Hierarchy of Planck constants, space-time surfaces as covering spaces, and adelic physics

From the beginning it was clear that heff/h=n corresponds to the number of sheets for a covering space of some kind. First the covering was assigned with the causal diamonds. Later I assigned it with space-time surfaces but the details of the covering remained unclear. The final identification emerged only in the beginning of 2017.

Number theoretical universality (NTU) leads to the notion of adelic space-time surface (monadic manifold) involving a discretization in an extension of rationals defining particular level in the hierarchy of adeles defining evolutionary hierarchy. The first formulation was proposed here and more elegant formulation here.

The key constraint is NTU for adelic space-time containing sheets in the real sector and various padic sectors, which are extensions of p-adic number fields induced by an extension of rationals which can contain also powers of a root of e inducing finite-D extension of p-adic numbers (ep is ordinary p-adic number in Qp).

One identifies the numbers in the extension of rationals as common for all number fields and demands that imbedding space has a discretization in an extension of rationals in the sense that the preferred coordinates of imbedding space implied by isometries belong to extension of rationals for the points of number theoretic discretization. This implies that the versions of isometries with group parameters in the extension of rationals act as discrete versions of symmetries. The correspondence between real and p-adic variants of the imbedding space is extremely discontinuous for given adelic imbedding space (there is hierarchy of them with levels characterized by extensions of rationals). Space-time surfaces typically contain rather small set of points in the extension (xn+yn2=zn contains no rationals for n>2!). Hence one expects a discretization with a finite cutoff length at space-time level for sufficiently low space-time dimension D=4 could be enough.

After that one assigns in the real sector an open set to each point of discretization and these open sets define a manifold covering. In p-adic sector one can assign 8:th Cartesian power of ordinary p-adic numbers to each point of number theoretic discretization. This gives both discretization and smooth local manifold structure. What is important is that Galois group of the extension acts on these discretizations and one obtains from a given discretization a covering space with the number of sheets equal to a factor of the order of Galois group, typically equal to the order of Galois.

heff/h=n was identified from the beginning as the dimension of poly-sheeted covering assignable to space-time surface. The number n of sheets would naturally a factor of the order of Galois group implying that heff/h=n is bound to increase during number theoretic evolution so that the algebraic complexity increases. Note that WCW decomposes into sectors corresponding to the extensions of rationals and the dimension of the extension is bound to increase in the long run by localizations to various sectors in self measurements (see this). Dark matter hierarchy represents number theoretical/adelic physics and therefore has now rather rigorous mathematical justification. It is however good to recall that heff/h=n hypothesis emerged from an experimental anomaly: radiation at ELF frequencies had quantal effects of vertebrate brain impossible in standard quantum theory since the energies E=hf of photons are ridiculously small as compared to thermal energy.

Indeed, since n is positive integer evolution is analogous to a diffusion in half-line and n unavoidably increases in the long run just as the particle diffuses farther away from origin (by looking what gradually happens near paper basket one understands what this means). The increase of n implies the increase of maximal negentropy and thus of negentropy. Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) follows from adelic physics alone and there is no need to postulate it separately. Things get better in the long run although we do not live in the best possible world as Leibniz who first proposed the notion of monad proposed!

For details see the chapter Quantum criticality and dark matter.