work until it is reactivated.
This Concept Map, created with IHMC CmapTools, has information related to: Nuclear string model.cmap, NUCLEAR STRING MODEL 1. String like objects domina- te the physics in TGD Uni- verse. a) TGD is more stringy than string models although funda- mental objects are 3-surfaces rather than strings. b) The first reason is fractality. Second reason is that string world sheets emerge from Kähler-Dirac equation by re- quiring that em charge is well- defined for spi-nor modes. c) This is achieved if spinor modes are restricted to spa- ce-time regions with 2-D CP_2 projection with vanish- ing classical W boson fields. In generic case the spinor mo- des are restricted to 2-D string world sheets but also entire space-time surface can have 4-D CP_2 projection in which case one has slicing by string world sheets. Cosmic strings might correspond to this situation. d) The primordial cosmic de- cay to elementary particles and during radiation domina- ted phase Kähler magnetic flux tubes accompanying string world sheets replace cosmic strings. e) One expects that Kähler magnetic flux tubes appear not not only in elementary partic- le length scales but in all length scales: nuclear, molecular, biological, astrophysical and cosmological length scales., NUCLEAR STRING MODEL 3. A model for nuclear string. a) The nuclei in the string must be bound to form a string by by some interaction. Color bonds between nucleon space- time sheets allow to achieve this. b) The color bonds have quark quark and antiquark at their ends. One can assume vanish- ing of the total color charge of the bond so that it would form a meson like state but with a p- adic length scale longer than hadronic one. A good guess is M_107 assignable to leptons. The corresponding p-adic mass scale is of order of MeV charac- terizing nuclear physics. Even longer p-adic length scale can be considered. A scaled down copy of hadron physics would be in question. c) The flux tubes in question has quark and antiquark at its ends. They could have also different charges so that the charge of the flux tube could be Q= 0,1 or -1. Q=0 would give ordinary nuclei which consist of protons and neutrons. Q=+/-1 predicts nuclei that have proton and neutron numbers differing from those deduced from mass number (A=N+Z) and charge (Z). d) This kind of exotic nuclei could look like fermions but be actually bosons and biological some important fermionic ions might be actually bosons if they have charged color bonds and form Bose-Einstein condensates., NUCLEAR STRING MODEL 4. Indications for the existence exotic nuclei with charged color bonds. a) The intensity of X ray radia- tion from Sun at Earth varies pe- riodically since the distance from Sun is varying. It has been obser- ved that nuclear decay rates vary also periodically. Shnoll has ob- served similar periodicity both in nuclear and chemical reaction rates. b) If the ground state energies of exotinic nuclei are in keV scale, these observations could be ex- plained. Gamma rays would in- duce W boson emissions changing the em charge of two color bonds. For instance two neutral color bonds would develop charges +1 and -1. It is also possible that color bond with keV energy scale is excited. As a consequence the average nuclear decay and reacti- ons rates change., NUCLEAR STRING MODEL 2. Nuclear string model makes following assumptions. a) Nucleons (proton and neutron) combine to form string like struc- tures. Nucleus would consists of this kind of folded strings. There is analogy with protein molecules which also form highly folded struc- tures. Also now magnetic flux tubes as underlying structures are sug- gestive and the connection might be much deeper than one might expect. b) Whether strings contain only neutrons or protons or both is an open question. The proposed model for dark nucle- ar strings as a realization of genetic code at dark nuclear physics level assumes that these strings consists of dark protons with non-standard value h_eff= n×h of Planck con- stant. c) Nucleon space-time sheets are connected by color magnetic bonds carrying Kähler magnetic flux and therefore also Kähler magnetic flux since classical color field is propor- tional to the induced Kähler form. d) The model should explain why certain nuclei have especially large binding energy and are thus espe- cially stable. This occurs for magic proton and neutron numbers. Har- monic oscillator model for nuclei explains these numbers satisfactorily and one expects that the assumption about highly coiled nuclear strings justifies the assumption that mass density is constant for protons and neutrons in turn justifying the har- monic oscillator model.