are characterized by genus g=0,1,2, so that bosons are superpositions of states labelled by (g1,g2). Fermions correspond to single wormhole throat carrying fermion number and behave as U(3) triplet labelled by g.

    The charged gauge bosons with different genera for wormhole throats are expected to be very massive. The 3 neutral gauge bosons with same genus at both throats are superpositions of states (g,g) are expected to be lighter. Their charge matrices are orthogonal and necessarily break the universality of electroweak interactions. For the lowest boson family - ordinary gauge bosons - the charge matrix is proportional to unit matrix. The exchange of second generation bosons Z01 and γ1 would give rise to Yukawa potential increasing the binding energies of S-wave states. Therefore Lamb shift defined as difference between energies of S and P waves is increased and the charge radius deduced from Lamb shift becomes smaller.

  3. The model thus predicts a correct sign for the effect but the size of the effect from naive estimate assuming only γ2 and α21== α for M=2.9 TeV is almost by an order of magnitude too small. The values of the gauge couplings α2 and αZ,2 are free parameters as also the mixing angles between states (g,g). The effect is also proportional to the ratio (mμ/M(boson)2. It turns out that the inclusion of Z01 contribution and assumption α1 and αZ,1 are near color coupling strength αs gives a correct prediction.
Motivations for the breaking of electroweak universality

The anomaly of charge radius could be explained also as breaking of the universality of weak interactions. Also other anomalies challenging the universality exists. The decays of neutral B-meson to lepton pairs should be same apart from corrections coming from different lepton masses by universality but this does not seem to be the case (see this). There is also anomaly in muon's magnetic moment discussed briefly here. This leads to ask whether the breaking of universality could be due to the failure of universality of electroweak interactions.

The proposal for the explanation of the muon's anomalous magnetic moment and anomaly in the decays of B-meson is inspired by a recent very special di-electron event and involves higher generations of weak bosons predicted by TGD leading to a breaking of lepton universality. Both Tommaso Dorigo (see this) and Lubos Motl (see this) tell about a spectacular 2.9 TeV di-electron event not observed in previous LHC runs. Single event of this kind is of course most probably just a fluctuation but human mind is such that it tries to see something deeper in it - even if practically all trials of this kind are chasing of mirages.

Since the decay is leptonic, the typical question is whether the dreamed for state could be an exotic Z boson. This is also the reaction in TGD framework. The first question to ask is whether weak bosons assignable to Mersenne prime M89 have scaled up copies assignable to Gaussian Mersenne M79. The scaling factor for mass would be 2(89-79)/2= 32. When applied to Z mass equal to about .09 TeV one obtains 2.88 TeV, not far from 2.9 TeV. Eureka!? Looks like a direct scaled up version of Z!? W should have similar variant around 2.6 TeV.

TGD indeed predicts exotic weak bosons and also gluons.

  1. TGD based explanation of family replication phenomenon in terms of genus-generation correspondence forces to ask whether gauge bosons identifiable as pairs of fermion and antifermion at opposite throats of wormhole contact could have bosonic counterpart for family replication. Dynamical SU(3) assignable to three lowest fermion generations labelled by the genus of partonic 2-surface (wormhole throat) means that fermions are combinatorially SU(3) triplets. Could 2.9 TeV state - if it would exist - correspond to this kind of state in the tensor product of triplet and antitriplet? The mass of the state should depend besides p-adic mass scale also on the structure of SU(3) state so that the mass would be different. This difference should be very small.
  2. Dynamical SU(3) could be broken so that wormhole contacts with different genera for the throats would be more massive than those with the same genera. This would give SU(3) singlet and two neutral states, which are analogs of η' and η and π0 in Gell-Mann's quark model. The masses of the analogs of η and π0 and the the analog of η', which I have identified as standard weak boson would have different masses. But how large is the mass difference?
  3. These 3 states are expected top have identical mass for the same p-adic mass scale, if the mass comes mostly from the analog of hadronic string tension assignable to magnetic flux tube. connecting the two wormhole contacts associates with any elementary particle in TGD framework (this is forced by the condition that the flux tube carrying monopole flux is closed and makes a very flattened square shaped structure with the long sides of the square at different space-time sheets). p-Adic thermodynamics would give a very small contribution genus dependent contribution to mass if p-adic temperature is T=1/2 as one must assume for gauge bosons (T=1 for fermions). Hence 2.95 TeV state could indeed correspond to this kind of state.
The sign of the effect is predicted correctly and the order of magnitude come out correctly

Could the exchange of massive MG,79 photon and Z0 give rise to additional electromagnetic interaction inducing the breaking of Universality? The first observation is that the binding energy of S-wave state increases but there is practically no change in the energy of P wave state. Hence the effective charge radius rp as deduced from the parameterization of binding energy different terms of proton charge radius indeed decreases.

Also the order of magnitude for the effect must come out correctly.

  1. The additional contribution in the effective Coulomb potential is Yukawa potential. In S-wave state this would give a contribution to the binding energy in a good approximation given by the expectation value of the Yukawa potential, which can be parameterized as

    V(r)= g2 e-Mr/r ,&g2 = 4π kα .

    The expectation differs from zero significantly only in S-wave state characterized by principal quantum number n. Since the exponent function goes exponentially to zero in the p-adic length scale associated with 2.9 TeV mass, which is roughly by a factor 32 times shorter than intermediate boson mass scale, hydrogen atom wave function is constant in excellent approximation in the effective integration volume. This gives for the energy shift

    Δ E= g2| Ψ(0)|2 × I ,

    Ψ(0) 2 =[22/n2]×(1/a03) ,

    a0= 1/(mα) ,

    I= ∫ (e-Mr/r) r2drdΩ =4π/3M2.

    For the energy shift and its ratio to ground state energy

    En= α2/2n2× m

    one obtains the expression

    Δ En= 64π2 α/n2 α3 (m/M)2 × m ,

    Δ En/En= (27/3) π2α2 k2(m/M)2 .

    For k=1 and M=2.9 one has Δ En/En ≈ 3× 10-11 for muon.

Consider next Lamb shift.

  1. Lamb shift as difference of energies between S and P wave states (see this) is approximately given by

    Δn (Lamb)/En= 13α3/2n .

    For n=2 this gives Δ2 (Lamb)/E2= 4.9× 10-7.

  2. The parameterization for the Lamb shift reads as

    Δ E(rp) =a - brp2 +crp3 = 209.968(5) - 5.2248 × r2p + 0.0347 × r3p meV ,

    where the charge radius rp=.8750 is expressed in femtometers and energy in meVs.

  3. The reduction of rp by 3.3 per cent allows to estimate the reduction of Lamb shift (attractive additional potential reduces it). The relative change of the Lamb shift is

    x=[Δ E(rp))-Δ E(rp(exp))]/Δ E(rp)

    = [- 5.2248 × (r2p- r2p(exp)) + 0.0347 × ( r3p-r3p(exp))]/[209.968(5) - 5.2248 × r2p + 0.0347 × r3p(th)] .

    The estimate gives x= 1.2× 10-3.

This value can be compared with the prediction. For n=2 ratio of Δ En/Δ En(Lamb) is

x=Δ En/Δ En (Lamb)= k2 × [29π2/3×13α] × (m/M)2 .

For M=2.9 TeV the numerical estimate gives x≈ (1/3)×k2 × 10-4. The value of x deduced from experimental data is x≈ 1.2× 10-3. There is discrepancy of one order of magnitude. For k≈ 5 a correct order of magnitude is obtained. There are thus good hopes that the model works.

The contribution of Z01 exchange is neglected in the above estimate. Is it present and can it explain the discrepancy?

  1. In the case of deuterium the weak isospins of proton and deuterium are opposite so that their contributions to the Z01 vector potential cancel. If Z01 contribution for proton can be neglected, one has Δ rp=Δ rd.

    One however has Δ rp≈ 2.75 Δ rd. Hence Z01 contribution to Δ rp should satisfy Δ rp(Z01)≈ 1.75×Δ rp1). This requires αZ,11, which is true also for the ordinary gauge bosons. The weak isospins of electron and proton are opposite so that the atom is weak isospin singlet in Abelian sense, and one has I3pI3μ= -1/4 and attractive interaction. The condition relating rp and rZ suggests

    αZ,11≈ 286=4+13 .

    In standard model one has αZ/α= 1/[sin2W)cos2W)] =5.6 for sin2W)=.23 . One has upper bound αZ,11 ≥ 4 saturated for sin2W,1) =1/2. Weinberg angle can be expressed as

    sin2W,1)= (1/2)[1 - (1-4( α1Z,1)1/2] .

    αZ,11≈ 28/6 gives sin2W,1) = (1/2)[1 -(1/7)1/2] ≈ .31.

    The contribution to the axial part of the potential depending on spin need not cancel and could give a spin dependent contribution for both proton and deuteron.

  2. If the scale of α1 and αZ,1 is that of αs and if the factor 2.75 emerges in the proposed manner, one has k2≈ 2.75× 10= 27.5 rather near to the rough estimate k2≈ 27 from data for proton.

    Note however than there are mixing angles involved corresponding to the diagonal hermitian family charge matrix Q= (a,b,c) satisfying a2+b2+c2=1 and the condition a+b+c=0 expressing the orthogonality with the electromagnetic charge matrix (1,1,1)/31/2 expressing electroweak universality for ordinary electroweak bosons. For instance, one could have (a,b,c)= (0,1,-1)/21/2 for the second generation and (a,b,c)= (2,-1,-1)/61/2 for the third generation. In this case the above estimate would would be scaled down: α1→ 2α1/3≈ 1/20.5.

To sum up, the proposed model is successful at quantitative level allowing to understand the different changes for charge radius for proton and deuteron and estimate the values of electroweak couplings of the second generation of weak bosons apart from the uncertainty due to the family charge matrix. Muon's magnetic moment anomaly and decays of neutral B allow to test the model and perhaps fix the remaining two mixing angles.

See the article Could second generation of weak bosons explain the reduction of proton charge radius?

For background see the chapters New Physics Predicted by TGD: Part I and New Physics Predicted by TGD: Part II.

See the chapter New Particle Physics Predicted by TGD.

Symplectic structure for M4, CP breaking, matter-antimatter asymmetry, and electroweak symmetry breaking

The preparation of an article about number theoretic aspects of TGD forced to go through various related ideas and led to a considerable integration of the ideas. In this note idea about the symplectic structure of M4 is discussed although it is not directly related to number theoretic aspects of TGD.

  1. Twistor lift of TGD suggests strongly a symmetry between M4 and CP2. In particular, M4 should have the analog of symplectic structure.
  2. It has been already noticed that this structure could allow to understand both CP breaking and matter-antimatter asymmetry from first principles. A further study showed that it can also allow to understand electroweak symmetry breaking.
Consider now the delicacies of this picture.
  1. Should assign also to M4 the analog of symplectic structure giving an additional contribution to the induced Kähler form? The symmetry between M4 and CP2 suggests this, and this term could be highly relevant for the understanding of the observed CP breaking and matter antimatter asymmetry. Poincare invariance is not lost since the needed moduli space for M4 Kähler forms would be the moduli space of CDs forced by ZEO in any case, and M4 Kähler form would serve as the correlate for fixing rest system and spin quantization axis in quantum measurement.
  2. Also induced spinor fields are present. The well-definedness of electro-magnetic charge for the spinor modes forces in the generic case the localization of the modes of induced spinor fields at string world sheets (and possibly to partonic 2-surfaces) at which the induced charged weak gauge fields and possibly also neutral Z0 gauge field vanish. The analogy with branes and super-symmetry force to consider two options.

    Option I: The fundamental action principle for space-time surfaces contains besides 4-D action also 2-D action assignable to string world sheets, whose topological part (magnetic flux) gives rise to a coupling term to Kähler gauge potentials assignable to the 1-D boundaries of string world sheets containing also geodesic length part. Super-symplectic symmetry demands that modified Dirac action has 1-, 2-, and 4-D parts: spinor modes would exist at both string boundaries, string world sheets, and space-time interior. A possible interpretation for the interior modes would be as generators of space-time super-symmetries.

    This option is not quite in the spirit of SH and string tension appears as an additional parameter. Also the conservation of em charge forces 2-D string world sheets carrying vanishing induced W fields and this is in conflict with the existence of 4-D spinor modes unless they satisfy the same condition. This looks strange.

    Option II: Stringy action and its fermionic counterpart are effective actions only and justified by SH. In this case there are no problems of interpretation. SH requires only that the induced spinor fields at string world sheets determine them in the interior much like the values of analytic function at curve determine it in an open set of complex plane. At the level of quantum theory the scattering amplitudes should be determined by the data at string world sheets. If induced W fields at string world sheets are vanishing, the mixing of different charge states in the interior of X4 would not make itself visible at the level of scattering amplitudes! In this case 4-D spinor modes do not define space-time super-symmetries.

    This option seems to be the only logical one. It is also simplest and means that quantum TGD would reduce to string model apart from number theoretical discretization of space-time surface bringing in dark matter as heff/h=n phases with n identifiable as factor of the order of the Galois group of extension of rationals. This would also lead to adelic physics, predict preferred extensions and identify corresponding ramified primes as preferred p-adic primes.

  3. Why the string world sheets coding for effective action should carry vanishing weak gauge fields? If M4 has the analog of Kähler structure, one can speak about Lagrangian sub-manifolds in the sense that the sum of the symplectic forms of M4 and CP2 projected to Lagrangian sub-manifold vanishes. Could the induced spinor fields for effective action be localized to generalized Lagrangian sub-manifolds? This would allow both string world sheets and 4-D space-time surfaces but SH would select 2-D Lagrangian manifolds. At the level of effective action the theory would be incredibly simple.

    Induced spinor fields at string world sheets could obey the "dynamics of avoidance" in the sense that both the induced weak gauge fields W,Z0 and induced Kähler form (to achieve this U(1) gauge potential must be sum of M4 and CP2 parts) would vanish for the regions carrying induced spinor fields. They would coupleonly to the induced em field (!) given by the vectorial R12 part of CP2 spinor curvature for D=2,4. For D=1 at boundaries of string world sheets the coupling to gauge potentials would be non-trivial since gauge potentials need not vanish there. Spinorial dynamics would be extremely simple and would conform with the vision about symmetry breaking of weak group to electromagnetic gauge group.

    The projections of canonical currents of Kähler action to string world sheets would vanish, and the projections of the 4-D modified gamma matrices would define just the induced 2-D metric. If the induced metric of space-time surface reduces to an orthogonal direct sum of string world sheet metric and metric acting in normal space, the flow defined by 4-D canonical momentum currents is parallel to string world sheet. These conditions could define the "boundary" conditions at string world sheets for SH.

To sum up, the notion M4 symplectic structure is now on rather firm basis both physically and mathematically.

See the chapter Topological Geometrodynamics: Basic Visions or the article Some questions related to the twistor lift of TGD.

Questions about TGD

In FB I was made a question about general aspects of TGD. It was impossible to answer the question with few lines and I decided to write a blog posting. I am sorry for typos in the hastily written text. A more detailed article Can one apply Occam’s razor as a general purpose debunking argument to TGD? tries to emphasize the simplicity of the basic principles of TGD and of the resulting theory.

A. In what aspects TGD extends other theory/theories of physics?

I will replace "extends" with "modifies" since TGD also simplifies in many respects. I shall restrict the considerations to the ontological level which to my view is the really important level.

  1. Space-time level is where TGD started from. Space-time as an abstract 4-geometry is replaced as space-time as 4-surface in M4× CP2. In GRT space-time is small deformation of Minkowski space.

    In TGD both Relativity Principle (RP) of Special Relativity (SRT) and General Coordinate Invariance (GCI) and Equivalence Principle (EP) of General Relativity hold true. In GRT RP is given up and leads to the loss of conservation laws since Noether theorem cannot be applied anymore: this is what led to the idea about space-time as surface in H. Strong form of holography (SH) is a further principle reducing to strong form of GCI (SGCI).

  2. TGD as a physical theory extends to a theory of consciousness and cognition. Observer as something external to the Universe becomes part of physical system - the notion of self - and quantum measurement theory which is the black sheet of quantum theory extends to a theory of consciousness and also of cognition relying of p-adic physics as correlate for cognition. Also quantum biology becomes part of fundamental physics and consciousness and life are seen as basic elements of physical existence rather than something limited to brain.

    One important aspect is a new view about time: experienced time and geometric time are not one and same thing anymore although closely related. ZEO explains how the experienced flow and its direction emerges. The prediction is that both arrows of time are possible and that this plays central role in living matter.

  3. p-Adic physics is a new element and an excellent candidate for a correlate of cognition. For instance, imagination could be understood in terms of non-determinism of p-adic partial differential equations for p-adic variants of space-time surfaces. p-Adic physics and fusion of real and various p-adic physics to adelic physics provides fusion of physics of matter with that of cognition in TGD inspired theory of cognition. This means a dramatic extension of ordinary physics. Number Theoretical Universality states that in certain sense various p-adic physics and real physics can be seen as extensions of physics based on algebraic extensions of rationals (and also those generated by roots of e inducing finite-D extensions of p-adics).
  4. Zero energy ontology (ZEO) in which so called causal diamonds (CDs, analogs Penrose diagrams) can be seen as being forced by very simple condition: the volume action forced by twistorial lift of TGD must be finite. CD would represent the perceptive field defined by finite volume of imbedding space H=M4× CP2.

    ZEO implies that conservation laws formulated only in the scale of given CD do not anymore fix select just single solution of field equations as in classical theory. Theories are strictly speaking impossible to test in the old classical ontology. In ZEO testing is possible be sequence of state function reductions giving information about zero energy states.

    In principle transition between any two zero energy states - analogous to events specified by the initial and final states of event - is in principle possible but Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) as basic variational principle of state function reduction and of consciousness restricts the possibilities by forcing generation of negentropy: the notion of negentropy requires p-adic physics.

    Zero energy states are quantum superpositions of classical time evolutions for 3-surfaces and classical physics becomes exact part of quantum physics: in QFTs this is only the outcome of stationary phase approximation. Path integral is replaced with well-defined functional integral- not over all possible space-time surface but pairs of 3-surfaces at the ends of space-time at opposite boundaries of CD.

    ZEO leads to a theory of consciousness as quantum measurement theory in which observer ceases to be outsider to the physical world. One also gets rid of the basic problem caused by the conflict of the non-determinism of state function reduction with the determinism of the unitary evolution. This is obviously an extension of ordinary physics.

  5. Hierarchy of Planck constants represents also an extension of quantum mechanics at QFT limi. At fundamental level one actually has the standard value of h but at QFT limit one has effective Planck constant heff =n× h, n=1,2,... this generalizes quantum theory. This scaling of h has a simple topological interpretation: space-time surface becomes n-fold covering of itself and the action becomes n-multiple of the original which can be interpreted as heff=n×h.

    The most important applications are to biology, where quantum coherence could be understood in terms of a large value of heff/h. The large n phases resembles the large N limit of gauge theories with gauge couplings behaving as α ∝ 1/N used as a kind of mathematical trick. Also gravitation is involved: heff is associated with the flux tubes mediating various interactions (being analogs to wormholes in ER-EPR correspondence). In particular, one can speak about hgr, which Nottale introduced originally and heff= hgr plays key role in quantum biology according to TGD.

B. In what sense TGD is simplification/extension of existing theory?

  1. Classical level: Space-time as 4-surface of H means a huge reduction in degrees of freedom. There are only 4 field like variables - suitably chosen 4 coordinates of H=M4× CP2. All classical gauge fields and gravitational field are fixed by the surface dynamics. There are no primary gauge fields or gravitational fields nor any other fields in TGD Universe and they appear only at the QFT limit.

    GRT limit would mean that many-sheeted space-time is replaced by single slightly curved region of M4. The test particle - small particle like 3-surface - touching the sheets simultaneously experience sum of gravitational forces and gauge forces. It is natural to assume that this superposition corresponds at QFT limit to the sum for the deviations of induced metrics of space-time sheets from flat metric and sum of induce gauge potentials. These would define the fields in standard model + GRT. At fundamental level effects rather than fields would superpose. This is absolutely essential for the possibility of reducing huge number field like degrees of freedom. One can obviously speak of emergence of various fields.

    A further simplification is that only preferred extremals for which data coding for them are reduced by SH to 2-D string like world sheets and partonic 2-surfaces are allowed. TGD is almost like string model but space-time surfaces are necessary for understanding the fact that experiments must be analyzed using classical 4-D physics. Things are extremely simple at the level of single space-time sheet.

    Complexity emerges from many-sheetedness. From these simple basic building bricks - minimal surface extremals of Kähler action (not the extremal property with respect to Kähler action and volume term strongly suggested by the number theoretical vision plus analogs of Super Virasoro conditions in initial data) - one can engineer space-time surfaces with arbitrarily complex topology - in all length scales. An extension of existing space-time concept emerges. Extremely simple locally, extremely complex globally with topological information added to the Maxwellian notion of fields (topological field quantization allowing to talk about field identify of system/field body/magnetic body.

    Another new element is the possibility of space-time regions with Euclidian signature of the induced metric. These regions correspond to 4-D "lines" of general scattering diagrams. Scattering diagrams has interpretation in terms of space-time geometry and topology.

  2. The construction of quantum TGD using canonical quantization or path integral formalism failed completely for Kähler action by its huge vacuum degeneracy. The presence of volume term still suffers from complete failure of perturbation theory and extreme non-linearity. This led to the notion of world of classical worlds (WCW) - roughly the space of 3-surfaces. Essentially pairs of 3-surfaces at the boundaries of given CD connected by preferred extremals of action realizing SH and SGCI.

    The key principle is geometrization of the entire quantum theory, not only of classical fields geometrized by space-time as surface vision. This requires geometrization of hermitian conjugation and representation of imaginary unit geometrically. Kähler geometry for WCW makes this possible and is fixed once Kähler function defining Kähler metric is known. Kähler action for a preferred extremal of Kähler action defining space-time surface as an analog of Bohr orbit was the first guess but twistor lift forced to add volume term having interpretation in terms of cosmological constant.

    Already the geometrization of loop spaces demonstrated that the geometry - if it exists - must have maximal symmetries (isometries). There are excellent reasons to expect that this is true also in D=3. Physics would be unique from its mathematical existence!

  3. WCW has also spinor structure. Spinors correspond to fermionic Fock states using oscillator operators assignable to the induced spinor fields - free spinor fiels. WCW gamma matrices are linear combinations of these oscillator operators and Fermi statistics reduces to spinor geometry.

  4. There is no quantization in TGD framework at the level of WCW. The construction of quantum states and S-matrix reduces to group theory by the huge symmetries of WCW. Therefore zero energy states of Universe (or CD) correspond formally to classical WCW spinor fields satisfying WCW Dirac equation analogous to Super Virasoro conditions and defining representations for the Yangian generalization of the isometries of WCW (so called super-symplectic group). In ZEO stated are analogous to pairs of initial and final states and the entanglement coefficients between positive and negative energy parts of zero energy states expected to be fixed by Yangian symmetry define scattering matrix and have purely group theoretic interpretation. If this is true, entire dynamics would reduce to group theory in ZEO.

C. What is the hypothetical applicability of the extension - in energies, sizes, masses etc?

TGD is a unified theory and is meant to apply in all scales. Usually the unifications rely on reductionistic philosophy and try to reduce physics to Planck scale. Also super string models tried this and failed: what happens at long length scales was completely unpredictable (landscape catastrophe).

Many-sheeted space-time however forces to adopt fractal view. Universe would be analogous to Mandelbrot fractal down to CP2 scale. This predicts scaled variants of say hadron physics and electroweak physics. p-Adic length scale hypothesis and hierarchy of phases of matter with heff=n×h interpreted as dark matter gives a quantitative realization of this view.

  1. p-Adic physics shows itself also at the level of real physics. One ends up to the vision that particle mass squared has thermal origin: the p-adic variant of particle mass square is given as thermal mass squared given by p-adic thermodynamics mappable to real mass squared by what I call canonical identification. p-Adic length scale hypothesis states that preferred p-adic primes characterizing elementary particles correspond to primes near to power of 2: p=about 2k. p-Adic length scale is proportional to p1/2.

    This hypothesis is testable and it turns out that one can predict particle mass rather accurately. This is highly non-trivial since the sensitivity to the integer k is exponential. So called Mersenne primes turn out to be especially favoured. This part of theory was originally inspired by the regularities of particle mass spectrum. I have developed arguments for why the crucial p-adic length scale hypothesis - actually its generalization - should hold true. A possible interpretation is that particles provide cognitive representations of themselves by p-adic thermodynamics.

  2. p-Adic length scale hypothesis leads also to consider the idea that particles could appear as different p-adically scaled up variants. For instance, ordinary hadrons to which one can assign Mersenne prime M107=2107-1 could have fractally scaled variants. M89 and MG,107 (Gaussian prime) would be two examples and there are indications at LHC for these scaled up variants of hadron physics. These fractal copies of hadron physics and also of electroweak physics would correspond to extension of standard model.
  3. Dark matter hierarchy predicts zoomed up copies of various particles. The simplest assumption is that masses are not changed in the zooming up. One can however consider that binding energy scale scales non-trivially. The dark phases would emerge are quantum criticality and give rise to the associated long range correlations (quantum lengths are typically scaled up by heff/h=n).

D. What is the leading correction/contribution to physical effects due to TGD onto particles, interactions, gravitation, cosmology?

  1. Concerning particles I already mentioned the key predictions.
    1. The existence of scaled variants of various particles and entire branches of physics. The fundamental quantum numbers are just standard model quantum numbers code by CP2 geometry.

    2. Particle families have topological description meaning that space-time topology would be an essential element of particle physics. The genus of partonic 2-surfaces (number of handles attached to sphere) is g=0,1,2,... and would give rise to family replication. g<2 partonic 2-surfaces have always global conformal symmetry Z2 and this suggests that they give rise to elementary particles identifiable as bound states of g handles. For g>2 this symmetry is absent in the generic case which suggests that they can be regarded as many-handle states with mass continuum rather than elementary particles. 2-D anyonic systems could represent an example of this.
    3. A hierarchy of dynamical symmetries as remnants of super-symplectic symmetry however suggests itself. The super-symplectic algebra possess infinite hierarchy of isomorphic sub-algebras with conformal weights being n-multiples of for those for the full algebra (fractal structure again possess also by ordinary conformal algebras). The hypothesis is that sub-algebra specified by n and its commutator with full algebra annihilate physical states and that corresponding classical Noether charges vanish. This would imply that super-symplectic algebra reduces to finite-D Kac-Moody algebra acting as dynamical symmetries. The connection with ADE hierarchy of Kac-Moody algebras suggests itself. This would predict new physics. Condensed matter physics comes in mind.
    4. Number theoretic vision suggests that Galois groups for the algebraic extensions of rationals act as dynamical symmetry groups. They would act on algebraic discretizations of 3-surfaces and space-time surfaces necessary to realize number theoretical universality. This would be completely new physics.
  2. Interactions would be mediated at QFT limit by standard model gauge fields and gravitons. QFT limit however loses all information about many-sheetedness and there would be anomalies reflecting this information loss. In many-sheeted space-time light can propagate along several paths and the time taken to travel along light-like geodesic from A to B depends on space-time sheet since the sheet is curved and warped. Neutrinos and gamma rays from SN1987A arriving at different times would represent a possible example of this. It is quite possible that the outer boundaries of even macroscopic objects correspond to boundaries between Euclidian and Minkowskian regions at the space-time sheet of the object.

    The failure of QFTs to describe bound states of say hydrogen atom could be second example: many-sheetedness and identification of bound states as single connected surface formed by proton and electron would be essential and taken into account in wave mechanical description but not in QFT description.

  3. Concerning gravitation the basic outcome is that by number theoretical vision all preferred extremals are extremals of both Kähler action and volume term. This is true for all known extremals what happens if one introduces the analog of Kähler form in M4 is an open question).

    Minimal surfaces carrying no K&aum;lher field would be the basic model for gravitating system. Minimal surface equation are non-linear generalization of d'Alembert equation with gravitational self-coupling to induce gravitational metric. In static case one has analog for the Laplace equation of Newtonian gravity. One obtains analog of gravitational radiation as "massless extremals" and also the analog of spherically symmetric stationary metric.

    Blackholes would be modified. Besides Schwartschild horizon which would differ from its GRT version there would be horizon where signature changes. This would give rise to a layer structure at the surface of blackhole.

  4. Concerning cosmology the hypothesis has been that RW cosmologies at QFT limit can be modelled as vacuum extremals of Kä hler action. This is admittedly ad hoc assumption inspired by the idea that one has infinitely long p-adic length scale so that cosmological constant behaving like 1/p as function of p-adic length scale assignable with volume term in action vanishes and leaves only Kähler action. This would predict that cosmology with critical is specified by a single parameter - its duration as also over-critical cosmology. Only sub-critical cosmologies have infinite duration.

    One can look at the situation also at the fundamental level. The addition of volume term implies that the only RW cosmology realizable as minimal surface is future light-cone of M4. Empty cosmology which predicts non-trivial slightly too small redshift just due to the fact that linear Minkowski time is replaced with lightcone proper time constant for the hyperboloids of M4+. Locally these space-time surfaces are however deformed by the addition of topologically condensed 3-surfaces representing matter. This gives rise to additional gravitational redshift and the net cosmological redshift. This also explains why astrophysical objects do not participate in cosmic expansion but only comove. They would have finite size and almost Minkowski metric.

    The gravitational redshift would be basically a kinematical effect. The energy and momentum of photons arriving from source would be conserved but the tangent space of observer would be Lorentz-boosted with respect to source and this would course redshift.

    The very early cosmology could be seen as gas of arbitrarily long cosmic strings in H (or M4) with 2-D M4 projection. Horizon would be infinite and TGD suggests strongly that large values of heff makes possible long range quantum correlations. The phase transition leading to generation of space-time sheets with 4-D M4 projection would generate many-sheeted space-time giving rise to GRT space-time at QFT limit. This phase transition would be the counterpart of the inflationary period and radiation would be generated in the decay of cosmic string energy to particles.

See the new chapter Can one apply Occam's razor as a general purpose debunking argument to TGD? or article with the same title.

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