work until it is reactivated.
This Concept Map, created with IHMC CmapTools, has information related to: The role of microtubules.cmap, THE ROLE OF MICROTUBULES 4. a) Flux tubes would form a braid strands. At each node flux tube goes over or below the second one. This bit could be coded by tubulin conformation. One obtains braiding defining topological quantum compu- tation (tqc) program. b) Flux tubes are identifi- able as strings whose orbits canget knotted and form 2-braids at 4-D space-time surface. This defines gene- ralization of tqc using 2- braiding. c) The reconnection of flux possibly occurring in node defines stringy vertex. This together with the braiding operation means that each node involves 2 bits. This lattice of bits defines tqc program. d) This picture is expected to apply quite generally by fractaility of TGD and magn- netic flux tube web. e) If one has 3-D coordinate grid formed by flux tubes and 3 flux tubes meet at each node, 3×2=6 bits are needed at each node to characterize tqc program. There are 2^6=64 genetic codons. A connection?, THE ROLE OF MICROTUBULES 3. TGD inspired model is based on magnetic flux tubes as carriers of supra currents. a) Flux tubes would form a helical grid at the surfa- ce of microtubule in A type state generated via a phase transition from B type state induced by AC current at resonance frequency or by dark photons. b) The phase would contain super-con- ducting dark electrons at flux tubes. This would resolve the basic objection against biological role of A type microtubules. c) The nodes of the grid would correspond to tubu- lin molecules. d) Ferro-electric square hysteresis curve would correspond to quantum phase transitions changing the direction of dark electron current. e) The TGD based model for findings of Pollack suggests that the water inside MT corresponds to "fourth phase of water" obeying stoichio- metry H_1.5O and being negatily charged due to the transfer of protons to dark protons at magnetic flux tubes outside MT. f) Microtubules could also act as quantum antennas. The continual variation of microtubule length would induce frequency modula- tion perhaps allowing to code information in same manner as in the case of "whale's song"., THE ROLE OF MICROTUBULES 1. Background: a) There is a lot of empirical support for the special role of in neuroscience. b) In Penrose- Hameroff theoryof consciousness microtubules have key role as candidates for macro- scopically quantum coherent systems. c) Microtubules consists tubulins molecules which are dimers formed from α and β tubulins and pos- sess two basic conforma- tions suggesting interpre- tation as bits. d) Microtubule is cylindrical lattice with periodicity of 13 units. It has been theorized to possess A and B forms. A form possesses helical symmetry. For B form this symmetry is broken and basic unit is 13 tubulins long. e) P and H assume that A forms dominates in living matter. It however seems that it is the B form which is stable. This is a serious objection against P-H theory. f) Second objection is that macroscopic quantum coherence is not possible at physiological temperatu- res in standard physics., THE ROLE OF MICROTUBULES 2. The findings of the team led by Anirban Bandyopathyay (hereafter B) provide proof for macroscopic quantum cohe- rence if true. a) Studies the effects of AC currents flowing through micro- tubule in different situations. There are three frequency scales corresponding to kHz, MHz, and GHz in correspondence with the structure of microtubule. The microtubule interior is either filled with water or does not contain it. Effects suggesting macroscopic quantum coherence appear only if water is present. b) B claims having found evi- dence for current carrying helical conduction pathways. The resistance does not de- pendon the length of the microtubule suggesting that the current is supracurrent inside the pathway and resistance is associated with its ends. The fact that resistence does not depend on temperature sug- gests the same. c) B claims of having detected 8 resonance frequencies in MHz range assignable to some kind of quantal excitations. d) Also evidence for square like ferroelectric hysteresis curve has been reported for current as a function of voltage suggesting quantum phase transition. e) Finds also that the properties of microtubule (in particular electronic energy levels) are same as those of tubulin. All tubulin electrons are in same vibrational state suggesting analog of Bose-Einstein conden- sate.