The motivation for this brief comment came from a popular article telling that a new phase of water has been discovered in the temperature range 50-60 oC (see this ). Also Gerald Pollack (see this ) has introduced what he calls the fourth phase of water. For instance, in this phase water consists of hexagonal layers with effective H1.5O stoichiometry and the phase has high negative charge. This phase plays a key role in TGD based quantum biology. These two fourth phases of water could relate to each other if there exist a deeper mechanism explaining both these phases and various anomalies of water.
Martin Chaplin (see this ) has an extensive web page about various properties of water. The physics of water is full of anomalous features and therefore the page is a treasure trove for anyone ready to give up the reductionistic dogma. The site discusses the structure, thermodynamics, and chemistry of water. Even academically dangerous topics such as water memory and homeopathy are discussed.
One learns from this site that the physics of water involves numerous anomalies (see this ). The structural, dynamic and thermodynamic anomalies form a nested in density-temperature plane. For liquid water at atmospheric pressure of 1 bar the anomalies appear in the temperature interval 0-100 oC.
Hydrogen bonding creating a cohesion between water molecules distinguishes water from other substances. Hydrogen bonds induce the clustering of water molecules in liquid water. Hydrogen bonding is also highly relevant for the phase diagram of H2O coding for various thermodynamical properties of water (see this ). In biochemistry hydrogen bonding is involved with hydration. Bio-molecules - say amino-acids - are classified to hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and amphiphilic ones and this characterization determines to a high extent the behavior of the molecule in liquid water environment. Protein folding represents one example of this.
Anomalies are often thought to reduce to hydrogen bonding. Whether this is the case, is not obvious to me and this is why I find water so fascinating substance.
TGD indeed suggests that water decomposes into ordinary water and dark water consisting of phases with effective Planck constant heff=n× h residing at magnetic flux tubes. Hydrogen bonds would be associated with short and rigid flux tubes but for larger values of n the flux tubes would be longer by factor n and have string tension behaving as 1/n so that they would softer and could be loopy. The portional of water molecules connected by flux tubes carrying dark matter could be identified as dark water and the rest would be ordinary water. This model allows to understand various anomalies. The anomalies are largest at the physiological temperature 37 C, which conforms with the vision about the role of dark matter and dark water in living matter since the fraction of dark water would be highest at this temperature. The anomalies discussed are density anomalies, anomalies of specific heat and compressibility, and Mpemba effect. I have discussed these anomalies already for decade ago. The recent view about dark matter allows however much more detailed modelling.
For details see the chapter Dark Nuclear Physics and Condensed Matter or the article The anomalies of water as evidence for the existence of dark matter in TGD sense.