work until it is reactivated.
This Concept Map, created with IHMC CmapTools, has information related to: Widom-Larsen theory from TGD point of view, a) Predicts correctly the isotope ra- tios for produced particles so that the theory must be taken seriously. b) Basic step in the reaction would be governed by weak interaction. The proton of the hydrogen atom colliding with the target deuterium nucleus would transform to neuron by capturing the elecron so that Coulomb wall would disapppear and fusion reaction could occur. c) Explains why gamma radiation and neutrons are produced much less than in hot fusion. but has problems a) p+e-->n reaction is not possible for ordinary atom since the mass of electron is too small. m_e≥ 1.3 MeV would be needed instead of m_e= .5 MeV! Proposal: In the strong electric fields prevailing at the surface of the catalyst the mass of electron suffers a strong renormalization and becomes higher than 1.3 MeV. b) Weak interactions are really weak. The rate for the capture reaction is ex- tremely weak. Proposal 1: The neutron created in e- capture has extremely low energy so that the the reaction rate becomes very large (being inversely proportional to the relative velocity of neutron with respect to targed. Proposal 2: electron capture takes place quantum coherently and re- action rate is proportional to the square N^2 of the proton number rather than N., WIDOM-LARSEN MODEL FOR COLD FUSION FROM TGD POINT OF VIEW Later it has been learned that a) Something interesting happens. *Energy is liberated (Rossi reac- tor) ja cold fusion is under commer- cialization. Also Nasa studies it. *High energy protons are pro- duced and can be observed. *Selection rules for cold fusion not identical with those for hot fusion. b) The ratios of produced isoto- pes are same as in Nature! *Suggests that heavier isotopes are produced also outside Sun andthat this production might dominate! *Also the Lithium anomaly of cosmology suggests the same as well as reports of the occurren- ce of bio-fusion. *Skeptic's manner to save his world view: experimenters are swindlers adding the final products to the system. c) Cold fusion could produce besi- des energy also metals and other elements., WIDOM-LARSEN MODEL FOR COLD FUSION FROM TGD POINT OF VIEW Widom-Larsen (WL) model a) Predicts correctly the isotope ra- tios for produced particles so that the theory must be taken seriously. b) Basic step in the reaction would be governed by weak interaction. The proton of the hydrogen atom colliding with the target deuterium nucleus would transform to neuron by capturing the elecron so that Coulomb wall would disapppear and fusion reaction could occur. c) Explains why gamma radiation and neutrons are produced much less than in hot fusion., WIDOM-LARSEN MODEL FOR COLD FUSION FROM TGD POINT OF VIEW TGD model I have proposed several models for the cold fusion. The model nearest to W-L model looks like follows. a) Starting point: TGD based model for dark matter as phases with large value of Planck constant: h_eff= n×h. Compton's wave length for the particle is proportional to h_eff, so that the quantum size of the dark proton becomes large. b) Also the Compton lengths of W ja Z (mediating weak interactions) λ_c are proportional to h_eff. Weak bosons would be effectively massless in scales below λ_c. λ_c could be even of the order of atom size for h_eff ≈10^7. Weak interactions would be as strong as em interac- tion in this scale. Would solve problem a) if weak interact- ions define the basic step. This seems to work. a) E-capture still impossible kinematically. Some other mechanism is needed to achieve p→n. Solution: the exhange of dark W boson between pro- ton and target nucleus transforms proton to dark neut- ron and Coulomb wall is avoided: p+(A,Z) →n+(A,Z+1). b) The slowness of W exchange is not a problem anymore since W is effectively massless in the atomic scale. Reac- tion could also occur quantum coherently. c) Why neutrons and gammas are not observed? *Gammas: Gammas are massless and correspond to much longer wavelength that otherwise: E= h_eff/λ. Photons do not interact with visible matter unless they are first transformed to ordinary gammas. This process is slow (also biophotons would result in this kind of pro- cess). *Neutrons: Dark phase absorbes dark neutrons just likein W-L model. Interaction cross section is proportio- nal to h_eff^2 ja veru large. Large h_eff in TGD mo- del corresponds to very low energy in WL model. This mechanism could be at work also in the absorption of dark gammas. This would explain partially the heating., WIDOM-LARSEN MODEL FOR COLD FUSION FROM TGD POINT OF VIEW Cold fusion a) Pons&Fleischman studied electro- lysis. Hydrogen to a target containing deuterium at the sur-face of porous Pd catalyst.Anomalously high heat production. Not of chemical origin. Interpretation as cold fusion. b) Science community did not take the observation seriously and P&F were la- belled swindlers. c) Objections: *The measurement of heat product- ion very difficult. *Cold fusion impossible in standard nuclear physics because of Coulomb wall. *Low production rate for neutrons gammas not consistent with nuclear physics