I have been working last weeks with quantum adeles. This has involved several wrong tracks and about five days ago a catastrophe splitting the chapter "Quantum Adeles" to two pieces entitled "Quantum Adeles" and "About Absolute Galois Group" took place, and simplified dramatically the view about what adeles are and led to the notion of quantum mathematics. At least now the situation seems to be settled down and I see no signs about possible new catastrophes. I glue the abstract of the re-incarnated "Quantum Adeles" below.

Quantum arithmetics provides a possible resolution of a long-lasting challenge of finding a mathematical justification for the canonical identification mapping p-adics to reals playing a key role in TGD - in particular in p-adic mass calculations. p-Adic numbers have p-adic pinary expansions ∑ anpn satisfying an<p. of powers pn to be products of primes p1<p satisfying an<p for ordinary p-adic numbers. One could map this expansion to its quantum counterpart by replacing an with their counterpart and by canonical identification map p→ 1/p the expansion to real number. This definition might be criticized as being essentially equivalent with ordinary p-adic numbers since one can argue that the map of coefficients an to their quantum counterparts takes place only in the canonical identification map to reals.

One could however modify this recipe. Represent integer n as a product of primes l and allow for l all expansions for which the coefficients an consist of primes p1<p but give up the condition an<p. This would give 1-to-many correspondence between ordinary p-adic numbers and their quantum counterparts.

It took time to realize that l<p condition might be necessary in which case the quantization in this sense - if present at all - could be associated with the canonical identification map to reals. It would correspond only to the process taking into account finite measurement resolution rather than replacement of p-adic number field with something new, hopefully a field. At this step one might perhaps allow l>p so that one would obtain several real images under canonical identification.

This did not however mean giving up the notion of the idea of generalizing number concept. One can replace integer n with n-dimensional Hilbert space and sum + and product × with direct sum ⊕ and tensor product ⊗ and introduce their co-operations, the definition of which is highly non-trivial.

This procedure yields also Hilbert space variants of rationals, algebraic numbers, p-adic number fields, and even complex, quaternionic and octonionic algebraics. Also adeles can be replaced with their Hilbert space counterparts. Even more, one can replace the points of Hilbert spaces with Hilbert spaces and repeat this process, which is very similar to the construction of infinite primes having interpretation in terms of repeated second quantization. This process could be the counterpart for construction of nth order logics and one might speak of Hilbert or quantum mathematics. The construction would also generalize the notion of algebraic holography and provide self-referential cognitive representation of mathematics.

This vision emerged from the connections with generalized Feynman diagrams, braids, and with the hierarchy of Planck constants realized in terms of coverings of the imbedding space. Hilbert space generalization of number concept seems to be extremely well suited for the purposes of TGD. For instance, generalized Feynman diagrams could be identifiable as arithmetic Feynman diagrams describing sequences of arithmetic operations and their co-operations. One could interpret ×q and +q and their co-algebra operations as 3-vertices for number theoretical Feynman diagrams describing algebraic identities X=Y having natural interpretation in zero energy ontology. The two vertices have direct counterparts as two kinds of basic topological vertices in quantum TGD (stringy vertices and vertices of Feynman diagrams). The definition of co-operations would characterize quantum dynamics. Physical states would correspond to the Hilbert space states assignable to numbers. One prediction is that all loops can be eliminated from generalized Feynman diagrams and diagrams are in projective sense invariant under permutations of incoming (outgoing legs).

I glue also the abstract for the second chapter "About Absolute Galois" group which came out from the catastrophe. The reason for the splitting out was that the question whether Absolute Galois group might be isomorphic with the analog of Galois group assigned to quantum p-adics ceased to make sense.

Absolute Galois Group defined as Galois group of algebraic numbers regarded as extension of rationals is very difficult concept to define. The goal of classical Langlands program is to understand the Galois group of algebraic numbers as algebraic extension of rationals - Absolute Galois Group (AGG) - through its representations. Invertible adeles -ideles - define Gl1 which can be shown to be isomorphic with the Galois group of maximal Abelian extension of rationals (MAGG) and the Langlands conjecture is that the representations for algebraic groups with matrix elements replaced with adeles provide information about AGG and algebraic geometry.

I have asked already earlier whether AGG could act is symmetries of quantum TGD. The basis idea was that AGG could be identified as a permutation group for a braid having infinite number of strands. The notion of quantum adele leads to the interpretation of the analog of Galois group for quantum adeles in terms of permutation groups assignable to finite l braids. One can also assign to infinite primes braid structures and Galois groups have lift to braid groups (see this).

Objects known as dessins d'enfant provide a geometric representation for AGG in terms of action on algebraic Riemann surfaces allowing interpretation also as algebraic surfaces in finite fields. This representation would make sense for algebraic partonic 2-surfaces, and could be important in the intersection of real and p-adic worlds assigned with living matter in TGD inspired quantum biology, and would allow to regard the quantum states of living matter as representations of AGG. Adeles would make these representations very concrete by bringing in cognition represented in terms of p-adics and there is also a generalization to Hilbert adeles.

For details see the new chapters Quantum Adeles and About Absolute Galois Group.