### Is it possible to have a set with -1 elements?

I find Kea's blog interesting because it allows to get some grasp about very different styles of thinking of a mathematician and physicist. For mathematician it is very important that the result is obtained by a strict use of axioms and deduction rules. Physicist (at least me: I dare to count me as physicist) is a cognitive opportunist: it does not matter how the result is obtained by moving along axiomatically allowed paths or not, and the new result is often more like a discovery of a new axiom and physicist is ever-grateful for Gödel for giving justification for what sometimes admittedly degenerates to a creative hand-waving. For physicist ideas form a kind of bio-shere and the fate of the individual idea depends on its ability to survive, which is determined by its ability to become generalized, its consistency with other ideas, and ability to interact with other ideas to produce new ideas.

During last days we have had a little bit of discussion inspired by the problem related to the categorification of basic number theoretical structures. I have learned from Kea that sum and product are natural operations for objects of category but that subtraction and division are problematic. I dimly realize that this relates to the fact that negative numbers and inverses of integers do not have a realization as a number of elements for any set. The naive physicist inside me asks immediately: why not go from statics to dynamics and take operations (arrows with direction) as objects: couldn't this allow to define subtraction and division? Is the problem that the axiomatization of group theory requires something which purest categorification does not give? Or aren't the numbers representable in terms of operations of finite groups not enough? In any case cyclic groups would allow to realize roots of unity as operations (Z2 would give -1).

I also wonder in my own simplistic manner why the algebraic numbers might not somehow result via the representations of permutation group of infinite number of elements containing all finite groups and thus Galois groups of algebraic extensions as subgroups? Why not take the elements of this group as objects of the basic category and continue by building group algebra and hyper-finite factors of type II1 isomorphic to spinors of world of classical worlds, and...yes-yes-yes, I must stop!

This discussion led me to ask what the situation is in the case of p-adic numbers. Could it be possible to represent the negative and inverse of p-adic integer, and in fact any p-adic number, as a geometric object? In other words, does a set with -1 or 1/n elements exist? If this were in some sense true for all p-adic number fields, then all this wisdom combined together might provide something analogous to the adelic representation for the norm of a rational number as product of its p-adic norms.

Of course, this representation might not help to define p-adics or reals categorically but might help to understand how p-adic cognitive representations defined as subsets for rational intersections of real and p-adic space-time sheets could represent p-adic number as the number of points of p-adic fractal having infinite number of points in real sense but finite in the p-adic sense. This would also give a fundamental cognitive role for p-adic fractals as cognitive representations of numbers.

1. How to construct a set with -1 elements?

The basic observation is that p-adic -1 has the representation

-1=(p-1)/(1-p)=(p-1)(1+p+p2+p3..)

As a real number this number is infinite or -1 but as a p-adic number the series converges and has p-adic norm equal to 1. One can also map this number to a real number by canonical identification taking the powers of p to their inverses: one obtains p in this particular case. As a matter fact, any rational with p-adic norm equal to 1 has similar power series representation.

The idea would be to represent a given p-adic number as the infinite number of points (in real sense) of a p-adic fractal such that p-adic topology is natural for this fractal. This kind of fractals can be constructed in a simple manner: from this more below. This construction allows to represent any p-adic number as a fractal and code the arithmetic operations to geometric operations for these fractals.

These representations - interpreted as cognitive representations defined by intersections of real and p-adic space-time sheets - are in practice approximate if real space-time sheets are assumed to have a finite size: this is due to the finite p-adic cutoff implied by this assumption and the meaning a finite resolution. One can however say that the p-adic space-time itself could by its necessarily infinite size represent the idea of given p-adic number faithfully.

This representation applies also to the p-adic counterparts of algebraic numbers in case that they exist. For instance, roughly one half of p-adic numbers have square root as ordinary p-adic number and quite generally algebraic operations on p-adic numbers can give rise to p-adic numbers so that also these could have set theoretic representation. For p mod 4=1 also sqrt(-1) exists: for instance, for p=5: 22=4=-1 mod 5 guarantees this so that also imaginary unit and complex numbers would have a fractal representation. Also many transcendentals possess this kind of representation. For instance exp(xp) exists as a p-adic number if x has p-adic norm not larger than 1. log(1+xp) also.

Hence a quite impressive repertoire of p-adic counterparts of real numbers would have representation as a p-adic fractal for some values of p. Adelic vision would suggest that combining these representations one might be able to represent quite a many real numbers. In the case of π I do not find any obvious p-adic representation (for instance sin(π/6)=1/2 does not help since the p-adic variant of the Taylor expansion of π/6;=arcsin(1/2) does not converge p-adically for any value of p). It might be that there are very many transcendentals not allowing fractal representation for any value of p.

2. Conditions on the fractal representations of p-adic numbers

Consider now the construction of the fractal representations in terms of rational intersections of real real and p-adic space-time sheets. The question is what conditions are natural for this representation if it corresponds to a cognitive representation is realized in the rational intersection of real and p-adic space-time sheets obeying same algebraic equations.

1. Pinary cutoff is the analog of the decimal cutoff but is obtained by dropping away high positive rather than negative powers of p to get a finite real number: example of pinary cutoff is -1=(p-1)(1+p+p2+...)→ (p-1)(1+p+p2). This cutoff must reduce to a fractal cutoff meaning a finite resolution due to a finite size for the real space-time sheet. In the real sense the p-adic fractal cutoff means not forgetting details below some scale but cutting out all above some length scale. Physical analog would be forgetting all frequencies below some cutoff frequency in Fourier expansion.

The motivation comes from the fact that TGD inspired consciousness assigns to a given biological body there is associated a field body or magnetic body containing dark matter with large hbar and quantum controlling the behavior of biological body and so strongly identifying with it so as to belief that this all ends up to a biological death. This field body has an onion like fractal structure and a size of at least order of light-life: at least 100 happy light years in my own case is my optimistic expectation. Of course, also larger onion layers could be present and would represent those levels of cognitive consciousness not depending on the sensory input on biological body: some altered states of consciousness could relate to these levels. In any case, the larger the magnetic body, the better the numerical skills of the p-adic mathematician;-).

2. Lowest pinary digits of x= x0+x1p+x2p2+..., xn<p must have the most reliable representation since they are the most significant ones. The representation must be also highly redundant to guarantee reliability. This requires repetitions and periodicity. This is guaranteed if the representation is hologram like with segments of length pn with digit xn represented again and again in all segments of length pm, m>n.

3. The TGD based physical constraint is that the representation must be realizable in terms of induced classical fields assignable to the field body hierarchy of an intelligent system interested in artistic expression of p-adic numbers using its own field body as instrument. As a matter, sensory and cognitive representations are realized at field body in TGD Universe and EEG is in a fundamental role in building this representation. By p-adic fractality fractal wavelets are the most natural candidate. The fundamental wavelet should represent the p different pinary digits and its scaled up variants would correspond to various powers of p so that the representation would reduce to a Fourier expansion of a classical field.

3. Concrete representation

Consider now a concrete candidate for a representation satisfying these constraints.

y= pn0x, x= ∑ xnpn, n≥n0=0.

If one has representation for a p-adic unit x the representation of is by a purely geometric fractal scaling of the representation by pn. Hence one can restrict the consideration to p-adic units.

2. To construct the representation take a real line starting from origin and divide it into segments with lengths 1, p, p2,.. In TGD framework this scalings come actually as powers of p1/2 but this is just a technical detail.

3. It is natural to realize the representation in terms of periodic field patterns. One can use wavelets with fractal spectrum pnλ0 of "wavelet lengths", where λ0 is the fundamental wavelength. Fundamental wavelet should have p different patterns correspond to the p values of pinary digit as its structures. Periodicity guarantees the hologram like character enabling to pick n:th digit by studying the field pattern in scale pn anywhere inside the field body.

4. Periodicity guarantees also that the intersections of p-adic and real space-time sheets can represent the values of pinary digits. For instance, wavelets could be such that in a given p-adic scale the number of rational points in the intersection of the real and p-adic space-time sheet equals to xn. This would give in the limit of an infinite pinary expansion a set theoretic realization of any p-adic number in which each pinary digit xn corresponds to infinite copies of a set with xn elements and fractal cutoff due to the finite size of real space-time sheet would bring in a finite precision. Note however that p-adic space-time sheet necessarily has an infinite size and it is only real world realization of the representation which has finite accuracy.

5. A concrete realization for this object would be as an infinite tree with xn+1 ≤ p branches in each node at level n (xn+1 is needed in order to avoid the splitting tree at xn=0). In 2-adic case -1 would be represented by an infinite pinary tree. Negative powers of p correspond to the of the tree extending to a finite depth in ground.

For details see the chapter Category Theory, Quantum TGD, and TGD Inspired Theory of Consciousness.