Heavy element surprise

There are two mysterious looking correspondences involving ADE groups. McKay correspondence between McKay graphs characterizing tensor products for finite subgroups of SU(2) and Dynkin diagrams of affine ADE groups is the first one. The correspondence between principal diagrams characterizing inclusions of hyper-finite factors of type II1 (HFFs) with Dynkin diagrams for a subset of ADE groups and Dynkin diagrams for affine ADE groups is the second one.

These correspondences are discussed from number theoretic point of view suggested by TGD and based on the interpretation of discrete subgroups of SU(2) as subgroups of the covering group of quaternionic automorphisms SO(3) (analog of Galois group) and generalization of these groups to semi-direct products Gal(K)×L SU(2)K of Galois group for extension K of rationals with the discrete subgroup SU(2)K of SU(2) with representation matrix elements in K. The identification of the inclusion hierarchy of HFFs with the hierarchy of extensions of rationals and their Galois groups is proposed.

A further mystery whether Gal(K)×L SU(2)K could give rise to quantum groups or affine algebras. In TGD framework the infinite-D group of isometries of "world of classical worlds" (WCW) is identified as an infinite-D symplectic group for which the discrete subgroups characterized by K have infinite-D representations so that hyper-finite factors are natural for their representations. Symplectic algebra SSA allows hierarchy of isomorphic sub-algebras SSAn. The gauge conditions for SSAn and [SSAn,SSA] would define measurement resolution giving rise to hierarchies of inclusions and ADE type Kac-Moody type algebras or quantum algebras representing symmetries modulo measurement resolution.

A concrete realization of ADE type Kac-Moody algebras is proposed. It relies on the group algebra of Gal(K)×L SU(2)K and free field representation of ADE type Kac-Moody algebra identifying the free scalar fields in Kac-Moody Cartan algebra as group algebra elements defined by the traces of representation matrices (characters).

What could be the interpretation of quantum spinors? In TGD particles are massless in 8-D sense and in general massive in 4-D sense but 4-D twistors are needed also now so that a modification of twistor approach is needed. The incidence relation for twistors suggests the replacement of the usual twistors with either non-commutative quantum twistors or with octo-twistors. Quantum twistors could be associated with the space-time level description of massive particles and octo-twistors with the description at imbedding space level. A possible alternative interpretation of quantum spinors is in terms of quantum measurement theory with finite measurement resolution in which precise eigenstates as measurement outcomes are replaced with universal probability distributions defined by quantum group. This has also application in TGD inspired theory of consciousness.

The outcome of octo-twistor approach together with M8-H duality leads to a nice picture view about twistorial description of massive states based on quaternionic generalization of twistor (super-)Grassmannian approach. A radically new view is that descriptions in terms of massive and massless states are alternative options, and correspond to two different alternative twistorial descriptions and leads to the interpretation of p-adic thermodynamics as completely universal massivation mechanism having nothing to do with dynamics. As a side product emerges a deeper understanding of ZEO based quantum measurement theory and consciousness theory relying on the universal roots of octonionic polynomials of M8, which are not 4-D but analogs of 6-D branes. This part of article is not a mere side track since by M8-H duality the finite sub-groups of SU(2) of McKay correspondence appear quite concretely in the description of the measurement resolution of 8-momentum.

See the chapter TGD view about McKay Correspondence, ADE Hierarchy, Inclusions of Hyperfinite Factors, and Twistors or the article with the same title.